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GENERAL THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
THE LAWS OF PSYCHE
Alberto E. Fresina
CHAPTER 9 -(pages 145 to 197 of the book of 410)
THE SYSTEM OF BIPULSIONS
We will start now the discussion about the “drift” of bipulsions. All that will be seen corresponds to the field of absolute values, in the frame of psychic functions of necessary development.
We have analyzed the moral bipulsion, but in fact it was something general; we only referred to what is good and bad of behaviors. But there are several ways of manifesting good and bad behaviors that motivate approval and disapproval respectively. In such way, the moral bipulsion that we have already analyzed and that we will call now: global moral bipulsion is divided, firstly, into the following bipulsions:
• Skillful bip.
• Originality bip. (it
. refers to what is out
of the ordinary
. or usual)
originality, creativeness, “novelty”
• Courage bip.
act of courage, daring, “bravery”
• Humility bip.
. re-assertion bip.
male expressions or attitudes in woman or female in man
virility or manliness demonstrations in man and femininity demonstrations in woman
• Personal beauty bip.
to look like ugly, bad aspect
to look like beautiful, pleasant to perception, good aspect
• Strictly moral bip.
to do bad
to do good
The seven ones entail the common essence of what is good and bad globally. For that reason, what we had discussed was the moral global bip. that is the general aspect in those particular ways. The moral global bip. is like saying “reptiles”, that is to say the general essence of lizards, snakes, iguanas, etc. Such particular bipulsions share the mechanism by means of which one tends to the pleasure of approval and to avoid the disapproval of displeasure. They are seven genders of good and bad or approvable and non- approvable facts. The moral global bip. is the common essence of those bipulsions. All of them share the top of the approval imp. and the conservation one, avoiding the displeasure of disapproval and self-disapproval. Since moral pleasure and displeasure are produced by approval-self-approval and disapproval-self-disapproval respectively, all these bipulsions lead to moral pleasure or displeasure in general.
Ethical bip, on the other hand, is also divided into three specific bipulsions. Therefore, what we have already discussed is called the global ethical bip.:
• Ethical bip.- entertaining situation
other people’s bad act
gibes, sarcasm or signs of aesthetic displeasure
other people’s good act
admiration gesture, congratulation, signs of aesthetic pleasure
• Ethical bip.-situation
other people’s bad act
affective rejection, reproach, signs of displeasure, anger expressions
other people’s good act
signs of gratitude and conformity, recognition
• Ethical bip. -situation
of danger (danger in the sense of great importance or gravitation, especially in social terms)
other people’s bad act
other people’s bad act
honors, distinctions, praises
Those three bipulsions, as peculiar manifestations of the global ethical bip., do not arise from a clear boundary that separates them, but they rather respond to the different types of situations or “psychic climates” in which good or bad behavior in general, may take place. For that reason, those are the three ways of approval-disapproval or ethical answer that basically take place.
Based on the elements we are dealing with, the bipulsion of the social responsibility appears in front of us now. Its absolute values are: fulfillment of obligations – non-fulfillment of obligations. This new bipulsion is the result of the combination of the properly moral and spiritual bipulsions. Fulfillment of duty, as positive value, has a double essence: moral and spiritual. It is simultaneously a moral good and something good for the O.M.F.I. Duty is a kind of new compound, made up by the properly moral goodness and what is beneficial for the tribe (or O.M.F.I.). When somebody feels inside him the obligation to achieve the fulfillment of duty, this is the synthesis of the two components forming it. It means feeling encouraged to do good, and to carry out what is good for the group. For that reason, the feeling of honor to fulfill obligations is a psychic reaction of combined moral and spiritual pleasure. Approval and/or self-approval are moral; and pleasure of the fraternal imp. as it involves a favorable fact to the O.M.F.I., is spiritual. On the other hand, as displeasure does not fulfill obligations, is also the synthesis of moral-spiritual displeasure: social disapproval and/or self-disapproval and spiritual pain for something that is negative for O.M.F.I. These last elements form the authentic feeling of guilt, as feeling responsible for something morally bad and at the same time harmful or negative for the O.M.F.I.
It is necessary to clarify that this is not the “false duty”, as synonym of simply doing good. The duty we are talking about, is the feeling of social responsibility; it is the “duty’s call”. It is about what the own subjectivity conceives as something that, apart from being morally good to be performed means a beneficial or positive fact for the group and its interests.
Before loosing contacts with impulses, we will see which is their connection with the absolute values of bipulsions. When we were discussing about impulses, we could see the difference that exist between the object of satisfaction and the mean-goals or purpose-goals set up by these ones. The object of satisfaction is not more than the essential entranceway to pleasure that each impulse has. For example, in the nutritious imp., the object of satisfaction is the act of eating. The mean-goals are those objects or facts that the D.T. set up as a previous step to the achievement of satisfaction. And the purpose-goals are the facts looked for as concrete forms of the object of satisfaction, and that can differ a lot, example: to eat one food or another.
