Theory of Psychology: "The Laws of the Psyche" (complete text)

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Alberto E. Fresina

CHAPTER 14 -(pages 273 to 286 of the book of 410)

Index of the chapter:

1. The ideals
2. Psychic substratum of the movement of the apparatuses
3. Classification of ideals and distribution of their basic psychic elements
4. The fundamental contradiction of the psyche and the apparatuses



1. The ideals

The concept: ideal may be understood in two fundamental senses. One refers to concrete facts, as goals or specific objectives that one tries to achieve. Such goals are conceived as unique facts that only accept the concrete success or failure in their attainment. The other sense refers to the “ideal” virtual conditions in which one wants to live, no matter if they are material, moral, individual or social. The first sense refers to the field of the concrete facts. The second has to do with stable or transcendent virtual conditions in relation to the facts. As there is a clear difference between both senses of the concept: ideal, it will be necessary to establish appropriate terms for each of them:

1- Ideals-goals. This concept will refer to the field of the concrete facts; to the huge goals or clear and specific objectives that one really wants to achieve.

2- Ideal conditions. We will refer to the virtual values or stable conditions, transcendent to the facts.

Both elements are part of the apparatuses operation. The ideal conditions are not more than the positive virtual values of the apparatuses. These latter ones constantly work to improve the individual, social, moral and material life conditions. The ideal conditions consist on the “excellence” of those values or the closest to it. But as those virtual conditions can not be acquired but through concrete facts, the apparatuses permanently set concrete goals useful for the achievement or the improvement of the ideal conditions or positive virtual values. Among those goals, most of them are tiny and daily and their achievement means to add contributions for the improvement of the virtual values. But there are some that are more mediate and more important in their incidence for the improvement of the ideal conditions and we will call them ideals-goals. The apparatuses work generating and renovating ideals-goals, always aimed at getting the improvement of the absolute virtual values or the achievement of the ideal conditions. For that reason, the ideals-goals are the large objectives set by the apparatuses, as means or ways leading to achieve or to improve the positive virtual values and/or to leave the negative ones.

As the ideals-goals are essentially the means leading to the achievement of the ideal conditions, they are always acquired or relative and depend on the diverse circumstances of life; that is to say, there are not concrete and specific ideals-goals that are universal or shared by all the members of the species. What is common in all, is the mechanism of setting ideals-goals. Instead, the ideal conditions, besides  having relative and variable ways of manifesting themselves (stable and specific qualities or conditions and culturally determined, where one seeks to be, to have or that “there is”), have the necessary and constant forms consisting on the absolute virtual values of the apparatuses.

In order to tidy up the concepts, we will say that the objectives or goals that do not intend to improve the conditions of the virtual values, will not be ideals-goals. When the objective or goal, no matter how much important it is, is a fact in itself, looked for being enjoyed without any other reasons, it will be a simple wish, aspiration or desire (in general corresponding to the functional frame of the macropulsion: pleasant global fact). We will just  consider the apparatuses’ goals as ideals. This way for example, an ideal-goal for a student may be the achievement of the corresponding professional degree. Here the objective is clear and concrete. What it is pursued is the act of getting the degree. At the time of getting it, the joy for the success takes place as the ideal-goal was attained. However, nobody makes an effort during so many years for the unique happiness that takes place at the time of receiving one diploma. What happens is that one wants to have the degree as it is the door leading to the new virtual condition or ideal.

Let’s suppose that the apparatuses of the personal moral and of the personal welfare set the achievement of the degree as ideal-goal, because it means to become a professional in the virtual field. That means on one hand, the stable possession of a major degree of personal virtuousness in relation to the state of not possessing the degree. The condition of being professional encloses, according to the social appreciation, the possession of virtues such as capacity, knowledge, ability, abnegation, intelligence. Therefore, it implies the major probability of being socially esteemed or respected and of experiencing feelings of self-esteem in the future, as well as a minor risk of disrespect and future self-disrespect. On the other hand, in view of the social reality, it means a favorable condition for the future material welfare.

We can say then, that the ideals-goals are pursued as steps for the achievement or improvement of the virtual values or ideal conditions. But at the same time, the stable conditions are looked for in terms of the favorable concrete facts that guarantee for the future. In other words, the apparatuses go from what is concrete to what is abstract (ideals-goals  virtual conditions) and from what is abstract to what is concrete (virtual conditions future favorable facts). In that movement, the virtual values set the intermediate or abstract stage. Concrete facts are looked for as means for the achievement of virtual or abstracted conditions of the facts, but such virtual conditions are, at the same time, looked for as favorable conditions for the indefinite series of future concrete facts; that is to say, they are searched as guarantee that pleasure and denial of displeasure occur with more probability in the future.

