Theory of Psychology: The Laws of Psyche (complete text)

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Alberto E. Fresina

CHAPTER 15 -(pages 287 to 302 of the book of 410)

Index of the chapter:

1. Recount of the necessary tendencies
2. The necessary tendencies and consciousness and unconsciousness
3. Relationship between the impulses and the superior tendencies
4. Guideline role of the apparatuses
5. The common ideals and their regulator role of the psychic operation
6. Labor: center of motivational convergence
7. Functional unity and overlapping of tendencies



1. Recount of the necessary tendencies

The general law of the psyche constitutes the basis of intention. It can not exist any specific tendency that does not entail the simple mechanism defining it in its essence: statement of pleasure and denial of displeasure. That law acts simultaneously on the different levels where the motivational human structure is organized. The first and most elementary level is the reflex level, where it is expressed as the group of directed reflexes. Then, the organization of such reflexes results in the performance of impulses. These ones arrange and mingle their activity, making bipulsions come up. Lastly, bipulsions and other “free” impulses organize themselves shaping and giving motion to the macropulsion and to the apparatuses. The total number of absolute tendencies would reach 68: 23 impulses, 38 bipulsions, 1 macropulsion and 6 apparatuses (they would reach near 80 if we add micro-impulses and some “micro-bipulsion” that were put aside). This may appear to be "a lot". But that quantity of essential tendencies together with the basic rules and mechanisms that govern them, is something quite simple if we keep in mind what it could "be expected" from this special object of study that is the human psyche.

Obviously, this system of essential tendencies does not pretend to be the accurate reflection of the reality of the psyche. It will surely require many adjustments and modifications. In relation to it, the quantity of bipulsions is what may be most doubtful. It is probable that other absolute values shape other bipulsions. Nevertheless, any universal and structural value of the human motivation that could exist, could only subsist if some function for the survival of the tribe were fulfilled.  In this matter,  nature is indeed very strict and precise.

Regarding macropulsion, we could consider it if it is located in an intermediate area between the third level of the bipulsions and the fourth of the apparatuses. It would be as a bridge connecting both levels. It has in common with the apparatuses, the gathering or  synthesizing groups of simple facts under a couple of contrary organizers (global facts), but contrary to those, it moves in the field of the concrete facts without more involvement than their simple appearance or avoidance.

On the other hand, we find in every level the unity of the essence and the phenomenon, what is common and different, what is constant and changeable. The group of necessary tendencies and their absolute objects or values, constitute what is essential and shared by men and women of any culture. But the way in which those tendencies work, as well as the types of goals, interests, values and relative ideals, indicate the flexible aspect of motivation, being able to differ endlessly. The colorful multiplicity of acquired reasons makes fun of any classification attempt. However, none of them stops entailing the essence of the objects of satisfaction, values or absolute ideals. Even they do not stop entailing the essence of the general law and of the fight that this carries out against the opponent forces.

[Entering here you can see the total outline of the absolute tendencies. It is recommended to print (in horizontal)]

The necessary tendencies and consciousness
and unconsciousness

Thanks to Freud we can count with the concept of unconsciousness, as an alien area to consciousness in which diverse psychic phenomena take place.* But since Freud did not define what that unconsciousness embraces and neither he established a difference between what is subjective and what is purely objective, that approach gave rise to the interpretation that all psychic element, process, mechanism or function occurring outside the conscious domain, correspond to a subjective entity with own life and alien consciousness:  unconsciousness.

* Freud Sigmund. Obras completas. Amorrortu Editores. Buenos Aires. 1988 (Freud Sigmund. “Complete works”.)

If all what is psychic alien to consciousness belonged to unconsciousness, impulses, bipulsions, the macropulsion and the apparatuses that are not of conscious domain as such, would be compelled to be the property of that mysterious unconsciousness.