We had stated that those goals were the flexible aspect of motivation, that is to say, although the object of satisfaction that is looked for is always the same, goals could vary endlessly. However, absolute values of bipulsions are absolute goals of impulses forming them. In other words, from the universe of mean-goals and purpose-goals, almost all of them are acquired and changeable; but only a few are necessary and steady. Among those necessary goals of impulses, we find the absolute values of bipulsions. For example, approval imp. entails the act of social approval and self-approval, as object of satisfaction. But the necessary goal, that is almost united to the object of satisfaction, is the good behavior. On the other hand, the conservation imp. entails the avoidance of pain as object of satisfaction. But, to avoid the pain of disapproval and self-disapproval by the own bad behavior is a necessary and usual goal of the impulse. Then, as the good act is divided into skillful, brave, original act, etc., such values are therefore, absolute or necessary goals of the approval imp. At the same time, the avoidance of acts of stupidity, cowardice, ridiculousness, are absolute or constant goals of the conservation imp. To sum up, what we have to clear up is that the absolute values of bipulsions are absolute, necessary and usual goals (mainly purpose-goals) of the impulses that form them. Thus, for example, the fulfillment of obligations is a necessary and structural goal shared by the fraternal and approval impulses.
These necessary goals of impulses (absolute values), as they are constant and regular give place to the invariable and essential structure of bipulsions. That is the reason why we are able to give up the level of impulses and to deal with the autonomy of the level of bipulsions and their own specific rules. Therefore, we will employ some concepts adapted to the level. The new concepts will be: general absolute value and specific absolute value of each bipulsion.
In the case of the global moral bipulsion, its general absolute values are what is good and what is bad; while its specific absolute values are: skilled-clumsy, good-bad, brave-coward, etc.
The concepts: general and specific are not fixed, but they are rather “fitted” according to the focused bipulsion. This way, if we focus on courage bip., its general absolute values are brave and coward acts. Instead, if we consider them from the point of view of moral global bip., the brave and coward acts will be only specific absolute values, since general values are at this stage, what is good and what is bad. But when going down the “step” and centering our attention in the courage bip., those absolute values: courage-cowardice, become the general values of the courage bip.
Coming back to the social responsibility bip., the fulfillment of obligations and the non-fulfillment of them are their general absolute values. But if consider those values taking into account the moral or spiritual bipulsions, from which that one is formed, we will see that obligations and the non-fulfillment of them are specific absolute values for these bipulsions. The moral bip. itself entails what is good and what is bad as general absolute values; and the spiritual one, what is positive and negative for the O.M.F.I. Fulfillment of duty and non-fulfillment of it are specific absolute values of both bipulsions; they are respectively, specific forms of what is good and what is bad, and specific forms of what is positive and negative for the O.M.F.I.
Taking into account the social responsibility bip. now, we find that duty and its non-fulfillment are its general absolute values. But from this bipulsion, other specific bipulsions arise which are necessary and constant forms of fulfilling obligations, that is, they are specific absolute values of the social responsibility bip.:
• Abnegation bip.
laziness attitude, idleness, lack of interest in common welfare, to overburden others with work, lack of abnegation
willingness to work, abnegated effort, carefulness, spirit of sacrifice, act of devotion and service
• Justice bip.
unfair action, to violate other people’s rights, lack of equity
to proceed with justice, equity, to reaffirm other people’s rights
• Loyalty bip.
disloyal behavior or attitude
• Information bip.
to hide or to distort important social information, not to warn, deliberated omission
to inform or to communicate what has social importance, to warn, to confess
one’s word bip.
non-fulfillment of what has been promised or fixed engagements, not to keep one’s word
Fulfillment of promises or fixed engagements
There are no doubts on the similarity and connection among those bipulsions. Many times they gather in the same situation. However, the five pairs of absolute values have their exclusive functions. There are many regular situations of the normal social relationship in which they appear alone or isolated in their particularity.
Let’s remember that such values are different ways of fulfilling obligations or of non-fulfilling them. All of them lead to a moral-spiritual pleasure or displeasure in the same way.
Based on the difficulties appeared in the field we are now, we will have to stop and glance at the compasses and the maps we bring. The principles we have to bear in mind in order to avoid an untrue step and to fall into a chaos, are the following ones:
1 - The general law of psyche. No bipulsion may exist, if it does not move between two opponent facts producing the corresponding pleasure-displeasure. Bipulsions work on the “basis” of pleasure and displeasure. This is the most general essence of intention and of all motivation.