All the positive virtual values of the apparatuses, including its maximum synthesis: happiness, in essence do not mean more than the guarantee of pleasure and the denial of future displeasure. When one tries to get the personal virtue and denial of faults for example, one wants through it, the thousands of concrete reactions of moral pleasure for each of the thousand of future signs of esteem and of reactions of self-esteem, guaranteed by the possession of the virtue. Also, one is trying to avoid the thousand of moral displeasures that would imply the concrete signs or answers of disrespect and self-disrespect towards the own faults. The same happens with all the virtual values, which are looked for or avoided but not in themselves, but in their capacity as “abstract stations” among the concrete facts leading to them and the concrete facts that promise for the future.  

Psychic substratum of the movement of the apparatuses

Although the virtual values or stable conditions have continuous existence in the time, the reactions of pleasure or displeasure can never have those characteristics, but they are always concrete and of limited duration, that is to say, “they appear and disappear” although the state of the virtual values do not change. For that reason, the “psychic management” of the virtual values is divided into three stages. The first one is the reaction of pleasure caused by the entrance to the positive virtual value or of displeasure caused by the entrance to the negative virtual value. The second one is the habitual reaction of pleasure, under the form of conformity, produced each time that one is aware of the possession of the positive value or the repeated displeasure of unconformity when one is aware of the possession of the negative virtual value. And the third stage is the displeasure reaction for the loss or advance of the end of the positive virtual value or of pleasure for the end or announcement of the end of the negative virtual value. For example, if the positive virtual value is “to own a house”, the moment in which the subject takes possession of his housing will be pleasant. Then, the second moment consists on the regular reactions of pleasure, under the form of conformity, that that individual will experience every time that he thinks about how good is what he possesses as virtual value. Lastly, if he is said that his house will be torn down and he is shown the “tractors” like evidence that it is not a joke, the subject will surely undergo a strong displeasure. On the other hand, if the negative value is a disease, we will also see the three moments or psychic stages, but in an inverse distribution. The entrance way to the disease state is unpleasant or disappointing. Then, the second moment consists on those continued displeasure reactions, under the form of unconformity which take place every time that one is aware of the negative condition. Lastly, going out from disease (or of any other negative virtual value) is accompanied by a pleasant feeling.


That distribution of the psychic reactions is what assures the normal movement of the apparatuses towards the statement and the keeping of the positive virtual values and the suppression of the negative ones.

The reactions of pleasure-displeasure that sustain the movement of the virtual values, correspond to the anticipatory bip. as a general rule. As we know, this bipulsion is in charge of all the pleasant or unpleasant psychic reactions, which are earlier than other concrete facts producing pleasure or displeasure. Consequently, the pleasure of happiness for the access to the positive virtual condition as well as the pleasure of the reflexive conformity with the positive virtual value that one possesses or the pleasure of abandoning the negative virtual value, consist on reactions that advance or announce other implied pleasant facts and/or the future absence of unpleasant facts. At the same time, displeasure, unconformity or bitterness, caused by the access to the negative value, its maintenance or the end of the positive virtual value, are psychic reactions that are early to the series of unpleasant concrete facts as well as to the denial or future absence of the pleasant ones. This shows us that the presence of the anticipatory bip. is constant at the level of the apparatuses. As here abstraction gathers large quantities of facts, the reactions of happiness or displeasure  always appear as advances of the pleasant or unpleasant average offered by the groups of concrete facts enclosed by the virtual conditions.

