Star Generator Formulas v1.00
			*****************************


This is the first draft of a doc file that list all the formulas I used
in Star Generator v1.53a. I hope that it's better understandable than my 
chaotic code. I didn't include the Alien Generator Formulas, perhaps in
the future...

These formulas were based mainly on 2300 AD and MegaTraveller rules, and
on the Accrete program. With time they will change and will become more
accurate, but for now they contain some randomness.


If these formulas look like chinese to you (even it's sometimes a little 
nebulous for me...), you could always e-mail me at
aina@geocities.com (or aina@usa.net). Be patient for the answer, I could only
check my mails once per week.


		     *********************************************


I NOTES:
--------


* Dices:

     dX means rolling a dice with X sides, so 3d6 means rolling 3 six-sided
     dices.


* World types:

       1 Ice Ball
       2 Rock
       3 Gas Giant
       4 Hot House
       5 Failed Core  
       6 Asteroid Belt
       7 Chunk        
       8 Arid         
       9 Steppe       
      10 Terran       
      11 Jungle       
      12 Ocean        
      13 Desert       
      14 Glacier      
      15 Nickel-Iron  
      16 Stony        
      17 Carbonaceous 
      18 Icy          
      19 Ring         
      20 Brown Dwarf  


* Unusual planet characteristics

  1 'Extreme Vulcanism'
  2 'Atmos. Contaminants'
  3 'Meteors Storms'
  4 'High Radiation Level'
  5 'Violent Storms'
  6 'Microbes'
  7 'Orbital Conjunction'
  8 'Rugged Terrain'
  9 'Retrograde Rotation'
  10 'Unstable Climate'
  11 'Orbital Eccentricity'
  12 'Unstable World'
  13 'Strong Magnetic Field'
  14 'Cloud Cover'
  15 'No Axial Tilt'
  16 'High Tides'
  17 'Tidal Lock'
  18 'Extreme Axial Tilt'
  19 'Int. Lifeforms'
  20 'Semi-Int. Lifeforms'
  21 'High Humidity'
  22 'Low Humidity'
  23 'Corrosive Atmosphere'
  24 'Insidious Atmosphere'


		     *********************************************

II STAR(S):
-----------


* Star creation: procedure star_creation

    d10   Number of stars
    1-4         1
    5-8         2
    9-10        3

       d1000     spectral class        d1000
     (Gaia off)                      (Gaia on)
	1          20 %    Pulsar       1
		   80 %    A II            
	2          20 %    Black Hole   2
		   80 %    A II
	3-19       M II                 3-12
	20-45      A II                 13-29
	46-79      M III                30-39
	80-99      F IV                 40-59
	100-209    F V                  60-209
	210-450    G V                  210-709
	451-700    K V                  710-909
	701-900    M V                  910-950
	901+       F VII                NA
	  NA       M V (main star)      950+
	  NA       F VII (companion)

	     Modifier to d1000: +(b-1)*200     b=1 for main star
					       b=2 for the first companion
					       b=3 for the second companion     

   The companion size cannot be higher than the main star, if it's higher
     replace the companion spectral class by the one just lower than the
     main star. For example if the main star is a G V star, its companion
     couldn't be a F V star, so replace the F V star by a K V star.
   F VII, A II, Pulsar and Black Hole cannot have companion(s).

   Decimal classification=d10-1 (no classification for F VII stars)

       Spectral class     Mass           Luminosity
	   A II          14-0.3*dec     2200-160*dec
	   M III         6.3+0.31*dec   470+22*dec
	   F IV          2.5-0.05*dec   19-0.7*dec
	   F V           1.7-0.07*dec   8.1-0.7*dec
	   G V           1.04-0.01*dec  1.32-0.08*dec
	   K V           0.82-0.034*dec 0.42-0.038*dec
	   M V           0.48-0.027*dec 0.04-0.0039*dec
	   F VII         0.8            0.001
	   M II          20+dec         117000+2400*dec

			 with dec=decimal classifaction of the star

   Distance between the main star and his companion:

	 d6      distance
	      (in 0.1 A.U. unit)
	 1       d950+50
	 2-6     d90+10  (if Gaia parameter On minimum distance=50)

	 if main star mass>2 then distance=d950+50
	 if main star mass>10 then distance=d700+300

   Star age:

       main_sequence_life=1000*mass/luminosity
       if main_sequence_life>5 then star age=d50+10
       else star age=random(main_sequence_life-10)+10


* Orbit creation : procedure orbit_creation
   (returns the number of planets around stars and their orbit radius)

	Spectral class     Number of planets
	    F V              1d10 (Gaia On : d8+2)
	    G V              3d6 (Gaia On : 4d4+2)
	    K V              2d6
	    M V              1d6


	Initial orbit of the first planet = 1d10
	   (orbit radius are given in 0.1 A.U.)