2 - The pair of absolute and universal values, common in any culture, must be clear. Such values have to be certain notions of what they refer to. They also have to contain a clear gender of behaviors or facts since values are not only subjective or inner phenomena, but they are at the same time, external and objective facts. They are fundamentally the behaviors and concrete attitudes of the members of the tribe.
3 – There can not be any bipulsion which has not fulfilled a clear function for the survival of the tribe. We can be completely sure about that, because the natural selection of tribes was in charge of eliminating the social organisms in which the absolute motivation of their members was not fully guided towards what is useful for the survival of the group.
To sum up, and without putting aside the stated principles, we find that other derived bipulsions keep on appearing, with their respective absolute values, until concluding in the following total system of bipulsions:
1- Global moral
original, creative act or fact
brave act, daring
arrogant attitude, pedantry, haughtiness, proud, immodesty, pride, presumptuousness
humble attitude, simplicity, modesty
6- Sexual re-assertion
male actions or attitudes in woman or female in man
virility or masculinity demonstrations in man and femininity in woman
7- Personal beauty
to look ugly, unpleasant to perception, lack of attractiveness, lack of “beauty”, bad aspect
to look beautiful, pleasant for senses, beauty in personal appearance, good aspect
8- Properly moral
to do bad
to do good
negative fact for the O.M.F.I.
positive fact for the O.M.F.I.
not to understand, not to know, not to explain to oneself, confusion, doubts, misguidance, loss of intellectual control
understanding, comprehension, explanation, enlightenment, intellectual control, knowledge
to perceive something ugly, reluctant, unpleasant, hateful
perception of what is beautiful, pleasant
failure, frustration, mistake, disappointment, announcement of something bad (displeasure, bitterness)
success, achievement, attainment, announcement of something good (happiness, joy)
13- Global ethics
other’s bad act
other’s good act
other’s bad act or bad fact
gibe, esthetical displeasure signs
other’s good act or fact
admiration, esthetical pleasure signs
15- Ethics - seriousness
other’s bad act
affective rejection, reproach, criticism, displeasure signs
other’s good act
recognition, conformity signs
16- Ethics - danger
other’s bad behavior
harsh condemnation, repudiation
other’s good behavior
honors, praise, ennoblement
stupid act, lack of imagination, lack of perspicacity, ingenuity, foolishness
clever, witty, intelligent act
to ignore what one should know, not to know or not to know to do specific things that one should know
to know or to know how to do what is socially expectable or desirable, to learn something concrete
reception of an uncomfortable, bad- quality or graceless joke
reception of a funny joke or fact
to lack funniness in what one says, to carry out a joke worthy of group seriousness
to tell a funny joke, amused for receivers
personal creation, work or job carried out badly, lack of beauty and success, bad quality, untidiness in the execution, lack of harmony
well- performed work, beauty in the finished job, success in performance, harmony in shapes
badness, cruelty act
selfish, mean act, , avarice, to deny oneself to share, lack of renunciation
generous, altruistic act, , willingness to share, renunciation, unselfishness
fulfillment of duty
non-fulfillment of duty
laziness, idleness, lack of will to work, carelessness, lack of interest in common welfare, to overburden others with job, lack of abnegation
desire to work , spirit of sacrifice, interest in common welfare, service act, abnegation
injustice act, to violate other’s rights, lack of equity, to be unfair
fair action, to proceed with justice, equity, impartiality, to reassert other’s rights
disloyal behavior, unfaithfulness
signs of loyalty, faithfulness
not to inform what has social importance, not to warn, not to notify, to hide, to distort, to omit
to inform what has social importance , to advise, to bring to light, to confess
29- Keeping one’s word
not to fulfill with the engagement, to turn the promise into falseness, not to keep one’s word
to fulfill with the promise, to confirm the truth of engaged word
abuse, lack of respect, non-consideration
Respectful, considered behavior or attitude
31- Telling the truth
to lie, deliberated deceit, not to tell the truth, hypocrisy, lack of authenticity, falsehood
to tell the truth, to be honest, sincere, truthful, “to get along” with truth
32- Tribal devotion
to offend, to attack or to insult what is conceived as sacred or supreme
to honor, to venerate, to worship the reputation of the supreme, to offer tributes to what is holy (tribe, ancestors, heroes, tribal symbols)
33- Group morals
bad or non-merit act of the group one belongs to, humiliating or dishonorable fact for the group
good act of the group, pride for something worth of the group or of a member the representative
other’s specific ignorance, lack of control or other’s non-comprehension of what one intends to teach
to teach, other’s learning
untrue knowledge, misconception, incoherence, not to be right, contradiction, foolishness, irrationality, absurdity, lack of realism and logics in thought and/or action
true knowledge, logical certainty, lucidity in thought, coherence, to be right, sensibleness, realistic reasoning, critical judgment, common sense, rationality
37- Personal performance (in any social activity, being labor highlighted as social main activity)
inefficient, non-productive performance, uselessness, poor performance
efficient, productive performance, good performance
38- Moral fight
to lose, defeat, to be defeated, to be surpassed,
to be “worse”
to win, triumph, victory, to defeat, to be “better”
The couple of general absolute values of each bipulsion always refers to concrete facts. Virtual qualities have not been considered yet, they will be discussed later (chapter 12). We are currently interested in for example, the concrete skillful act and not “skillfulness” as a virtual condition or stable and continuous quality of a subject.
