50,000 BCE-20,000 BCE
Archaeologists have identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
3000 BCE-2000 BCE
Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time. First true urban centers rise in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai. Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar)--had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization. Ancient Afghanistan--crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.
2000 BCE- 1500 BCE
Aryan tribes in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan) The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time. Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time. Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV. 600 BCE -- (There is some speculation about this date)
Zoroaster introduces a new religion in Bactria (Balkh)---(Zoroastrianism--Monotheistic religion) (about 522 BC)--Zoroaster dies during nomadic invasion near Balkh.
522 BCE--486 BCE
The Persian empire attempted to conquer Afghanistan but was plagued by constant bitter and bloody tribal revolts from Afghans living in Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta).
After conquering Persia, Afghanistan is invaded by Alexander the Great. Alexander conquers Afghanistan, but fails to really subdue its people. Constant revolts plague Alexander.
Kushan rule, under King Kanishka Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.
Kushan empire fragments into petty dynasties.
Turkic peoples begin to migrate into Afghanistan.
Islam is introduced into Afghanistan.
Islamic era established with the Turkic Ghaznavid Dynasty (962-1140) Afghanistan becomes the center of Islamic power and civilization. Ibn Sina (Afghan scientist) is born in Balkh (980).
Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan capture and burn Ghazni, then move on to conquer India.
Invasion of Afghanistan by Genghis Khan Destruction of Irrigation systems by Genghis Khan, which turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.
Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan.
Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reassert control over Afghanistan.
The rule of Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane).
An Afghan named Buhlul invades Delhi, and seizes the throne. He finds the Lodi dynasty.
Babur, founder of the Moghul dynasty takes control of Kabul.
Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and occupies Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolt, and terminate the Persian occupation of Herat.
Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupies southwest Afghanistan.
Nadir Shah is assassinated, and the Afghans rise once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali retake Kandahar, and establish modern Afghanistan. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.
Rule of Timur Shah. Capital of Afghanistan transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts.
Constant internal revolts and civil war.
Dost Mohammad Khan takes Kabul, and establishes control.
Dost Mohammad Khan is proclaimed as Amir al-mu' minin (commander of the faithful). He was well on the road toward reunifying the whole of Afghanistan when the British, in collaboration with an ex-king (Shah Shuja), invade Afghanistan.
First Anglo-Afghan War. After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrenders to the British and is deported to India. Shah Shuja is installed as a "puppet king" by the British. (1839-1842) April 1842--Shah Shuja killed by Afghans. Afghans passionately continue their struggle against the British. Akbar Khan--Afghan hero--victorious against the British. In January 1842, out of 16,500 soldiers (and 12,000 dependents) only one survivor, of mixed British-Indian garrison, reaches the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony.
After the annihilation of British troops, Afghanistan once again becomes independent, and the exiled Amir, Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and occupies the royal throne (1843-1863).
British take Baluchistan, and Afghanistan becomes completely landlocked.
Sher Ali, Dost Mohammad Khan's son, succeeds to the throne. (1865)--Russia takes Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samarkand.
Russia established a fixed boundary between Afghanistan and it's new territories. Russia promises to respect Afghanistan's territorial integrity.
Sher Ali dies in Mazar-i-Shariff, and Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan takes over until October 1879. Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gives up the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lose these territories permanently.
Battle of Maiwand July 1880, Afghan woman named Malalai carries the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valour. Abdur Rahman takes throne of Afghanistan as Amir. The British, shortly after the accession of the new Amir, withdraw from Afghanistan, although they retain the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations. Abdur Rahman establishes fixed borders and he loses a lot of Afghan land. Nuristan converted to Islam.
The Panjdeh Incident. Russian forces seize the Panjdeh Oasis, a piece of Afghan territory north of the Oxus River. Afghans tried to retake it, but was finally forced to allow the Russians to keep Panjdeh, and the Russians promised to honor Afghan territorial integrity in the future.
The Durand line fixes borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Afghan tribal areas, leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan.
Afghanistan's northern border is fixed and guaranteed by Russia.
Russia and Great Britain sign the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan is declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.
Mahmud Tarzi (Afghan Intellectual) introduces modern Journalism into Afghanistan with the creation of several newspapers.
The first museum in Afghanistan is instituted at Baghe Bala.
Third Anglo-Afghan war. Once again, the British are defeated, and Afghanistan gains full control of her foreign affairs. Amanullah Khan initiates a series of ambitious efforts at social and political modernization.
Amanullah Khan is overthrown by Habibullah Kalakani. After the fall of Amanullah Khan, Mahmud Tarzi seeks asylum in Turkey. The Rise and Fall of Habibullah Kalakani, popularly known as "Bache Saqao" Nadir Khan takes the throne; his tribal army loots government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters, and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan are killed by Nadir Khan. Now Nadir Khan establishes full control.
Nadir Khan assassinated by a college student, and his son, Zahir, inherits the throne. He rules until 1973. Zahir Shah's uncles serve as prime ministers and advisors until 1953. Mahmud Tarzi dies in Turkey at the age of 68 with a heart full of sorrow and despair toward his country.
Zahir Shah proclaims Afghanistan as neutral during WW2.
Afghanistan's Parliament denounces the Durand Treaty and refuses to recognize the Durand line as a legal boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pashtuns in Pashtunistan (Occupied Afghan Land) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but their proclamation goes unacknowledged by the world community.
Daoud turns to the Soviet Union (Russia) for military aid. Close ties between Afghanistan and USSR. The Pashtunistan (occupied Afghan land) issue flares up.
The Purdah is made optional, women begin to enroll in the University which has become co-educational. Women begin to enter the workforce, and the government.
Pakistan and Afghanistan come close to war over Pashtunistan.
The Afghan Communist Party was formed in January. Babrak Karmal is one of the founders. In September, first nationwide elections under the new constitution. Karmal was elected to the Parliament.
July 17th: Zahir Shah is on vacation in Europe, when his government is overthrown in a military coup headed by Daoud Khan and PDPA (Afghan Communist Party)due to increased civil unrest and demand for an end to royal dictatorship. Daoud Khan abolishes the monarchy and becomes President---The Republic of Afghanistan is established!
UNESCO names Herat as one of the first cities to be designated as a part of the worlds cultural heritage.
Daoud Khan presents a new constitution. Women's rights confirmed.
Upon seeing a liberal, free, nation being born in Afghanistan, the USA and the west take advantage of the religious sentiments of the tribal factions within Afghanistan and instigate violence against the republican regime. The regime counteracted by asking the Soviet Union for military aid, and a full out civil war ensued.
The Soviet army left Afghanistan, leaving the nation in complete chaos.
During the chaos of civil war, the Taliban movement came to power due to its popular appeal for attempting to establish some sort of civil order. For the first time since 1978 it seemed as if Afghanistan was on the road to becoming a civil society once more.
American invasion of Afghanistan and the establishment of a brutal puppet regime. The struggle for freedom continues...