The necessary tendencies, as icy psychological rules are not conscious but they are neither “of the unconsciousness”. Neither the general law nor any of the submitted absolute tendencies are unconscious in the sense of the hidden subjective content. The fact that something exists and works outside the conscious domain, it is not a reason to attribute it to unconsciousness.

Intention, as absolute force or tendency to assert pleasure and to deny displeasure, as well as the specific tendencies in which it is branched, can be based neither on consciousness nor on unconsciousness. They are only based on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. They are the outcome of the activity of the directed reflexes. In other words, the motivational structure of the human psyche in its essence, is something fully objective and alien to the subjective domain, conscious as well as unconscious.

What is conscious or unconscious in themselves, as characters, aspects or states of the psychic thing, can never be active elements. Freud understood this, but he was not able to clarify it suitably. What is only active is the absolute tendency of intention expressed in the general law, as well as in impulses, bipulsions, etc., through which it works, which have integrative conscious and unconscious activities. For that reason, what is conscious or unconscious in the performance of  intention, does not have a great explanatory usefulness from the functional point of view. It would be indeed useful to distinguish between will, as a naturally experience and conscious piece of intention and the rest of the intentional activity outside the conscious domain. When in some cases it is spoken about unconsciousness in active sense, one would make reference to the latter one. But conscience and unconsciousness, as areas or conditions of what is psychic, can never be active elements. When one says for example that conscience “does” certain thing, it is really the will as part of the active intention that acts naturally in the conscious area, it is the one doing. Conscience in itself can not do anything to be something passive. The same regarding unconsciousness or the unconscious state. In other words what is active is always intention or the absolute force of the general law and of the specific tendencies in that it is branched. Then, this intention has a part of its activity happening within the frame of the conscious experience and that we call will; while the other part of the activity of that same intention occurs outside the conscious domain or it rather acts within the unconscious space.

The main center of the management of the behavior lies in the experience and conscious part of intention. The will constitutes the “head” of intention. It is the expression or the subjective manifestation of the maximum integration of the activity of the directed reflexes.

Conscience has a limited space as regards the data to be kept in mind. For that reason what is fundamental, the synthesis of questions considered by will only appear in it. And the unconscious part of intention would be in charge of the huge analysis of the thousand of isolated pieces of information that should be integrated. The will is the synthesizer of the global course that the behavior will adopt, while the remaining directed reflexes that shape the unconscious intentional activity as a whole, work parallel in the analysis of the information in this respect, as well as in the control of the thousand of partial movements of a behavior controlled in the global aspect by the conscious will. If the organism for example is hungry, which the directed tendency of the nutritious impulse responds to, the will as well as the rest of the intentional activity alien to the conscious domain, will work coordinately to get the food. The conscious will is going to drive most of the behavior sequences and the unconscious part will fill the group of details of the same one. This synergism is what is useful for survival. It would be harmful that the performance of both parts of intention were not convergent and complementary.

When we discussed about the directed reflexes that sustain the directed tendency of impulses (chapter 5, point 10 from there on), we observed that this directed tendency responds basically to the nec. state. This way for example, when one tries to achieve certain pleasure, one is reacting to the appearance of the nec.: desire; or when one intends to avoid a pain, it is an answer to the previous appearance of fear. The same regarding the diverse necs. and the interest in their satisfaction. But this is fully valid for the intentional behaviors that have certain psychic and motivational significance or importance. Because in the extensive series of conditioned directed reflexes (through the law of the effect: repetition of what is associated to pleasure and suppression of what is related to displeasure) that are the daily habits and the almost automatic behaviors carried out every day, a kind of “inertia” of the learned reflective sequences takes place. Such reflex sequences that are essentially guided towards pleasure and/or towards the denial of displeasure, happen mostly without the conscious experience of desire, of fear or of the above respective necs., and the conscious will does not participate in the push of behavior. That is to say, apart from the most notorious intentional behavior, where the looked for or avoided effects have certain psychic importance and for that reason the presence of the desire, of the fear, etc. becomes plain and deep, as well as of the conscious will as intentional experienced force, there is a great deal of behavior sequences, already conditioned in the direction of the general tendency to assert pleasure and to deny displeasure, which show up as spontaneous habits and unconsciously.