1. Specific bipulsions
From now on, we will analyze the structure, natural function and other features of bipulsions, taking into account the order they were presented. Although its discussion will be the briefest and most synthetic possible, it may result “long” the same. But it is bipulsions’ “blame”, as those essential and absolute tendencies of human motivational structure human are plentiful.
to observe an outline that synthesizes what we will do next. This is one of the three cases of the graphics that are recommended to print (in horizontal)]
1- Global moral bipulsion
This constitutes the mechanism by means of which one seeks to affirm what is good or approvable and to deny what is bad or non-approvable. Most bipulsions fall within the movement of this simple essential mechanism; that is, the positive and negative values of the group of bipulsions derived from global moral, in spite of their features, keep on being forms of what is good and bad in general.
The global moral bip. has a very little performance field apart from their derived specific bipulsions. It exists fundamentally as what is general in them. For that reason, what is good-bad of behaviors may be manifested in the values: intelligent-stupid, brave-coward, fair-unfair, etc., as facts that are good or bad in general.
As well as all bipulsions and impulses entail the essence of the general law as basic mechanism (to assert pleasure and to deny displeasure), in the same way but in an smaller level of generality, those specific bipulsions share the mechanism to seek what is good and to deny what is bad of the own behavior. In all the cases, what is good leads to moral pleasure (social approval and/or self-approval) and what is bad, to moral displeasure (social disapproval and/or self-disapproval). This basic mechanism, shared by all the bipulsions with moral motivations, makes the global moral bip. be like a “general sub-law” for all of them. None escapes from the common pattern to affirm what is good or approvable and to deny what is bad or non-approvable.
2- Skillfulness bip.
Skillfulness-clumsiness appear in the practical or mental behavior. The “mental portion” is the one forming part of other bipulsions related to the intellectual function.
A skillful act produces aesthetic pleasure in the observer, which leads to approval. A clumsy behavior is a negative value that, paradoxically, produces pleasure in the observer. It is a sudden pleasure leading to laugh or jeer as a way of disapproval. This situation takes place in this way, when the outcome of the behavior does not affect the group interests; that is, the social concrete benefit or damage that behavior has like an outcome determines, in the end, the approval or disapproval towards a person. For that reason, if a skillful behavior causes as a result a damage to the group, it will be condemned “with skillfulness and in spite of it”; whereas a clumsy behavior harming the group does not make fun but it rather turns into a moral evil, receiving the observers' rejection or condemnation. Only when the social outcome of the skillful or clumsy behavior is neuter, the skillful or clumsy act appears in its “pure” way, being answered according to its aesthetic or “humorous” quality respectively.
The clumsiness act is a “material absurdity”. Absurdity is what it does not respond to the demands of incidental reality which agree inter-subjectively implicitly or explicitly, it is something coming out or contrasting with what is suitable to that reality. Clumsiness arises when the purpose has been settled, behavior is not adjusted to what reality demands for the achievement of the goal, but it is rather deviated from that direction. The sudden pleasure that generates laugh in the observer appears essentially in a jeer way, which produces displeasure in the author of the clumsiness.
The function of such mechanism is to reinforce the prize and punishment system, extending it to all type of acts and in any situation. Originally, approval-disapproval took place in situations where outcomes of behaviors were serious or weighty facts in their social meaning. But if approval-disapproval in a tribe, still continue in any entertaining situation, they will be obliged to avoid clumsiness in every moment. The consequence of this means a larger development of skillfulness to carry out any task, reason why that tribe will have more skillful members in general. Although clumsy act does not hurt anybody, and only occurs during an entertainment situation, shame, as a form of moral displeasure in the author, is useful to strengthen the interest in doing things well. The same thing regarding the approval of the skillful act. Although its performance does not favor anybody, except aesthetically, its approval favors the repetition of that type of behaviors, which will always end up in the benefit for the tribe.
3- Originality bip.
One mechanism similar to the former one is present here. Jeer is ridiculous and approval, creative or original.