Apart from the anticipatory bip., there are also other psychic elements in relation to the virtual values. Such elements appear mainly during the intermediate moment, which coincides with the “current” existence of the positive or negative virtual value, that is to say, the corresponding one to the habitual feelings of conformity or unconformity with the virtual values that one already possesses. In the case of the apparatus of the personal moral, the feelings of conformity or unconformity as far as the own virtues or faults are concerned, are mainly of ethical-moral nature; they appear under the form of reactions of self-esteem or self-disrespect. In the apparatus of the group moral, the feelings of conformity or unconformity are basically of ethical-moral and spiritual nature: reactions of “self-esteem” and pride for the honorable conditions of the own group or “self-disrespect” for the deficiency of its values; the spiritual pleasure or displeasure for something good or bad (favorable or unfavorable in general) for that object of the fraternal and moral identification, is added. In the apparatus of the personal welfare, the feelings of conformity or unconformity for the welfare or uneasiness conditions do not have practically any “psychic additives”. Here, the habitual feelings of conformity or unconformity are almost totally anticipated reactions of happiness or displeasure for the favorable or unfavorable virtual conditions, of what “material” impulses and bipulsions and macropulsion are interested in. In the apparatus of the group welfare, the frequent pleasant feelings of conformity or unpleasant feelings of unconformity are mainly of spiritual nature: spiritual pleasure to see the welfare conditions of the O.F.M.I. or spiritual displeasure for the negative situation of this one.

Besides all these psychic elements composing the intermittent feelings of conformity or unconformity with the virtual values, the aesthetic pleasure or displeasure for the values possessed are added. As the positive values, for example, are always associated with pleasure, acquire a relative autonomy in their capacity to produce contemplative or aesthetic pleasure. This way, what at the beginning caused an anticipatory pleasure of other pleasant facts,  it becomes into something pleasant in itself. The pleasure produced by the positive virtual values is no longer just the advance of other implied facts, but the aesthetic bip. is also interested in it.

The difference between the aesthetic pleasure and the pleasure as an anticipated psychic reaction lies mainly in that the aesthetic one, besides being the result of a passive view, is considered as a purpose in itself. Instead, the anticipatory pleasure or displeasure are interpreted or felt as means or announcements of other facts. But it is frequent that the reactions of pleasure or displeasure before certain stimuli arising out as advances of other events, become autonomous in their capacity to produce pleasure or displeasure. In such case, those stimuli are looked for or avoided in themselves by the aesthetic bip. that conceives them now simply as beautiful or ugly. Thus, the association of the positive values with pleasure and of the negative ones with displeasure, makes the first ones acquire certain contemplative or aesthetic beauty and the negative ones are causal of an aesthetic displeasure.

Beyond the thorough psychic composition of the conformity or unconformity feelings for the virtual values possessed, those reactions, arisen out from the evaluation of values, may be of diverse degrees of partiality or rather totalizing. When the attention is focused on a partial and isolated value, as for example: courage, a specific feeling of conformity or unconformity for that partial value will rouse. The same thing if the partial value is health, etc., Then, when the sector of values embraced by attention or by the reflexive question is larger, it will reach for example, the global situation where there is an apparatus. If the apparatus is that of the personal moral, the reactions of conformity or unconformity will respond to the synthesis of the total degree of general virtuousness or defectiveness of the subject. In other terms, conformity or unconformity feelings are subject to the analytic - partial degree or synthetic-totalizing of the reflexive evaluation on values. In that way, it will be about something extremely partial and specific or it will reach the maximum synthesis that comprises the total aspects of life, that is,  the huge apparatus of the general integration will start actions, resulting the general conformity as feeling of happiness or “bad”, repeated unhappiness feelings as reactions of global unconformity will sprout.

The feeling of happiness, as habitual concrete reaction of pleasure, is the combination of the group of reactions of aesthetic, moral, spiritual pleasure, etc., as a unique experience of general conformity for the present situation plus the deep anticipatory happiness for the wonderful coloring that the future shows. On the contrary, the habitual feeling of unhappiness is the combination of the diverse kind of displeasure made up of the unconformity bitterness with the present together with the painful anticipatory anguish when looking at the darkness shown by the window of the future.

Regarding the ethical apparatus, the conformity or unconformity with virtues or faults in people, groups, animals or objects consisting on reactions of pleasure for virtues and displeasure for faults, may also take place in relation to an isolated quality or as an answer to the synthetic group of virtues and faults. The nature of pleasure or liking for other people's virtues is a mixture of aesthetic pleasure in itself plus the anticipatory pleasure of the favorable facts that that virtue is guaranteeing; while the displeasure before other people's faults is also the mixture of the aesthetic displeasure in itself together with the anticipatory displeasure of the group of unpleasant facts that such negative virtual conditions announce.