In those series of conditioned directed reflexes, the previous necs. of each behavior would not be manifested or “felt”. Maybe they are not detectable in the experience as they are light or because they happen subliminally regarding it. But in all cases, such series of directed reflexes come about under the scope of the virtual control of the corresponding impulses. This unconscious control of the behavior would allow that will, as experience and conscious part of intention, to be in charge of the most important side of the intentional purposes, leaving the details to that management, alien to the experience and voluntary attention. It is about a series of mechanisms making the handiness and efficiency of the behavior and of the constant dynamic decisions in each second fraction, where it would be impossible to decide voluntary and consciously each mini-act of the series. But all those sequences of intentional behavior are always in the “shade” of impulses and of the general law. It is as “to allow” the directed reflexes underlying the intention to “do” while they do what is “right”, this is, while they do what would be the same done in the event that the intervention of the attention and of the will in its control become necessary. This way for example when a pedestrian crosses the street, he does it avoiding being run over. That avoided behavior goes unnoticed in general in the experience, that is to say, dangers are avoided unconsciously and fear or easiness as its satisfaction almost do not appear. However, if for certain reason the subject is immobilized in the middle of the street, the strong fear to be run over shows up. There it is demonstrated that that reflective sequence of acts was at every moment under the virtual control of the conservation impulse. But for “practical” reasons the experience attention and the voluntary control were not necessary, until the moment it becomes very essential.

We say experience attention and not necessarily conscious, because such mechanisms can be applied to a dog, for example. Although this one does not have conscience, it may be distinguished the same, even in the same example of crossing the street, between the “unconscious” or spontaneous avoided behavior and what would be the “voluntary” answer in front of the appearance of the concrete experience fear of its conservation impulse.

The difference with animals is that conscience is a new quality of the experience in man. What in animals would only be experience, in the human subject is also a conscious experience. The self-perception capacity makes the conscience be as an aggregate to the basic experience shared with other animals. For that reason the will, in essence, would not be strictly the conscious part of intention, but the experienced part of that intentional force. Only that in man the experienced state is naturally conscious and for that reason, in the human case one can talk about  will as a conscious part of intention.

On the other hand, in the normal psyche there are not significant barriers hindering the appearance in conscience, of all that appears in that conscience because of its psychic importance, in order to be managed by will. The mechanism that pushes towards the conscious experience what is psychically significant, is the evidence of the supreme function of the conscious part of intention (will), to manage the most important matters from the psychic point of view, integrally and in block.*

* We always talk about the state of health and psychological normality. Because  mental disorders  are characterized  in many cases by not being adjusted to the general regulations on the normal performance. For that reason it is possible that  what is referred to  consciousness and unconsciousness, as well as in other  considered points, we find cases where it is not completely applicable what we say.
... But this situation is equivalent to the relationship between the study of the general physiology regarding what medicine deals with. We know that each one of the many illnesses or possible organic disorders require a specific study, in a way of independent science, because they are precisely characterized , for not being adjusted to what the general physiology “says”. However, in order to fully  understand any type of physiologic disorder, as well as to know what it should be made for its prevention, it is highly important to know the normal operation of the organism. This same relation is applicable to the case of the general psychology regarding disorders and dysfunctions of the psychic operation.

