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Course contentLesson 6Lesson 8


The imperfect tense

The only verbs to behave irregularly in the imperfect are f (to do, to make) and d (to say, to tell) which form the imperfect on the extended stems fas- and dis- (fasevi, disevi etc) and act as if they belonged to the 2nd conjugation (fasevi, disevi etc).

jo o
tu tu
lui a
j e
n o
v o
lr a
jessi, sei v scolt plas, crodi fin
jeri vevi scoltavi plasevi, crodevi finivi
jeris vevis scoltavis plasevis, crodevis finivis
jere veve scoltave plaseve, crodeve finive
jere veve scoltave plaseve, crodeve finive
jerin vevin scoltavin plasevin, crodevin finivin
jeris vevis scoltavis plasevis, crodevis finivis
jerin vevin scoltavin plasevin, crodevin finivin

The imperfect is used:

1 to describe habitual actions in the past, in the same way as the English 'used to' form

di frut o lavi al mr il ms di Lui
as a child I used to go the seaside in July

2 to describe incomplete actions in the past, similarly to the English past continuous

alis ds o spietavi ancjem l'autobus
at ten o'clock I was still waiting for the bus

3 to describe past states and situations

al ploveve e la strade e jere bagnade
it was raining and the road was wet
al someave strac
he looked tired

The perfect tense

It is formed by adding the past participle of the verb to the present of the auxiliary verbs jessi/sei or v. If the verb is transitive, the participle agrees in gender and number with the object; if the verb is intransitive, the participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.

Examples:

Jo lis ai scoltadis.

Il disegn ur plast.

Differently from Italian, v may be used to form the perfect tense of intransitive verbs and impersonal verbs, as well as with the verb jessi/sei.

Examples:

Il disegn ur plast.

Al plot.

Al nevet.

The perfect is used to describe complete actions in the past, and translates the English perfect and past tenses.

r o vin balt dute la gnot
yesterday we danced all night
astu comprt il pan?
have you bought the bread?

Copyright friulian version by Sandri Carrozzo
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