We have discussed so far, about the psychic reactions happened around the virtual values, that is, the pleasant or unpleasant reactions that accompany the entrance to the value or virtual condition; conformity-unconformity as answers to the “current” presence of the virtual values and the corresponding reactions in the presence of the abandonment or exit of these ones. We should also see the main psychic reactions appeared during labor guided towards the achievement of ideals which are far away in some point of future.

The anticipatory and aesthetic bipulsions constitute the main support of the psychic reactions that accompany the guided labor aimed at the achievement of the ideal. The anticipatory bip. is in charge of the frequent joys for the partial achievements that announce the proximity of the final success and it is the one responding with displeasure for the partial failure that moves away the possibility of the final success or that it rather brings  the definitive failure. The aesthetic bip. on the other hand, is the responsible for the intermittent fantasies that consist precisely on the mental representation of all pleasant facts implied in the ideal. Such images are searched as purposes in themselves by the aesthetic bip., which at the same time tends to avoid the mental representation of what failure would mean.

During the labor guided towards the achievement of ideals, a continuous succession of pleasant reactions takes place which are mixtures of premature happiness plus the aesthetic pleasure for the pleasant images, fleeting as well as elaborated, of what the achievement of the ideal would imply. Those reactions fill the mind with a continuous enthusiasm, making the desire of the ideal revive and sustaining it. This would be the main function of “dreams” and fantasies: to keep up the hard work towards the achievement of the ideal. It is the incentive function making the long labor guided towards its achievement, as something pleasant

3. Classification of ideals and distribution of their
 basic psychic elements

We have stated that there are two types of individual ideals and two of social ideals: 1- material 2- moral. But the same classification allows to change the order and say that there are two types of material ideals and two of moral ideals: 1- individual. 2- social. This way, the following cross- classification of the ideals arises out:

The absolute virtual values of those four fields of life have in natural state, a similar psychic importance in relation to the feelings of happiness or unhappiness. Therefore, although such feelings happen in a specific psyche, we can not speak for example, of “individual” happiness, but just of happiness as global experience including moral and spiritual elements in relation to the group. This group, as an object of identification, is the structural part of the subject's psychic life.

Let’s review a little the basic forms of pleasure-displeasure in relation to those four types of values:

- Personal welfare-uneasiness: anticipatory pleasure-displeasure of what is related to the interests of the tendencies without moral and/or spiritual motivations.
- Welfare-uneasiness of the group: spiritual pleasure-displeasure.
- Personal virtuousness-defectiveness: moral pleasure-displeasure.
-Honor and dignity – group dishonor and indignity: moral and spiritual pleasure-displeasure.

As the conditions of group honor or the greatness of the tribal values, are an ideal that a monkey would care less than the individual material welfare, nature had “to reinforce” the interest in that ideal, which in the human tribe had a similar importance than the others for survival. For that reason, it encouraged the capacity of the moral-spiritual pleasure and displeasure in relation to the tribal honor, to prompt the interest in that ideal so far away from the motivational premises of any animal. Then, the personal virtue and the social or group welfare also needed to be reinforced. Lastly, the interest in the personal material welfare did not need any psychic reinforcements. Nature took it for “granted”, the interest in favorable conditions of tendencies with individual material purposes for the group.

In such way, the following basic psychic composition for the absolute ideals of each apparatus rouses:

The fundamental contradiction of the psyche
and the apparatuses

The same as in the other levels, the movement and operation of the apparatuses depend on the sustained contradiction or fights between the general law and the opponent forces. In spite of the efforts of each apparatus to obtain the positive virtual values and to avoid the negative ones, both types of opponent values show up in an approximately balanced form. In the case of the moral apparatuses, that responds, the same as happened with bipulsions, to the own nature of the fundamental mechanism that determines the values: the social average. Although according to us, everybody lacks virtues or everybody is very virtuous,  there will be a group of the best ones that will be esteemed and another of  the worst ones that will have an unavoidable relative disrespect (but experienced or felt as absolute or psychically concrete).

That mechanism that cuts in half the social average without another parameter, means that all below the middle line will try to be on the side of the best one to achieve esteem and to avoid disrespect. But if all included in the group of the worst are able to improve and pass to the middle line, situating themselves among the best, there would be “nobody” left in the half below. This makes the new social average of virtues be formed automatically, that is to say, half of them will necessarily fall within the worst. That group again, will make its best to be situated above the middle line.