But everything gets complicated when the conservation imp. objects to the appearance in conscience, of certain contents that produce an intense displeasure by the light of the conscience due to certain associations and conditionings. Such is the case where a content that fulfills the requirements to appear in the conscience, is obstructed by the conservation imp. which exercises its general function of resistance, denier of displeasure. Here, the other impulse, etc., responsible for that content, would have then important “clandestine” activities, determining some behaviors or ideas from the unconscious area and frequently colliding with the conservation imp. that tries to impede the natural passage to the conscience or with the relief one that tries to expel from there what is able to become conscious, taking into account the displeasure caused. But if there are not contents that cause a very large moral displeasure by the light of conscience, etc., the conservation and relief impulses will be kind with visitors, working the system of absolute tendencies of intention harmoniously,  taking turns orderly to make use of the conscious will.

The conscious and unconscious states in that intention acts, combine and supplement themselves fully for the achievement of the purposes settled by the subject. When one pursues a goal comprising many partial achievements, the conscious will usually “forget” provisionally the purpose, while it is totally overturned towards the achievement of a partial goal. In this case we could say that the purpose is unconsciously looked for by intention. However, the idea of the purpose also appears in the conscience every time that is necessary, that is to say,  the idea of the purpose appears and disappears from the conscious realm whether its presence there is necessary or not. It appears each time that it is useful for the individual that he remembers what he is looking for or rather in order not to mislead the accuracy of the objective. But it disappears from conscience when what is useful is to turn over the attention and all the efforts to a partial goal that does not admit distractions and without that one there is not any final goal. It would be harmful that the subject is devoted to fill his conscience with the images of the purpose, when the urgency of  reality demands the whole concentration in the partial goal.

The dynamism of the fluctuation of the purpose’s idea that constantly goes from the conscious state to the unconscious one and vice versa, makes any discussion lack sense taking into account if the purpose is looked for conscious or unconsciously. This purpose is pursued in the two ways. But it is not looked for by conscience or by unconsciousness, but by the subject and his only intention.

The operation of the human psyche responds to laws because no phenomenon of Nature escapes from it. But it would be meaningless to believe that it may be directed by a hidden subjective entity that governs us. The fundamental contradiction, the general law, the impulses, bipulsions, apparatuses, as well as the regularities of their performance, are only objective laws of the psyche. Let’s see the place that each element occupies in the following outline:


laws, mechanisms, functions, psychic processes, system of absolute tendencies (arisen out from the own organization of the structure and
the brain performance)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (diverse psychological contents)

3. Relationship between the impulses and the superior tendencies

The most complex bipulsions as well as the apparatuses keep on being organized impulses in their essence. Firstly, the general law that is the most essential matter of motivation, branches in specific impulses that are ways leading to pleasure and denial of displeasure, they are the natural ways leading to it. Talking from a global approach and putting some details and features aside, the nuclei of satisfaction of impulses denote the general essence of the purposes of intention, as they are the facts leading to pleasure and in a parallel way to the denial of displeasure. But then, those essential ways of entrance to pleasure and displeasure undergo a great development; they start enlarging the range of their appearance, being present in the most varied situations and in relation to new concrete as well as abstract objects, broadening more and more the spectrum of phenomena able to make them activate. At the same time, such entrance ways to pleasure and displeasure and the impulses corresponding to them, combine and organize themselves giving rise to the appearance of bipulsions, the macropulsion and apparatuses that imply qualitative skips and the level of complexity in the organization of the psychic operation.

In spite of those new levels of the motivational human structure, the pleasure produced by the positive values of the bipulsions or the materialization of the ideals of the apparatuses, may never consist on any other thing than it is not the activation of the entrance ways to pleasure of the nuclei of satisfaction of the impulses. The nuclei or entrance ways to pleasure as objects of satisfaction of the impulses are genres of facts, they are like “concepts” that include a diversity of facts or situations gathered under a common denominator. For example, what is good or positive for the O.F.M.I., as object of satisfaction or entrance way to pleasure of the fraternal imp., seizes a quantity of different ways to happen. It includes from the pleasure that one feels when one sees that another individual is well (most primary form of the fraternal imp.), until the spiritual pleasure for the achievement of the most important social ideals, like something that is good for the tribe, or community, etc. Both phenomena are specific forms of the same general essence: pleasure for something good for the object of the fraternal identification (O.F.M.I.) ; that is to say, that subject as well as the tribe or community are the O.F.M.I in each case. Thus, what is good or favorable for the object of that identification, is the essential way to the entrance to pleasure of the fraternal imp. All that may be conceived under that generic notion, provoke the fraternal or spiritual pleasure. This is general and common in all the cases. The difference lies in the fact that the “welfare of the tribe”, as form of what is  good for the O.F.M.I., means a larger development and complexity of that entrance way to pleasure.