The function of this bipulsion (and of the corresponding ethical answer) is focused on what is formal of behaviors, in the way of doing things, in usages and customs of the tribe. As those customs are consolidated mainly according to the efficiency or usefulness that they have, when somebody does not act like that, it is very likely to be dealing with something less effective than what culture has already submitted for approval and has turned it into a custom. For that reason, ridiculousness, as an unusual form to work, to think, or to use the elements, etc., also produces a sudden pleasure in the observer, followed by laugh. This embarrasses the person who is jeered, who will try to follow the uses and ways of behavior, which are the useful ones and tested by culture.*
* There would be another sense of the concept: ridiculous, and it refers to what we understand for “show off” or “to make a fool.” Here diverse negative values usually converge (clumsiness, stupidity, ignorance) in a same special situation. In this case the term is mostly bound to the literal sense (able to make laugh), and it has a wider meaning, as it is an shameful, absurd or mocking situation in general. But when talking about ridiculousness as negative value of the originality bip. , it is about those usages or ways to act extravagantly and unusually out of the common, contrasting with what is habitual or with what is considered appropriate or reasonable.
The original, new or creative fact is the one that, in spite of being different from what is commonly used, is conceived in general with the evident proof of its advantage or convenience. Such piece of news pleases the observer, who approves the fact. The piece of news arisen is then generalized, becoming a modality or habit of the tribe.
A special situation rises in the case of the originality bip. This means that neuter behavior (neither ridiculous nor original) sometimes is not like that. When the situation calls for originality, the person who does not act in such way “lacks creativity”, “is not very original”, “cheater”, etc. At this stage, to do what is already known, is rejected. Instead, doing what is already known in other situations or aspects of social life is the correct thing or what is good. Consequently, two pairs of values are superimposed:
correct, normal or
original or creative
Doing the same than others is right when it is about customs, habits, rules, usages, rituals. But when situation calls for originality (art, jokes or social games), it is non-approvable to do what is already known. Nevertheless, the two ends are sometimes joined. In such cases, when behavior already “risked” itself and is out of the common thing, it only has to be original or ridiculous.
Ridiculousness, clumsiness, etc., needed to be punished in certain way, as they were objectively harmful for the survival of the tribe. That is the concrete origin of absurdity as phenomenon, arisen in the social relationship. It is a pleasure of general guidance rising suddenly in the presence of a fact that contrasts with what is habitual or with what is considered logical and realistic. The correction of such useless facts is what guides this pleasure, together with the displeasure of the responsible one for clumsiness or ridiculousness.
Absurdity, born in that way, was then separated from the concrete clumsy behavior or ridiculous fact. Humor was necessary and it was present with the development of the language and the capacity of mental representation. Thus for example, if somebody could not witness a great clumsiness or ridiculousness, but he is said in detail what has happened the subject will laugh the same, just as if he had seen it. Then, when the development of the intellectual capacity and the abstraction continues, imagination increases. This makes the surprising mental representation of any absurd fact unchains the mechanism. Thus, although the imagined fact is not a clumsy, ridiculous or stupid behavior, etc., but any thing differing from what is reasonable or expectable will take place in a sudden pleasure and laugh.
The autonomy of reaction in front of absurdity is what gives rise to funniness and humorous bipulsions. The essence of jeer in front of the material absurdity continues in them, but when being overturned to the new content of symbols and images of the representation, it turns into a new psychological function that has its own usefulness for the group survival, and that will be immediately analyzed.
4- Bravery bip.
It is a positive condition for a tribe if the members are “brave” enough to face the different problems and risks. That means that what it is started is likely to become a success when favoring the decided use of the individual energy in what is useful for the group.
As natural selection took whole tribes, the surviving ones were, in some cases, those in which, what was useful for their survival was the behavior meaning a high risk for the individual, and where he could even lose his life. Thanks to the sum of that type of individual actions, the tribe as a whole obtained a considerable benefit that was something favorable for its survival. Therefore, courage bip. is the product of the natural selection laws of social organisms. In certain cases, the decision of risking one’s life until occasionally losing it, was useful for the survival of the tribe.
In entertainment situations, it also appears approval towards the brave act and jeer or contempt towards cowardice. This contributes to the obvious development of a considerable bravery capacity preventing a harmful imbalance towards fear to act, which would take to a relative immobilization of behavior and the loss of willingness to face difficulties.
5- Humility bip.
An important function of this bipulsion is to ensure that the group is in charge of evaluating the behaviors. The criteria of the group will always be more appropriate and realistic than what the subject may believe on his own merits. Humility or modesty, as an attitude in front of the own behavior, mean leaving the group to have their point of view about the value of what it is done. It is to accept uncertainty that always exists, about the true importance of the individual role. Focusing on the group, as axis of the evaluation of behaviors, the magnitude of the moral prize or punishment tend to be distributed taking into account the objective quality of individual actions. As the decisive opinion of what is good or bad of behaviors and of approval-disapproval of the group towards the author is ultimately the benefit or damage that behaviors have for the group, the group is, then, the one that better knows how good or how bad was what a subject made. If humility bip. did not exist (together with the corresponding ethical answer of rejection to immodesty and approval to modesty), and where each one decided the value of his own behavior, the system of moral prizes and punishments would become inefficient and arbitrary. It is only effective when moral retribution is proportional to the value that behaviors of its members have for the tribe.