In the natural state of the tribe, all this situation tends to be revolving for subjects. As there is equality of conditions, of practice, motivation, more the balanced influence of chance, the passage of subjects from one side to another of the middle line is continuous; a permanent fluctuation among opponent conditions occurs. No matter if someone is able to last more time above that line, the rule is that everybody fluctuates from one side to another. The stars of the day are always renewed. There is constantly a movement of a relative esteem-disrespect towards each one. Even each subject experiences self-esteem and self-disrespect alternately, as he possesses or stops possessing certain virtues or according to successes and mistakes of his behaviors. The same situation appears in relation to the groups and it is what allows the continuous passage of values from an opponent to another one, assuring the movement of the moral apparatuses.

The social average, as determinant of the quality of values and of the corresponding social answer, does not work indiscriminately for all the individuals, but an adaptation of esteem specially takes place, according to the conditions of each case, mainly in the values of the activity. This way, if an individual is clumsy when doing something that he does not have any practice, he will obtain a different social answer than in the event of having enough practice. Then, the level of a child’s performance for example, will not be compared with the average performance of adults, but with the one of those who share a similar age. Regarding the values of the relation, the approaches are more general. Example: the evaluation of kindness-wickedness arises out from the global average of the social reality, without major distinctions of categories.

That fight process and passage from an opponent to another, mean the development of an objective contradiction inside the group (reinforced and revitalized by the moral fight bip. or emulation, sports spirit) that favors progress or improvement in the quality of behaviors. In order to observe the mechanisms of that progress of the values quality, let’s take as example the values: productive efficiency-inefficiency, as qualities of the members of a tribe. The indicative parameter pointing out who is efficient or inefficient, consists on the social average. Let’s suppose that a subject using certain technique or method is recognized as having labor efficiency as virtue. Then, when everybody copies that technique or effective way of working, a new average of productivity level will be formed. That is the reason why that individual will no longer be efficient but “neuter”. A person will only be considered efficient when he overcomes the new productivity average. If a new technique that is better than that one in productivity appears, the subject that uses it will be efficient and he will deserve recognition. But once everybody adopt that working method, the new productivity average will be formed. Meanwhile, that technique we left behind has already become into ineffective as it is less productive than those that are now in force. Consequently, if that individual keeps on with that technique currently ineffective, he will become unproductive, inefficient or useless, which will force him to abandon it and to apply new and better ones. As it may be appreciated, such mechanisms favor the productive progress of the group in absolute terms, what means an extremely advantageous condition for a tribe.

The same happens with the rest of values, especially the ones of the activity. The new thing that appears, if better than what is in force, starts being called good (skillful, rational, etc.), turning into bad (clumsy, irrational) what is now simply worse. It is a continuous progress turning positive values into negative. It is a process of denial of the denial, by means of which what is new and better denies the positive character of the previous one and so on. The values coming and going out from that “wave” in force are the relative ones. But the absolute ones are what is constant and structural in the wave. They constitute the basic mechanism of the invariable and essential zigzag that makes the series of relative values pass.

The mechanism of the average also works with non-moral values. In all the cases, the  new thing that appears, if better, turns into bad what is only worse. In other words, the described process not only happens with virtues and faults of people or groups, but the same happens regarding the movement of conformity-unconformity in relation to the rest of values. If one possesses a positive value with which one is satisfied, it is enough the appearance of something better, so that dissatisfaction arises. As what one has is worse in relation to that new appearing thing, it turns into negative, generating an unconformity experienced as absolute.

This process contributes to assure the balance of the fight between the apparatuses and the opponent forces. Thanks to it, the movement of the first ones is kept, renovating ideals. Otherwise, if those mechanisms did not exist, an indefinite conformity would be produced after attaining the ideal, stopping the movement of the apparatuses and of the behavior in general. Such mechanisms encourage the continuous progress of the relative values, pushing constantly to improve the conditions of the virtual values in which the subject or group are interested in. The appearance of a better possibility puts an end to the feeling of conformity with what is in force, settling the new goal. As one may deduce, it is something useful for the survival of the tribe. It means the constant movement of the behavior guided towards the uninterrupted improvement of life conditions.

These processes are true psychological laws. For that reason it is not suitable to blame subjects or to accuse them because “they are never satisfied”. Such elements exist because the surviving tribes were those ones where subjects have an automatic interest to improve the conditions of the virtual values appeared every time that it was possible to do it; at the same time, those tribes were extinguishing as the subjects did not have the capacity to experience a psychic answer of unconformity with what was in force, when that was worse than the new possibility shown up.

