Endnotes

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1Charles N. Fasanaro, "Music and the Vietnam War." Vietnam War Encyclopedia. (1998) 458.

2Fasanaro, 458.

3D. Lidstrsm, (1998). http://home1.swipnet.se/~w-74092/musik/eve.txt.

4E. Penman, (1997). http://www.gentleman-jim.com/vnsong03.htm.

5E. Penman, (1997). http://www.gentleman-jim.com/vnsong06.htm.

6Kevin Hillstrom and Laurie Collier Hillstrom. The Vietnam Experience: A Concise Encyclopedia of American Literature, Songs, and Films. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998) 111.

7http://users.aol.com/drumnoise/lyrics/fortunat.txt. User did not specify a name, but I wish to give credit to the site for confirming the lyrics to this song.

8Cleveland, Les. Dark Laughter: War In Song and Popular Culture. (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1994) p.134. This revival had its roots in the 1930's with acts like Woody Guthrie, who served as Bob Dylan's greatest inspiration. One can find out more about this revival by reading books like Woody Guthrie: A Life, by Joe Klein and Bob Dylan, by Anthony Scaduto.

9Hillstrom, 194, 199.

10Cleveland, 129.

11E. Penman, (1997). http://www.gentleman-jim.com/vnsong05.htm.

12Hillstrom, 219. The popular music, however, was not the only contribution folk made to Vietnam War music. The folk revival prompted the mass production of quality guitars by Japanese and American industries. This increased production of guitars meant that there were more GI's in Vietnam with the ability to play music and access to the needed instruments (Cleveland, 134).

13In selecting the title for this section, I used a play off of the popular 1960’s phrase, "The personal is political." This phrase was used by certain segments of the women's rights movement.

14Scarlet, (1998). http://www.fortunecity.com/oasis/benidorm/173/scarletshome.html.

15It is possible that a song like "I'll Be Home for Christmas" could serve as an inspirational song, encouraging soldiers to keep fighting hard so they could get home for Christmas. However, I do not find this argument to be very compelling. First, given the stalemated-nature of the Vietnam War, it is difficult to believe that fighting hard was going to end the war and, thus, get anyone home sooner. Second, while a song doesn't have to be uplifting to be motivating, the lyrics of "I'll Be Home For Christmas" are particularly depressing. I fail to see this song compelling anyone to fight harder given these circumstances. A later anecdote from an AFVN Veteran will show that the US Military of the time shared my point of view as it pertains to this particular song and, more than likely, many similar to it.

16W. Derby, (1995). http://www.trenton.edu/~derby/Where_Have_All_the_Flowers_Gone.txt.

17S. Ricciardelli, (1998). http://www.again.net/~steve/animal5.html.

18Unless otherwise noted, all quotes and facts in the AFVN section came from interviews conducted with former members of the Armed Forces Radio Network. These interviews were done over the World Wide Web via a news group maintained by these Veterans. Questions were posted to the group and anyone who had any information regarding an issue was free to respond via e-mail or via another posting to the group.

19DMZ is an abbreviation for the demilitarized zone.

20Armed Forces Vietnam Network. (2000). http://www.oocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/3102/index.html.

21Fasanaro, 458.

22AFRS (Armed Forces Radio Station) refers to AFVN before it became a network in the late 1960’s. AFVN started as a single station in Saigon before it expanded to several stations throughout Vietnam.

23Bob Kingsley and Chris Noel were disc jockeys in the United States.

24This show can be downloaded an heard in its entirety with RealPlayer software from http://www.oocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/3102/multimedia.html.

25G. Anderson, (1997). http://gunther.simplenet.com/v/data/ohio.htm.

26Cronauer does note, however, that the news broadcasts were censored in 1965-66. While one would not necessarily be surprised by this, it does serve as an indication that music censorship was not completely out of the realm of possibilities at that time.

27A trip to the Library of Congress may have helped to supplement this section. However, monetary and time constraints prevented this trip from taking place. Finding these items may prove useful and interesting for future research on this topic.

28This statement supports an assertion made in previous work on this topic in the Vietnam War Encyclopedia, by Charles Fasanaro, who maintained that "We Gotta Get Out of This Place" was not allowed on the airways. Fasanaro maintained that this was done at the request of the South Vietnamese Government, who placed certain restrictions on the music that could be played within their country.

29Cleveland, 141.