Although that function of the humility bip., referred to the distribution of moral prizes and punishments is important, this is only one of the fields where their absolute values are manifested. Those values embrace a larger field of situations. The central elements involving humble or arrogant attitudes consist on the major or minor importance or value that the subject gives to himself in relation to the others. Pride, haughtiness, arrogance, appear when the subject takes an attitude that indicates a self-overvaluation, inseparably united to the devaluation of others, which are “not a lot” compared with him. The humble attitude is to lessen importance to oneself and the own individual role. It is an attitude in which the individual adapts himself to affections taking into account the actual fact that ultimately nobody is so important so that he can not be replaced successfully in any activity.
In order to understand the global function of the humility bip.; firstly, we should keep in mind that bipulsions are adapted objectively to what reality calls for the survival of the tribe. The positive value always implies what is useful for the group survival and the negative one is related to what is hurtful for the life of the group. For that reason, the positive value produces pleasure and the negative one causes displeasure. This makes oneself tend to assert the first one and to avoid the second one, that is to say, it makes behavior be guided towards what the reality calls for the survival of the tribe.
As we have already noted, natural selection acted taking whole tribes during the evolution of species. According to that, the most important thing for survival was the effectiveness of the group actions and the success of the tribe as a whole. From this objective approach, individuals are as renewable cells of a bigger animal, which is the social organism. The group was objectively important for the survival purposes, not the particular individuals. Therefore, what was useful for survival, was the adaptation of the tribes’ members to that situation of reality. The tribes whose members had the best adaptation of the psychic structure to this objective situation were the only ones who could survive. For that reason, the tribes which finally survived were those, whose members were encouraged to dedicate most of the valuation towards the group, forgetting of themselves relatively; while tribes whose members dedicated their valuation towards themselves, underestimating the others and disregarding the group role, should necessarily be extinguished for not being adjusted to the requirements of reality.
It is certain that if a tribe is made up of individuals and each of them is “the most important one”, and all of them together lessen importance to the performance of the group, that tribe will have less probabilities to survive in relation to other social organisms in which subjects develop an attitude expressing the acceptance of the success of the group. In such sense, humility means the enhancement of the “group spirit”, of the “ we”, and to lessen importance to “I”. Arrogance is to enhance the “I” and to minimize the “we”. The first one is what is useful for the survival of the tribe. The second one is what is harmful to that purpose. For that reason, surviving tribes were those where the attitudes of humility were valued or recognized and pride and arrogance were rejected. This way, we, as heirs of those surviving tribes, have humility bip., together with the aesthetic-ethical responses of pleasure to witness an attitude of humility and the spontaneous reaction of dislike in front of the pride or arrogance, at any field of its appearance.
6- Sexual re-assertion bip.
Although here it is present the interest of the sexual imp. in its seduction tasks, it is also about the approval-disapproval coming from the subjects of both sexes. Respective manliness and femininity are the aesthetic-ethical pleasure in the observer of any sex.
Approval and disapproval to the corresponding values have the function to favor and to re-assert the sexual inclination in the psychological field, so that it corresponds with the biological sexuality. That situation ensures the maximum primary and secondary reproduction.
On the other hand, the interest in re-asserting the own sexual identity also favors the effectiveness in the roles that culture assigns to each sex.
7- Personal beauty bip.
Its absolute values are manifested in two ways. One refers to attractiveness in relation to sex where values appear more strongly as “beauty”-“ugly.” The other way has to do with personal “good aspect”-“bad aspect”. Here, looking good or bad is based on the general criteria with certain independence in relation to specific attractiveness of each sex.
Personal care has the function to encourage sexual attraction and together with this a major reproduction. It also encourages hygiene habits which protect them against infectious agents. Another function is to re-assert the group identity, concerning to the “correct” ways to comb the hair, clothes, bijou, etc. Uses and habits are elements that distinguish the tribe, and it is not good not to follow them. That group identity contributes at the same time to strengthen the spiritual unity of the members of the tribe.
8- Strictly moral bip.
Good and bad as values always imply serious or dangerous facts. The function of the bipulsion is fundamentally directed to the regulation of the behavior rules. Such rules and the adaptation to them result in the existence of self-discipline and the correction of social behavior of individuals, which are indispensable elements for the good performance of the social organism and its survival.
