"Whatever countries I conquer in the world, I would never forget your beautiful gardens. When I remember the summits of your beautiful mountains, I forget the greatness of the Delhi throne. My spirit will remain in Afghanistan, even though my soul will go to Allah. "

50,000 BCE-20,000 BCE

Archaeologists have identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.

3000 BCE-2000 BCE

Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time. First true urban centers rise in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai. Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar)--had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization. Ancient Afghanistan--crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.

2000 BCE- 1500 BCE

Aryan tribes in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan) The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time. Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time. Evidence of early nomadic iron age in Aq Kapruk IV.

600 BCE -- (There is some speculation about this date)

Zoroaster introduces a new religion in Bactria (Balkh)---(Zoroastrianism--Monotheistic religion) (about 522 BC)--Zoroaster dies during nomadic invasion near Balkh.

522 BCE--486 BCE

The Persian empire attempted to conquer Afghanistan but was plagued by constant bitter and bloody tribal revolts from Afghans living in Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta).

329-326 BCE

After conquering Persia, Afghanistan is invaded by Alexander the Great. Alexander conquers Afghanistan, but fails to really subdue its people. Constant revolts plague Alexander.

50 CE

Kushan rule, under King Kanishka Buddhist Gandharan culture reach its height.

220 CE

Kushan empire fragments into petty dynasties.

400 CE

Turkic peoples begin to migrate into Afghanistan.

652 CE

Islam is introduced into Afghanistan.

962-1030 CE

Islamic era established with the Turkic Ghaznavid Dynasty (962-1140) Afghanistan becomes the center of Islamic power and civilization. Ibn Sina (Afghan scientist) is born in Balkh (980).

1140 CE

Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan capture and burn Ghazni, then move on to conquer India.

1219-1221 CE

Invasion of Afghanistan by Genghis Khan Destruction of Irrigation systems by Genghis Khan, which turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.

1273 CE

Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan.

1332-1370 CE

Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reassert control over Afghanistan.

1370-1404 CE

The rule of Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane).

1451 CE

An Afghan named Buhlul invades Delhi, and seizes the throne. He finds the Lodi dynasty.

1504-1519 CE

Babur, founder of the Moghul dynasty takes control of Kabul.

1722 CE

Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and occupies Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolt, and terminate the Persian occupation of Herat.

1736 CE

Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupies southwest Afghanistan.

1747-1773 CE

Nadir Shah is assassinated, and the Afghans rise once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali retake Kandahar, and establish modern Afghanistan. It became the greatest Muslim empire in the second half of the 18th century.

1773-1793 CE

Rule of Timur Shah. Capital of Afghanistan transferred from Kandahar to Kabul because of tribal opposition. Constant internal revolts.

1793-1826 CE

Constant internal revolts and civil war.

1826 CE

Dost Mohammad Khan takes Kabul, and establishes control.

1836 CE

Dost Mohammad Khan is proclaimed as Amir al-mu' minin (commander of the faithful). He was well on the road toward reunifying the whole of Afghanistan when the British, in collaboration with an ex-king (Shah Shuja), invade Afghanistan.

1839-1842 CE

First Anglo-Afghan War. After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrenders to the British and is deported to India. Shah Shuja is installed as a "puppet king" by the British. (1839-1842) April 1842--Shah Shuja killed by Afghans. Afghans passionately continue their struggle against the British. Akbar Khan--Afghan hero--victorious against the British. In January 1842, out of 16,500 soldiers (and 12,000 dependents) only one survivor, of mixed British-Indian garrison, reaches the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony.

1843 CE

After the annihilation of British troops, Afghanistan once again becomes independent, and the exiled Amir, Dost Mohammad Khan comes back and occupies the royal throne (1843-1863).

1859 CE

British take Baluchistan, and Afghanistan becomes completely landlocked.

1863-1866 CE

Sher Ali, Dost Mohammad Khan's son, succeeds to the throne. (1865)--Russia takes Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samarkand.

1873 CE

Russia established a fixed boundary between Afghanistan and it's new territories. Russia promises to respect Afghanistan's territorial integrity.

1878 CE

Sher Ali dies in Mazar-i-Shariff, and Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan takes over until October 1879. Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gives up the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lose these territories permanently.

