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Course contentLesson 1Lesson 3

Articles

There are two kinds of articles in Friulian

  • definite articles (the):
    masculine feminine
    singular il / l' la / l'
    plural i lis
  • indefinite articles (a, an)
  • masculine feminine
    singular un une

Personal pronouns

They vary according to the person, the number, and the logical function:

person subject stressed
(me,you...)
direct object
(me,you...)
indirect object
(to me,to you...)
reflexive
I jo me mi mi mi
you tu te ti ti ti
he/you formal lui lui lu i si
she/you formal j j le i si
we n n nus nus si
you v v us us si
they (m) lr lr ju ur si
they (f) lr lr lis ur si

Stressed pronouns are used after prepositions: cun me, par te, in exclamations: puar me! 'poor me!', or for emphasis in preference to the unstressed direct object pronouns mi, ti, lu ... : ti clami te, no lui 'I'm calling you, not him'.

Pleonastic pronouns

The pleonastic pronoun is used between the subject and the verb as a re-enforcement of the subject. Its use is obligatory, except when the verb is preceded by another unstressed pronoun.

Subject Pleonastic
jo
o
tu
tu
lui
al
j
e
n
o
v
o
lr
a

Example:

right: jo mi impari il Furlan

wrong: jo o mi impari il Furlan

Possessives

Possessive adjectives/pronouns (my, your... mine, yours...) always agree in gender and number with the object possessed. The forms are the same for adjectives and pronouns.

person masculine (s) masculine (pl) feminine (s) feminine (pl)
1st sing gno miei m ms
2nd sing to tiei t ts
3rd sing so siei s ss
1st plural nestri nestris nestre nestris
2nd plural vuestri vuestris vuestre vuestris
3rd plural lr lr lr lr

Demonstratives

There are two demonstrative adjectives/pronouns in Friulian. Chest (this) and chel (that). Chel chi, chel ca have the same meaning as chest.

masculine feminine masculine feminine
singular chest cheste chel ch
plural chescj chestis chei chs

Indefinites

The indefinite adjectives/pronouns alc, ogni, ognisei, cualchi, cualsisei , ... have only one form; ciert, diviers, putrop, dut, nissun, pc, tant, altri, stes, tl ,change form according to gender and number.

The relative pronoun

There is only one relative pronoun in Friulian, che (that, which, who, whom). Its function in the sentence is clarified by the other pronouns or prepositions by which it is accompanied.

Examples:

subject jo o ai un ami che al Ingls I have a friend who is English
direct object jo o ai un ami che lu ai viodt ier I have a friend whom I saw yesterday
indirect object jo o ai un ami che i ai fat un regl I have a friend to whom I have given a present
with prepositions jo o ai un ami che cun lui o studii I have a friend with whom I study

Copyright friulian version by Sandri Carrozzo
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