Good and bad are usually forming the essence of other derived bipulsions. The general absolute values of those derivations (goodness-wickedness, loyalty-infidelity, justice-injustice, truthfulness-falsehood, respect - lacks of respect, etc.) are absolute specific values of the strictly moral bip.; they are specific forms of the strictly moral good and bad.
9- Spiritual bip. - 10- intellectual - 11- aesthetics - 12- anticipatory
We have already discussed about these bipulsions (chapter 8). The four ones, together with moral global and global ethical bipulsions form the essence of the newest and the composed ones. Excepting what is humorous, pleasure or displeasure arisen from the activity of the other bipulsions, although they have their features, keep on being moral, spiritual, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical, or the several combinations arisen from it.
Regarding the anticipatory bip., it is always present next to the activity of any impulse or bipulsion. The interest in the success to achieve the goal and to avoid failure or frustration constitutes a general support for all the purposes of behavior.
13- Ethical global bip.
The basic mechanism of this bipulsion lies in the pleasant and approval answers towards what is good , and displeasure and disapproval for what is bad in others.
As we have already seen, the ethical global bipulsion is the common essence or the generality of its particular bipulsions which entail, in the same way, the content of that basic mechanism. But these bipulsions, as particular forms of the ethical global bipulsion, adapt themselves to different types of situations in which the ethical answer takes place.
14- Ethical-entertainment bip. - 15- ethical-seriousness - 16- ethical-dangerousness
There is a field of situations that is always serious or very important in its social meaning. Another one, where matters are always serious. And lastly, we find entertainment situations.
Any entertainment situation may turn into a serious one. When this happens, the “shadow” of the ethical-seriousness bip. falls, turning into strictly moral what was a joke or a pastime. In such case, the ethical-entertainment bip. stops working, being replaced by the ethical-seriousness. In the same way, every situation may be covered by the “layer” of dangerousness. Although it is an entertaining or serious situation, if for example somebody offends what is conceived as holly, such behavior will automatically rouse the ethical-graveness bip. in those people undergoing that strong uneasiness for that fact.
Each one of the three bipulsions derived from the global ethical tends to lead their activity towards a certain class of others’ good and bad behaviors and acts in general. The ethical-entertainment is fundamentally guided towards the other people's acts, such as clumsy-skillful, ridiculousness-originality, etc. The ethical-seriousness is rather guided towards what is strictly moral good and bad, what is fair-unfair, keeping – non-keeping of word, etc. And ethical-seriousness would be in charge, for example, of betrayal or heroism acts.
The ethical-entertainment bip. constitutes the only case in that the negative value (other’s people clumsy, ridiculous, stupid behavior, or defeat in game) produces displeasure in the observer on few occasions (aesthetic displeasure, etc.), but it rather causes the pleasure of what is funny mostly. Here, the positive value as well as the negative one, are pleasant for the observer of the other people's behavior; but jeer is in essence disapproved, different from admiration or recognition towards the skilful, original act, etc.
Regarding the attitude towards oneself for having acted clumsily for example, a special fact appears. As the subject is at the same time, author and observer of the clumsy behavior, he can control in his experience, the shame as author or laugh as observer and mocker.
17- Intelligence bip.
There would be two basic forms of stupid or intelligent acts: 1 - perspicacity - lack of perspicacity. 2 - wit - lack of wit.
Firstly, the fundamental element determining the quality of values, and that it works as indicative parameter, is the social average. Thus, the intelligent act takes place when somebody, using his intellect, does something that most of the group can not do easily; and the stupid act when the subject is not able to do what “everybody does.” The witty intelligent act is “to realize” when the rest of the group did not notice it. Stupidity, as synonym of lack of witness, consists on being “the only one who does not realize”. On the other hand, the ingenious act is the dynamic management of tactics, strategies or more appropriate resources for the outlined situation, it is the easiness to get rid of it, when the rest of the group can not do it easily, or they do not think of any proper idea to solve it. Stupidity, as lack of witness, is the opposite; it occurs when one is not able to solve a problem, which is simple for the rest.
Both forms of intelligence-stupidity may work in the two types of situations where intellect is used as a psychological function. One is the passive reception of facts, when one has to understand them, to assimilate them. The other one, the active attitude, where it is necessary to put it into practice in order to solve problems. It is evident that both aspects are combined and supplemented.
The part of bipulsion that is about perspicacious and lack-of-perspicacious acts is made up with the skillfulness and intellectual bipulsions. This way, the perspicacious intelligent act is simultaneously a skillful act and an understanding or comprehension of certain content. Foolishness or stupidity, as lack of perspicacious, are at the same time not to understand an act of clumsiness.
The originality bip. is frequently added in the witness - lack of witness. On many occasions, the witty intelligent act, apart from being a skillful behavior and an understanding or intellectual power of the situation is also a creative act; while lack of witness in front of a problem or situation, besides being a clumsy act and lack of understanding or comprehension (negative value of the intellectual bip.), can be a lack of creativity, imagination, etc.; or, trying to get rid of it with an unusual and useless behavior will also be ridicule.