	Untenable orbits (planet cannot exist due to the high temperature)
	   initial orbit should be superior to sqrt(lux)/10

	Subsequent orbits:

	     1d10  Multiplier           Multiply the previous robit
	       1    Empty orbit         by the multiplier to determine
	       2    1.3                 subsequent orbit radius. If
	       3    1.4                 empy orbit, roll 1d6:
	       4    1.5                      1-2  no more planets
	       5    1.6                      3-6  Asteroid belt with
	       6    1.7                           a subsequent orbit
	       7    1.8                           multiplier of 1d9/10+1.1
	       8    1.9                           (minimum orbit radius=2)
	       9    2.0
	       10   2.1

	Maximum allowed orbit radius:

	    Single star: 400*star mass
	    Multiple stars: distance to companion/3


* Star system creation (Misc): main program star.pas

       lux:=star luminosity+Sum of(companion_luminosity/(sqrt(companion_dist/10)))
	       note: the distance between the two companions of the primary star
		     is considered equal to the sum of the distance of
		     companions to primary star.
	       lux : effective luminosity of the star(s)

       Innerzone  0 to 8.2*sqrt(lux) A.U.
       Lifezone   8.2*sqrt(lux) to 12*sqrt(lux)
       Outerzone  12*sqrt(lux) to the end of stellar system


		     *********************************************


III ASTEROID BELT
-----------------


* Asteroid Belt creation: main program star.pas

 2d6-1  Belt width (in A.U.)    Dices modifiers:  Asteroid belt orbit radius < 1.5 A.U. : -3
   1    0.01                                        1.5 A.U <   orbit radius < 20  A.U. : -1
   2    0.05
   3    0.1
   4    0.1
   5    0.5
   6    0.5
   7    1
   8    1.5
   9    2
   10   5
   11   10


  2d6   World type           Density
  2-4   Nickel-Iron           d3/10+1
  5-7   Stony                 d3/10+0.6
  8-11  Carbonaceous          d3/10+0.2
  12    Icy                   d6/10
		      
	Dices modifiers: Innerzone :-4
			 Outerzone :+2
   


		     *********************************************



IV PLANETS:
-----------


* Planet creation (Misc): main program star.pas

      If planet diameter>299999 then world type=Brown Dwarf

      Gas Giants and Brown Dwarfs doesn't have mineral ressources

      If Hydrography>0 and atmosphere componants different of Vacuum or 
	 Nitrogen/Hydrogen then  8.3 % chance of water tainted (2d6>10) 


* Diameter determination: procedure diametre_calcul

   Core: (outerzone) 1   Rocky
		     2-6 Icy
	 (innerzone) Rocky
	 (lifezone)  Rocky      
  
   For Rocky worlds:

					   diameter        density
	(outerzone) and (innerzone)     Xd6*1000+d999     d10/10+0.3  (X=1d6)
	(lifezone)                      (d8+8)*1000+d999  d6/10+0.7
  
   For Icy worlds:
	
	density=d6/10
	diameter:     d6   1  d6*1000+d999
			   2  2d6*1000+d999
			   3  3d6*1000+d999
			   4  5d6*1000+d999
			   5  6d6*1000+d999
			   6  8d6*1000+d999     


* Gravity determination : procedure gravity_calcul (procunit.pas)
  
     Snowball if Icy Core and one of these cases:
	   density=0.1  and diameter>39000
	   density=0.2  and diameter>30000
	   density=0.3  and diameter>26000
	   density=0.4  and diameter>23000
	   density=0.5  and diameter>21000
	   density=0.6  and diameter>20000

     If Snowball diameter=diameter*1d10
     gravity=pi*density*(diameter/1000)*169/6765
     mass=pi*density*cube(diameter/2000)/813.9


* Atmosphere type determination: procedure atmos_calcul

    gravity            atmosphere
      less than 0.1      Vacuum
      0.1-0.5            30 % Thin
			 40 % Very Thin
			 30 % Vacuum
      0.5-0.8            10 % Standard (30 % if Gaia On)
			 70 % Thin (50 % if Gaia On)
			 10 % Very Thin
			 10 % Vacuum
      0.8-1.3            20 % Dense
			 50 % Standard (80 % if Gaia On)
			 10 % Thin  (0 %)
			 10 % Very Thin (0 %)
			 10 % Vacuum  (0 %)
      1.3-2.0            70 % Dense
			 20 % Standard
			 10 % Thin
      more than 2.0      Dense
      (or Mass>2)