1880 CE

Battle of Maiwand July 1880, Afghan woman named Malalai carries the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valour. Abdur Rahman takes throne of Afghanistan as Amir. The British, shortly after the accession of the new Amir, withdraw from Afghanistan, although they retain the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations. Abdur Rahman establishes fixed borders and he loses a lot of Afghan land. Nuristan converted to Islam.

1885 CE

The Panjdeh Incident. Russian forces seize the Panjdeh Oasis, a piece of Afghan territory north of the Oxus River. Afghans tried to retake it, but was finally forced to allow the Russians to keep Panjdeh, and the Russians promised to honor Afghan territorial integrity in the future.

1893 CE

The Durand line fixes borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Afghan tribal areas, leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan.

1895 CE

Afghanistan's northern border is fixed and guaranteed by Russia.

1907 CE

Russia and Great Britain sign the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan is declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.

1918 CE

Mahmud Tarzi (Afghan Intellectual) introduces modern Journalism into Afghanistan with the creation of several newspapers.

1919 CE

The first museum in Afghanistan is instituted at Baghe Bala.

1921 CE

Third Anglo-Afghan war. Once again, the British are defeated, and Afghanistan gains full control of her foreign affairs. Amanullah Khan initiates a series of ambitious efforts at social and political modernization.

1929 CE

Amanullah Khan is overthrown by Habibullah Kalakani. After the fall of Amanullah Khan, Mahmud Tarzi seeks asylum in Turkey. The Rise and Fall of Habibullah Kalakani, popularly known as "Bache Saqao" Nadir Khan takes the throne; his tribal army loots government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters, and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan are killed by Nadir Khan. Now Nadir Khan establishes full control.

1933 CE

Nadir Khan assassinated by a college student, and his son, Zahir, inherits the throne. He rules until 1973. Zahir Shah's uncles serve as prime ministers and advisors until 1953. Mahmud Tarzi dies in Turkey at the age of 68 with a heart full of sorrow and despair toward his country.

1940 CE

Zahir Shah proclaims Afghanistan as neutral during WW2.

1949 CE

Afghanistan's Parliament denounces the Durand Treaty and refuses to recognize the Durand line as a legal boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pashtuns in Pashtunistan (Occupied Afghan Land) proclaim an independent Pashtunistan, but their proclamation goes unacknowledged by the world community.

1955 CE

Daoud turns to the Soviet Union (Russia) for military aid. Close ties between Afghanistan and USSR. The Pashtunistan (occupied Afghan land) issue flares up.

1959 CE

The Purdah is made optional, women begin to enroll in the University which has become co-educational. Women begin to enter the workforce, and the government.

1961 CE

Pakistan and Afghanistan come close to war over Pashtunistan.

1965 CE

The Afghan Communist Party was formed in January. Babrak Karmal is one of the founders. In September, first nationwide elections under the new constitution. Karmal was elected to the Parliament.

1973 CE

July 17th: Zahir Shah is on vacation in Europe, when his government is overthrown in a military coup headed by Daoud Khan and PDPA (Afghan Communist Party)due to increased civil unrest and demand for an end to royal dictatorship. Daoud Khan abolishes the monarchy and becomes President---The Republic of Afghanistan is established!

1974 CE

UNESCO names Herat as one of the first cities to be designated as a part of the worlds cultural heritage.

1975--1977 CE

Daoud Khan presents a new constitution. Women's rights confirmed.

1978-1989 CE

Upon seeing a liberal, free, nation being born in Afghanistan, the USA and the west take advantage of the religious sentiments of the tribal factions within Afghanistan and instigate violence against the republican regime. The regime counteracted by asking the Soviet Union for military aid, and a full out civil war ensued.

1989 CE

The Soviet army left Afghanistan, leaving the nation in complete chaos.

1996-2001 CE

During the chaos of civil war, the Taliban movement came to power due to its popular appeal for attempting to establish some sort of civil order. For the first time since 1978 it seemed as if Afghanistan was on the road to becoming a civil society once more.

2001-present CE

American invasion of Afghanistan and the establishment of a brutal puppet regime. The struggle for freedom continues...