A similar case occurs in the intellectual bip. (and in the intellectual piece of bipulsions derived from it). In the intellectual pleasure produced together with the comprehension or understanding of the phenomena and their relationships, the essential entrance way to  pleasure of the curiosity imp. is present; but only in a more developed form in relation to the curiosity of any animal. However, it is likewise the nucleus of satisfaction of the curiosity imp. The object of satisfaction or the entrance way to pleasure of the impulse is essentially the assimilation of information. This way, the case of the animal that observes something “strange” appearing in its perceptive field as well as the logical domain and the clarification of a philosophical problem, are two forms of the act of assimilating new information. The absorption of information as an essential and generic fact, is the way to  pleasure of the curiosity imp.

The same happens concerning the approval imp. in relation to the pleasure of the feeling of group honor and pride. At first sight, there is little in common between the interest of a child in being congratulated by his parents and the hope of a town or tribe to achieve conditions of tribal honor and dignity. However, the moral pleasure of the group pride and honor undergone by the members of that town or tribe employs the entrance way to  pleasure of the approval imp. Those different forms in which the entrance way to pleasure of the approval imp. are activated, (one primary and the other one more complex and developed) have something in common which is what defines the essential mechanics of the impulse and its general way of entrance to pleasure: the (and/or self-answer) positive or approbatory answer towards something own that is good or that it is well. The congratulation towards the child for his behavior as well as the recognition towards a town for its terrific qualities or virtues keep on being two forms of the same content: positive or approbatory answer towards something own that is good. That common element is the essential entrance way to pleasure of the approval imp.

Anyway, we can not either ignore the difference between the pleasure for the simple congratulation towards an act and the feeling of tribal honor. They just coincide in their most general essence; but the general essence is not all. One unicellular and one human being share the general essence: living beings. But there is a considerable space that separates them in relation to the level of organization of the matter. That great development of the moral way of entrance to pleasure (pride and honor for what is good of the own tribe) moves away significantly in the most elementary way of the impulse, making them already different, the interest in the approval towards an occasional behavior and the sustained interest of a tribe or town in the maintenance of the highest level of tribal dignity and honor. In this last case, there is actually very little interest by the approval imp. It only persists its entrance way to pleasure that, together with the fraternal imp. (spiritual pleasure), constitute the “psychic materials” that allow the moral-spiritual pleasure to take place in relation to the honor of the tribe. With those ways of pleasure plus the entrance ways to the corresponding displeasure, the apparatus of the group moral “manages” itself. But the global activity of this apparatus is sustained by the functional interaction of many impulses and bipulsions. The approval and fraternal impulses only provide their basic or essential elements (nec.-D.T.-satisfaction) as a kind of “contribution” of their psychic-motivational materials, so that the apparatus of the group moral makes use of them in its complex autonomous operation.

The bipulsions, the macropulsion and the apparatuses are based on the organization of the impulses, because the most complex side can only arise out from the development and/or combination of the simplest. But such impulses are only the essential motivational and psychic components out of which those are made up of. The superior tendencies may only be explained from the level of their global performance and complying with their exclusive laws.