* Atmospheric Pressure:  function press_calcul (procunit.pas)

      aux=gravity*(0.9+d20/100)

     Atmosphere    Pressure
      Very Dense     aux*100
      Dense          aux*1.25   
      Standard       aux
      Thin           aux*0.5
      Very Thin      aux*0.1
      Vacuum         0


* World type determination:  procedure word_calcul

   atmosphere   core       world type
    Vacuum       Rocky      Rock
    Vacuum       Icy        Ice Ball
    Very Thin    Rocky      Rock
    Very Thin    Icy        Ice Ball
    Thin         Rocky      Desert
    Thin         Icy        Ice Ball
    Standard     Rocky      Hot House (Innerzone)
			    Failed Core (Outerzone)
			    Inhabitable (Lifezone)
    Standard     Icy        Ice Ball
    Dense        Rocky      Hot House (Innerzone)
			    Failed Core (Outerzone)
			    Inhabitable (Lifezone)
    Dense        Icy        Gas Giant


 Hot House and Gas Giant have automatically Massive atmospheres.
 Worlds with a diameter less than 1000 kms are Chunks.
 If the diameter is zero the world is an Asteroid Belt.

 Inhabitable world :

       Dice          World            Dice
  (Gaia factor Off)              (Gaia factor On)
       1-4            Glacier          1
       5-8            Terran           2-8
       9-10           Hot House        9-10


* Hydrography and Water Type determination: procedure water_calcul (procunit.pas)

       World type                     Water type
	Ice Ball,Desert                 Ice
	Rock                            Rare Ice
	Gas Giant,Brown Dwarf           Crystals
	Failed Core,Glacier             Ice Sheets
	Chunk (Lifezone,Outer Zone)     Rare Ice
	others                          None


       Water type               Hydrography
	Rare Ice                    1   
	Crystals                    1   
	Ice                         d5*10+d10
	Ice (Desert)                (d5*10+d10)/4
	Oceans                      (3d4-3)*10+d10
	Ice Sheets                  (3d4-3)*10+d10

     
       Hydrography      World Terran Types
	  1-19            Arid
	  20-49           Steppe
	  50-79           Terran
	  80-89           40 % Terran
			  60 % Jungle
	  90-100          Ocean


* Oxygen pressure determination: function oxygene_calcul

	 hydrography/10  oxygene_table
	       0             5
	       1             10
	       2             12
	       3             14
	       4             16
	       5             18
	       6             19
	       7             20
	       8             22
	       9             24
	       10            26

      If world_type=(Arid,Steppe,Terran,Jungle,Ocean) then
	 oxygen_pressure=oxygene_table*gravity/100
      If world_type=Glacier then oxygen_pressure=(oxygene_table*gravity)/300
      If atmospheric_componant is not Nitrogen/Oxygen then
	 oxygen_pressure=oxygen_pressure/5


* Atmospheric Components: function compos_atmos

     World type                       Componants
       Hot House                        Carbon Dioxyde
       Gas Giant,Glacier,Brown Dwarf    70 % Methane/Ammonia/Hydrogen
					30 % Hydrogen
       Ice Ball,Failed Core             50 % Ammonia
					50 % Methane
       Arid,Steppe,Terran,Jungle,Ocean  80 % (70 % if dense atmos) Nitrogen/Oxygen
					20 % (30 % if dense atmos) Exotic
       Desert                           70 % Carbon Dioxyde
					30 % Exotic (see Exotic table)
       Chunk                            None

   Miscleanous modificators:
      If Thin atmosphere then automatically the main componant is Carbon Dioxyde.
      If Vacuum atmosphere then automatically there's no componant.

   Exotic atmospheres table:
	25 % Nitrogen
	10 % Carbon Dioxyde
	5  % Fluorine/Carbon Dioxyde
	5  % Nitrogen/Carbon Dioxyde
	5  % Chlorine/Carbon Dioxyde
	10 % Chlorine
	10 % Flourine
	10 % Exotic
	5  % Nitrogen/Chlorine
	10 % Methane/Ammonia
	5  % Fluorine/Nitrogen


* Orbit period determination: function orbit_calcul

       period= sqrt(cube(orbit/10)/mass)*365

		with cube: expression raised to the 3rd power
		     orbit: planet orbit in .1 A.U.
		     mass : stellar mass
		     sqrt : square root of the expression