30Cleveland, 141.

31Fasanaro, 458.

32Cleveland, 130.

33Fasanaro, 458.

34Erhart, W. D. Vietnam- Perkasie: A Combat Marine Memoir. (London: McFarland, 1983) 216.

35Erhart, 48-49.

36The thirty or so years is not the only hindrance to such research. As may be expected, music was not the most important thing on many soldiers' minds while in Vietnam. Staying alive was the priority. In addition, many men and women do not wish to talk about their experiences in Vietnam. Even talking about music can bring back unpleasant memories that many veterans would rather not relive. A less common reaction is that asking about music trivializes the greater political and moral issues surrounding the Vietnam War. While this point-of-view is not necessarily verbalized, it does eliminate any information such an individual would have from the interview process.

37Stone also released a compact disc. Part of this compact disc was a personal narrative about his musical experiences in Vietnam. Unfortunately, this compact disc has been discontinued and a copy of it could not be found for use in the writing of this paper.

38Fasanaro, 458.

39Cleveland, 141. The term REMF is short for "Rear-echelon Mother Fucker." This was a term front-line soldiers used to describe American GI's who spent their time in Vietnam in the rear (well behind the front lines). This term serves to illustrate some of the resentment many front-line Americans felt toward their counterparts stationed in places like Saigon. A couple of GI's I spoke to noted some measure of resentment of this term, noting that there was nowhere in Vietnam that could be considered a safe zone.

40NCO is short for Non-commissioned Officer.

41Helmer, John. Bringing the War Home. (New York: The Free Press, 1974) 184.

42Helmer, 200.

43Helmer, 195-196.

44Unless otherwise noted, all quotes and information in this section were obtained from interviews with Rochester, New York-Area Veterans of the Vietnam War.

45I approached VVA in order to find Veterans willing to interview with me. While more responses would have made my conclusions stronger, I believe that those who volunteered have provided valuable information in which patterns can be found. I believe their membership in VVA has no impact on the information they have given or the conclusions they have allowed me to reach. If anything, the fact that these men were willing to speak with me may have had an impact. Many individuals who had particularly bad experiences in Vietnam may not have been willing to discuss them. In this way, the sample I have obtained may not be completely representative. However, given the topic of this thesis does not deal directly with combat, where most horrible experiences of war take place, it is reasonable to assume that the information provided for this study still has some value, regardless of whether or not it is a pure random sample.

46All of the ranks provided with names of soldiers who were interviews for this thesis reflect the highest rank they achieved while in Vietnam during the conflict.

47Though he did not remember at first, Womack agreed with the suggestion that this was a band that was trying to play American rock 'n' roll, like the Beatles. Apparently, they were unable to match the real thing.

48Refer to page 14 for quote.

49R and r refers to "rest and relaxation." Soldiers had time off periodically during their tours.

50NCO stands for Non-Commissioned Officer. The men had roles such as platoon leaders. While these were not true officers, many of them were lifers and had many things in common with officers.

51Refer to page twenty-five for quote.

52Kenyon told a story about his interactions with other soldiers which illustrates how the role of music as divisive could be considered more coincidental than at the heart of the problem. “There were a lot of young guys like myself. So there was almost a little war going on with career people, ya know. Lifers, we called 'em... I remember I had one boss and he insisted on having shined shoes. "Not in a war zone, I told him... There was one huge mud puddle right outside the gate of the compound I worked in and I used to make it a point to walk right up the middle of it."

53Parker's beliefs are supported by anecdotal evidence from Jason Mata, a college student who subscribes to the AFVN mailing list through which many of the interviews I conducted were done. Mata volunteered stories he has heard from Vietnam Veterans he knows. "My old boss was in Marine Recon in Vietnam," Mata states, "and he said music was especially important to the guys in the field. Another guy at my work was a door gunner on a Marine SAR helicopter and he told me that they had speakers on the helicopter and when they were flying around they would blast Black Sabbath."

54Cleveland, 141.

55Fish. In Country: Songs of Americans in the Vietnam War. (Buffalo:Vietnam Veterans Oral History, 1992) 10-40.

56Fish, 19.

57Fish, 14.

58Cleveland, 135.

59Cleveland, 111.

60Cleveland, 140.

61Refer to pages thirty-two and thirty-three for McDaniel's story.

62Refer to pages twenty-seven and thirteen, respectively, for these quotes.
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