The stated rules, that assure the movement of the apparatuses and the setting up of new and better goals are responsible for the dissatisfaction that one capitalistic man, for example, feels with his situation of getting a profit of 100, when he has the possibility to earn 300. Also, that same subject will be unsatisfied if he earns 1.000, if he perceives a real possibility to get 10.000 and so on.*

* This would be the psychological basis of the phenomenon that appears as a set fact in the economy field, for which all capital displays an indefinite tendency to increase.

Those same processes give, at the same time, a legal frame to claims and labor fights all around the world, without caring the level of certain workers' life  regarding the others. If in a certain country, the workers are in a less urgent situation than the proletarians of other towns or than themselves in relation to the past, that will not imply that they do not have “the right” to feel dissatisfied, every time they perceive the possibility to improve their living and working conditions.

In the case of the capitalistic man as in that of workers, we are not here evaluating if it is well or wrong to feel unconformity. The question is that those psychological laws make unconformity automatic when a new possibility shows up conceived as better or more advantageous and at the same time realistic. These two conditions: 1- certainty on the advantages of the new possibility 2- convincing of the realism of that one, make the mechanism work automatically, by means of which the desire to achieve it arises, which is settled as the new goal or ideal together with the appearance of the unconformity with the present situation. None of those two conditions may be missing so that the process works. If one possibility is very realistic but adverse, it will not obviously cause any interest. And if something is impossible to be achieved, it will not be either settled as an objective although it appears to be like an advantageous one. Only when the new thing appearing in the horizon is conceived as advantageous and realistic, there the desire to achieve is set, appearing simultaneously the unconformity with the current situation, which turns into bad as it is worse in relation to that.

The natural process from conformity to unconformity occurs as we have observed, although nothing negative happens. The lonely appearance in the mind of a better possibility, generates unconformity with the current situation automatically. However, there are two more factors that contribute to secure the disappearance of the state of conformity, replacing it for unconformity. One of these and the most obvious, is the presence of adversity. When new concrete difficulties come up in some important sector that worsen the present situation, the state of conformity is interrupted, what calls up the settlement of new goals on that issue, putting the behavior in movement.

The last factor that would secure the movement and passage of the conformity-unconformity feelings, would be the own system of autonomous maintenance (refer to chapter 5). When somebody has been able to obtain the most favorable life conditions, it means that he only has reasons of pleasure and conformity together with the absence of all reason of unconformity or displeasure. But as the displeasure neurons will not stand the situation of absolute rest, they will start their activity, generating the autonomous displeasure in the experience. That displeasure or anguish, anxiety, depression, bitterness, is manifested in the subjective or conscious, reflexive realm mainly as a general unconformity. That is to say, in spite of having attained everything that one wished and not having reasons “to complain”, a deep and frequent global uneasiness and global unconformity evolve. This would be the last “card” of the opponent forces, to avoid the paralysis of the movement of the apparatuses. Therefore, the usefulness of that paradoxical unconformity would not be limited to the neuronal safeguarding, etc., but it would be something to take advantage naturally, to mobilize the search for new targets, securing the movement of behavior.

Among the three before mentioned factors (1-appearance of new better targets. 2- presence of concrete difficulties. 3-autonomous or paradoxical unconformity), they assure the presence of the unconformity feeling, avoiding the harmful paralysis of the behavior that would take place in the event of having a continuous and passive conformity.

In spite of this situation, the general integration apparatus, as synthesizer of all the ideals, points out to something impossible: the permanent general conformity. And here another expression of the dialectical contradiction of the psyche. The general integration apparatus hopes unilaterally the “paradise”; while the opponent forces have to act as a contention barrier, securing a certain balance of the fight and with it, the continuous operation of the apparatuses, renovating goals and ideals.

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© Author: Alberto E. Fresina
Title: "The Laws of Psyche"
Title of the original Spanish Version:
"Las Leyes del Psiquismo"
Fundar Editorial
Printed in Mendoza, Argentina
I.S.B.N. 987-97020-9-3
Mendoza, 14th July, 1999
Copyright registered at the National Copyright Bureau in 1988, and at the Argentine Book Camera in 1999, year of its publication.
Translated by Ana El kassir with the collaboration of Marcela Berenguer
Characteristic of the original copy in Spanish: Number of pages: 426; measures: 5.9 x 8.27 x 1 inch; weight: 1.2lb.

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