This situation, through which the superior level has its own objective laws, incomprehensible from the inferior level, is also present in the relationship between the psychological and sociological levels. The social organism (complex tribe or societies) is not any other thing than the organized group of the “psychological” individuals composing it. But the organization, combination, regulation and other functional relationships of the activity of the group of individual psyches,  make a new phenomenon come up,  that finds its own specific rules, which govern the movement of the behaviors of individuals and groups. The new sociological and historical laws can not be explained from psychology and its laws, but only focusing on the social level as a whole. The economic interests of the social classes for example, are no doubts sustained by the psychological laws. Money, as an object of the economic interest, is an universal mean for the absolute or essential interests of many impulses, bipulsions and apparatuses and of the macropulsion. The whole psyche may be sorted out in a functional way around it. However, the psychological laws or mechanisms give us no explanation for example, on the reason of the existence of social classes or of the opposition of their interests. This may only be understood by focusing the society on its entirety, as well as the history of its development and observing the eventual objective situation of each group of subjects in relation to the production process and social distribution.

Guideline role of the apparatuses

We find the integrative and organizer role of the apparatuses in relation to the impulses and bipulsions that form them for example, in the performance of the apparatus of the personal moral which puts in order, distributes and coordinates the activity of the  group of bipulsions with moral motivations dealing with concrete facts. The concrete acts of each bipulsion are “watched” by the apparatus, which, based on its absolute purposes (affirmation of virtues and denial of personal faults) regulates the activity of bipulsions, to obtain the best average in the field of the global virtuousness-defectiveness of the subject.

Among the mechanisms of the performance of the apparatuses, the ideals are the most important ones because of  their organizing role for the remaining minor tendencies. Once the ideals have been set, the general guidelines of behavior are laid out. Thus, many impulses and bipulsions unfold their activity according to what it should be made in each case, to favor the achievement of ideals.

The mechanism by means of which ideals are fixed in some point of the future, would be based among other elements, on the characteristic of the joy imp. to consolidate the desire in a specific object or goal. The desire for an object or goal does not lighten easily when it has certain strength, but it remains with its aim pointing indefinitely towards the object of its satisfaction. And since ideals are desired facts or conditions, they would be fixed thanks to it.

Although a part of the activity of the impulses and bipulsions are daily overturned to the immediate requirements or unimportant facts, the other part deals with the concrete acts and facts that have to do with the continuous contribution for the improvement of the virtual values of the apparatuses. When it has to do with the achievement of ideals, this part of the activity of the impulses and bipulsions surrounds the lines spread towards future, being in charge of the partial steps guided to the achievement of the ideal.

“Marking the time” to bipulsions and impulses by the apparatuses and their requirements, is equivalent to what happens with the functional demands of the physiologic apparatuses regarding their organs. The activity of each organ is subordinated to the functional requirements of the apparatus as a whole. In the same way, the most complex level in the motivational organization of the psyche: the apparatuses set the order, the sequence and distribution of the activity of the impulses and bipulsions from where they are formed. Among those apparatuses, that of the general integration is the one that has more influence in the regulation of behavior; it is equal to the nervous system in relation to the rest of the organism. The other apparatuses arrange their activity based on the general interest in happiness and in the denial of unhappiness. Each one is in charge of one segment but the general coordinator and who is interested in the group of aspects, is the apparatus of the general integration.

We have said that a part of the activity of the impulses and bipulsions is being subordinated to the performance of the apparatuses. An unmistakable example above discussed, is the case of the social responsibility bip. When one is devoted to the achievement of some social ideal, the refusal to accomplish a partial act, useful for that purpose, is followed by the guilt feeling for not complying with duty. A good part of the activity of the social responsibility bip. (as well as of its derivations) is in charge of the fulfillment or not with the partial steps claimed by the social ideals. In such cases, duty consists on complying with the partial step aimed at the social ideal. This is repeated over and over again during the long work guided towards its materialization.

In a word,  ideals, as regulators of great part of behavior, are therefore the “causes”; that is to say, they end up being synonymous of causes because of the real fact of being the authentic motivational sources of each concrete fact or act. The interest in attaining the ideal is the one moving and commanding the indefinite series of concrete actions aimed at its achievement.