* Rotation period determination: procedure rotation_calcul (procunit.pas)

   j=1.18E-19
  
   K=0.19
   K=0.66  for Brown Dwarves and Gas Giants
   K=0.33  for world with oceans and satellites

   angular_velocity=sqrt(j*planet_mass*5.98E27/(K*sqr(planet_diameter*5E4)))
   aux1=6.28/(3600*angular_velocity)
   aux2:=(exp(0.27*ln(10/orbit)))/mass_stellar
   rotation period=aux1*aux2

	   notes:    sqr: expression raised to the 2nd power
		     orbit: planet orbit in 0.1 A.U.
		     sqrt : square root of the expression
   
   if orbit<(9*mass_stellar) then rotation period=2
   if rotation period<=2 then 
	  rotation period=24*orbit period
	  if eccentricity>100 then 
	       rotation period:=(1-eccentricity/1000)*rotation period/(1+eccentricity/1000)
	  planet is in resonance
   if rotation period>orbit period*24 then
	  rotation period=24*orbit period*24
	  planet is in resonance


* Eccentricity determination: function eccentricity_calcul

    2d6    eccentricity (in .001 unit)
    2-7         0
     8          d5
     9          d5+5
    10          d5+10
    11          d5+15
    12        d6:  1   d5+20
		   2   d25+25
		   3   d50+50
		   4   d100+100
		   5   d50+200
		   6   d600+200    


* Axial tilt determination: function axial_tilt_calcul

    X=2d6
   
     X
   2-11   axial tilt=2d6-2+(X/2-1)*10
    12    axial tilt=38+d4*10+2d6


* Average surface temperature determination: function temp_calcul       

   lux=effective luminosity of the star(s)
   green_effect=greenhouse effect
   energy_abs=energy absorption of the world
	
   atmosphere        energy_abs         green_effect
      Vacuum           0.8-d50/1000         1.05
      Very Thin        0.8-d50/1000         1 
      Thin             0.8-d190/1000        1
      Standard         0.8-d190/1000        1
      Dense            0.7-d200/1000        1.1
      Massive          0.7-d200/1000        1.15

   if Hydrography<10  then energy_abs=energy_abs+0.1
   if world_type is Hot House then green_effect is 1.15

  temperature=sqrt(sqrt(lux)/(orbit/10))*340*energy_abs*green_effect-273

  Maximal temperature:
	Glacier      -15
	Gas Giant    -25
	Brown Dwarf  -25 

  Minimal temperature:
	Hot House     40
	Arid          40
	Ocean         5
	Jungle        20
	Terran        10
	Steppe        25


* Night and day temperature variation determination

   atmosphere        day_table  day_max  night_table  night_max
      Vacuum           0.2        5        0.2          0.05
      Very Thin        0.4        4        0.5          0.1
      Thin             0.5        2.5      1            0.15
      Standard         0.6        1.5      3            0.3
      Dense            0.8        0.8      8            0.5
      Massive          1          0.1      20           0.8
	
Day variation temp=day_table*lux/sqrt(orbit/10)*rot/2
Max variation=(avg_temp+273)*day_max*lux/sqrt(orbit/10)
A temperature cannot be superior to 2000  C.

Night variation temp=night_table*rot/2
Max variation=(avg_temp+273)*night_max

variables:   orbit : planet orbit radius in .1 A.U.
	     lux   : effective luminosity of the star(s)
	     avg_temp: average surface temperature in  C


* Mineral ressources determination:

      mineral                X(mine_k in the program)   
	Metal ore               70      
	Radioactive ore         40
	Precious metal          10
	Raw crystals            30
	Precious gems           10
				
     Asteroid belt are considered like a planet of 5000 km diameter.
     Rings are considered like a planet of 700 km diameter and a density of
       d10/10+0.3

     aux1=diameter*density/200  (maximum value=120)
     mineral_ressource=aux1+1dX-60  (minimum value=1)
     if mineral_ressource>X then 
		mineral_ressource=X+(mineral_ressouce-X)/5
     maximum value for mineral_ressource is 100


* Unusual characteristics determination: procedure unusual_calcul

  . Rocky core and satellite(s) present:
	  1.33 % (1d75=1) chance of "Extreme Vulcanism"
	  If there's Extreme Vulcanism and atmosphere is thin or higher,
	  60 % chance of Atmospheric Contaminants. In this case atmospheric
	  componants could change:
		Carbon Dioxyde  ------> Carbon Dioxyde/Sulfur Dioxyde
		Chlorine        ------> Chlorine/Disulfur Dichloride
		Flourine        ------> Fluorine/Sulfur Tetrachloride
	  If there's Extreme Vulcanism, 40 % chance of Unstable World.