By the way, the purpose does not “move” the action like a magic force of teleological  attraction, but the interest and the current and living desire of what is imagined as possible and enjoyed in advance by the fantasy, is what pushes “from here to there” towards its materialization.

The role of the apparatuses when regulating  the performance of the diverse tendencies, not only has to do with the relation of impulses and bipulsions that regularly form part of the structure and functionality of each apparatus, but the fixed ideals also organize and regulate the form in that other more “peripheral”  impulses and bipulsions will work. This way, if we go back to the student's example, we will see that when he tries to understand what he is studying, his intellectual bip. acts (apart from the derived bipulsions: intelligence, knowledge and rational that are almost ever tied). However, the fact that his intellectual bip. is acting there, is something subordinated and controlled by the apparatuses of the personal moral and of the personal welfare that in the hypothesis had the professional degree as an ideal “in mind”. The apparatuses here, draw and hand out great part of the tasks to the intellectual bip., in such way that what it is the purpose in itself in each case (to achieve the intellectual pleasure and to deny the intellectual displeasure) is at the same time, a mean for the ideal.

The use of an impulse, bipulsion or even apparatus by another purpose, is something generalized in the psyche. For example, if a subject is not given food until he understands something, the nutritious imp. will force the intellectual bip. to act. Here, the act of understanding is the purpose of the intellectual bip., but simultaneously the mean for the nutritious imp. There are lots of acts that are purposes in relation to a reason and the mean regarding another one. But the purposes of the apparatuses, when gathering large groups of reasons, acquire a superior burden and become the interests or dominant purposes in motivation, reason why they end up subordinating and distributing the activity to a smaller group of tendencies, making the purposes of these ones be the means for those.  

The common ideals and their regulator role
of the psychic operation

The individual ideals as well as the social ones, have in natural or normal state, a similar psychic importance for the subject. But since the fundamental hopes of each member of the group match with those of his partners, a grand total of the partial motivations takes place, arising out a powerful common interest that starts marking the general boundaries of the behavior of the individuals in the group The common interests and especially the goals and ideals shared by the whole group, on being inflicted by their great burden, are the organizers of the most general field for the unfolding of many psychological functions. In that field, the bipulsions system has its most sustained performance. On the other hand, the lines spread by the common objectives frame the individual ideals. These ones do not work disconnected from the social ideals, but they enroll behind them, organizing their hopes in relation to the group purposes. When the most vital material interests are parallel, the apparatus of the personal welfare adds its motivational forces to the spiritual interest of the apparatus in the group welfare. Everything materially favorable for the group, will also be favorable for the personal welfare. Then, the personal virtues of the apparatus of the personal moral arise out naturally from the social activities and relationships uphold by the common interests. The personal virtues such as social responsibility, efficiency, creativity, courage, abnegation, etc., are more developed and shown up during the works guided to the achievement of common ideals. Such virtues arise out from the responsible, efficient, creative, brave, abnegated acts, occurred during the group activities guided by those ideals. The group is not able to estimate or to appreciate the personal virtues of its members sufficiently, if they are not necessary or important for the achievement of the targets of the group. Instead, when the individual virtues and what the group needs from its members are the most valuable things, the maximum esteem appears towards the individuals whose qualities allowed, for example, the success in the most valuable ideals.

The natural functional subordination of the psychological tendencies to the helm of the group interests and the goals, is the result of the natural selection of social organisms. The surviving tribes were those whose members had organized the system of psychological functions in this way.  

Labor: center of motivational convergence

In the primitive, almost the whole structure of motivation is organized to meet, in short, the act of concrete work. Firstly, we find the interest of several needed and mobilized impulses whose satisfaction should be the guided labor to achieve the objects of satisfaction. Then, the personal performance bip. together with many others ones aligned under its absolute values, obtain the achievement of their positive values in the good labor performance. On one hand, the moral fight bip. highly encourages the fact of having energy and of the creative forces during work, because that leads to win or to be better in terms of the individual or group performance. The macropulsion, in its interest in the affirmation of pleasant global facts (example: night parties with plenty food and reasons of happiness for all the members of the tribe), pushes to work enthusiastically and efficiently to create the material conditions that allow it. On the other hand, the apparatus of the general integration, as an organized group of the other apparatuses, pushes towards the concrete work with all its motivational energy, as an essential mean for the achievement of the diverse ideals. In other words, the necessary psychological functions were organized in such way that the substantial aspect of the motivational structure of the members of the tribe ended up in the concrete work in the facts as an elementary way towards survival.

The spiritual, moral development and all the highest functions of the human psyche, as the most magnificent social ideals for example, only exist because the tribes that had all that in a major level and organized in the most perfect way,  had a better general operation, what allowed them a better labor performance and in summary, they ate on a regular basis different from other tribes that were left behind in the objective fight for the restricted food. In a word, all that was useful for the primary social organism to feed up themselves and with that to survive and to reproduce themselves. The various necessary psychological functions, typical of the species, exist as they have been a support for the major efficiency in the joint work and the consequent survival of the tribe.  

unity and overlapping of tendencies

The distinction and separation of the different impulses, bipulsions, etc. along the discussion, can not obviously imply that they are isolated functions or that they act independently one from the other. That separation of the absolute reasons is just the analysis of the elements composing the only synthetic and integral movement of the psyche. Everything is intermingled with reality so dynamically, that it is impossible to follow closely each integral element of that disorderly psychic movement.

If for example we make the distinction between what would be the purpose of the intelligence bip., when trying to get the moral-intellectual pleasure that produces carrying out a concrete intelligent act and the purpose of the apparatus of the personal moral that looks for being intelligent as partial virtue, we are only able to make the distinction abstractly. All that, is part of the sole motivation where the diverse reasons are merged, those coming together, pushing the same behavior. Not even the own subject will have “time” to distinguish to what extent he is looking for the pleasure that he feels for having carried out just an act standing out like an intelligent one, and in which level the interest in being considered holder of intelligence as virtue, influences. Both motivations go together. The concrete and virtual sides of interest are parallel and are superimposed in the same practical behavior. A similar situation shows up in relation to the anatomical and physiologic components of the organism. Here we are able neither to define until what organ or cell exactly, the structure or the operation of a certain apparatus or system is extended and in what point the functional field of another one starts. However, the organism, unacquainted to these problems, works with all its harmony “entangling” the structure and the activity of the diverse organs, apparatuses and systems.

The analysis, classification or separation of the different absolute tendencies of intention, may only be made by “starting up” and forcibly isolating each partial element of motivation. But in fact, the whole functional climbing of the psyche, as product of the activity of the other complicated climbing that is the nervous system, shapes the only psychological conglomerate in movement. That global group of elements is not more than the maximum synthesis of the psyche, it is the subject himself, the psychic life, the motivational structure of subjectivity. All this is the synthesis coexisting with the assortment of absolute tendencies and the total of their functional relations that shape the analysis of the same thing. The subject is the synthetic compound made up of the group of his analytic components. He is the everything in movement of his pieces equally in motion.

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© Author: Alberto E. Fresina
Title: "The Laws of Psyche"
Title of the original Spanish Version:
"Las Leyes del Psiquismo"
Fundar Editorial
Printed in Mendoza, Argentina
I.S.B.N. 987-97020-9-3
Mendoza, 14th July, 1999
Copyright registered at the National Copyright Bureau in 1988, and at the Argentine Book Camera in 1999, year of its publication.
Translated by Ana El kassir with the collaboration of Marcela Berenguer
Characteristic of the original copy in Spanish: Number of pages: 426; measures: 5.9 x 8.27 x 1 inch; weight: 1.2lb.

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