   . If atmosphere thin or higher: 1.33 % (1d75=1) chance of Atmospheric
	Contaminants
   . Meteor Storms: 1.33 % (1d75=1) chancce
   . If atmosphere is Very Thin or Vacuum:  10 % chance of High Radiation
	Level
   . High Radiation Level: Radioactive ore/3 % chance
			   0.5 % chance for miscleanous reasons (like nuclear
			     war...)
   . Violent Storms: 3.33 % (1d30=1)  if atmosphere is thin or higher.
		     16.66 % (1d6=1)  if axial tilt<4
   . Microbes      : 2 % (1d50=1) if atmosphere is thin or higher
   . Orbital Conjunction: 0.5 % (1d200=1)
   . Rugged Terrain : 2 % (1d50=1) should have a rocky core and the world
		      type should be different of Ocean planet.
   . Unstable Climat: 2 % (1d50=1) if atmosphere is thin or higher
   . Cloud Cover    : 16.6 % (1d6=1) if atmosphere is standard or higher
   . High Tides     : 16.6 % (1d6=1) if hydrography>50, and if ocean and
		      satellites are present.
   . Extreme Axial Tilt : if axial tilt>50. In this case, 50 % chance of
			  Strong magnetic field.
   . No Axial Tilt  : if axial tilt<5.
   . Strong Magnetic Field : 3.33 % (1d30=1)
			     10 % (1d10=1) if rotation period<15
   . Tidal Lock     : if the planet is in resonance with its star.
   . Orbital Eccentricity : if eccentricity>0.250. In this case if Rocky core
			    then Extrem Vulcanism, with 70 % chance of
			    Atmospheric Contaminants if atmosphere is Standard
			    or higher.
   . if water type=Ocean  : water vapor=exp(0.698*(temperature-15))*hydrography/(0.007*gravity)
			    if water vapor>30000 then High Humidity
			    if water vapor<0.2 then Low Humidity
   . Life chance determination:

			  Life chance                 Life chance
    'Extreme Vulcanism'       -5           Terran        +25
    'Atmos. Contaminants'     -5           Jungle        +25
    'Meteors Storms'          -5           Ocean         +25
    'High Radiation Level'    -15          Arid          +5
    'Violent Storms'          -5           Steppe        +5
    'Microbes'                -5           Desert        -45
    'Orbital Conjunction'     -20          Glacier       -45
    'Unstable Climate'        -10          Failed Core   -55
    'Orbital Eccentricity'    -5           others        -200
    'Strong Magnetic Field'   -10                           Life chance 
    'No Axial Tilt'           +10         Nitrogen/Oxygen       0 
    'High Tides'              -5          others                -10
    'Extreme Axial Tilt'      -15          

      Life chance= 1d100 + modifiers
      If Life chance> 49 then Semi-Intelligent Lifeforms present
      If Life chance> 74 then Intelligent Lifeforms present

   . Corrosive Atmosphere : If atmosphere componant<>(None,Nitrogen/Oxygen,
			    Carbon/Dioxyde,Methane) and
			    (Average temperature+ Day variation temp)>50.
   . Insidious Atmosphere : If atmosphere componant=(Nitrogen,Methane/Ammonia
			    /Hydrogen,Hydrogen) and
			    (Average temperature+ Day variation temp)>100.
			    If High Radiation Level.
		     
		     
		     *********************************************


V SATELLITES:
-------------

* Number of satellites: function satellites_calcul

  world type     satellites
    Gas Giant      2d6          
    Brown Dwarf    d6:  1    d6-3 (minimum=0)
			2-6  0
    Others         d6-3 (minimum=0)


* Orbital radius of satellites : function moon_orbit
    (given in planetary diameters of the parent planet)

      d10
      1-3  factor=1
      4-6  factor=2
      7-10 factor=3

      if diameter=0 then factor=1 (rings)

      factor    moon orbit
	1         d7+3  (rings: 1d3)
	2         d10*5+10
	3         d10*10+60

* Satellites creation (Misc): procedure moon_creation

      Diameter=(1d10-4)*1000+d999 km
      If Diameter<0 then Diameter =1000

      If the satellite diameter is higher than its mother planet diameter
      divide its diameter by 2 until it's inferior to its mother planet
      diameter.

      Outerzone : 83.3 % Icy core (density=1d6/10)
		  16.7 % Rocky core (density=1d10/10+0.3)
      Innerzone, Lifezone :  Rocky Core

      For temperature determination luminosity=luminosity+0.1 if
      mother planet is Brown Dwarf.


    Source: geocities.com/aina.geo