The reactions of pleasure or displeasure of the intelligence bip., considered in their entirety, are simultaneously moral-intellectual. The understanding part, cognitive domain of the situation, comprehension or the lack of it, as elements present in intelligent or stupid behaviors, generate intellectual pleasure or displeasure; while values of the originality and/or skillfulness bip. provide the moral aspect of those psychic reactions.
When we discussed about clumsiness, we saw that it was a deviation or inadequacy of behavior in relation to what reality demands for the achievement of a purpose. The act of stupidity that keeps on being clumsiness but turned to the field of mental behavior, is also adjusted to that situation. It is frequent that the mentioned act, as a new way of material or concrete absurdity, appears when the subject does something that hurts him in vain, or when he refrains from carrying out a behavior that would favor him. The absolute purposes of the general law are always implied. We all know, at least “at heart” that ultimately one tries to affirm pleasure and to deny displeasure. For that reason, as that purpose is something absolute, universal and that is present unconditionally, every time that somebody makes something leading him to displeasure in vain or something which is distorted from what is proper to achieve pleasure, it appears as a "stupid" act. It is an inadequacy in the interpretation of what is better to do. As purpose is already stated, and the concrete situation is also set forth, what is intelligent or stupid of behavior depends on the adaptation with which the subject uses his intellect when deciding what he will do. This way, the intelligent act is to do what is most appropriate in order to achieve pleasure and to deny displeasure in that situation; and stupidity appears when one takes a decision in a wrong way leading to a useless displeasure and not to pleasure. That negative effect of behavior is the proof of having misunderstood what it was convenient to do.
The intelligence bipulsion occasionally participates inside the movement of the humility bip. The attitude of modesty or humility, as positive value of this tendency, also means to understand, "to realize" that the valuation of the individual role does not correspond to the subject himself, but to the others, to the rest of the group. On the other hand, immodest or arrogant act has a component of stupidity and wrong attitude many times, whereas the individual demonstrates not to understand that elementary situation. He looks for the pleasure of approval, but he chooses “by mistake” the wrong way, since through that way it is only achieved the "useless" displeasure of rejection.
18- Knowledge bip.
It mainly refres to the cultural knowledge, to social appraisal of certain knowledge and disapproval of its ignorance.
The act of learning, or the knowledge of something specific and appropriate to a certain situation, is a pleasant fact because it implies a skillful or intelligent manifestation, depending on the case; an understanding or knowledge in itself (intellectual pleasure); and sometimes a properly moral good action. On the other hand, to ignore something that is good to know can be simultaneously a manifestation of clumsiness or of stupidity; ignorance intellectually disgusting for the subject; and in many cases a moral evil.
Cultural knowledge also has two forms of being manifested. One refers to the “theoretical” field (learning, knowledge). The other one is the practical knowledge or to know how to carry out things (management of techniques, ways of doing things).
The function of the knowledge bip., in combination with the corresponding ethical answer, and with the teaching bip., is to ensure the integral transmission of the knowledge of the culture. If those mechanisms did not exist, a huge portion of the knowledge in the successive generations of the tribe would be lost.
19- Funniness bip. - 20- humor
The first one corresponds to the receiver and the second one to the issuer of the funny or amusing fact. Both form the “sense of humor.”
The funniness bip is similar to the aesthetic bip. The latter one makes the subject meet with what is beautiful that will cause aesthetic pleasure, while the first one encourages him to meet with funny facts that will cause humorous pleasure. The same happens when trying to avoid a negative value: what is ugly is avoided by the aesthetical bip., and uncomfortable and graceless occurrences are avoided by the funniness bip. The difference between what is beautiful and what is funny would lie, among other elements, in the fact that what is beautiful implies a quiet view of the pleasant stimulus, while what is funny is the presence of a similar stimulus but in a sudden and surprising way.
Regarding humorous bip., is the one of the intentional author of a funny fact (joke, funny story).
The presence of the communication imp., as component of the humorous bip, occurs when the joke appears as a content that one wants to transmit to the receiver or also when one wants to say “something” and it is appealed to humor as a more appropriate way of doing it. Then, the spiritual bip. may be present, when seeking an answer of happiness in the others and/or to avoid displeasing them with an inappropriate witty remark. The originality bip. also intervenes, whereas the joke commonly appears as a creative and new fact. Another component that is frequently present is the intelligence bip., that is to say, it is to be ingenious when making a joke, avoiding stupidity and wrong attitude.
The ethical answer, here, consists on celebrating the joke (approval), or keeping oneself serious, showing displeasure (disapproval). According to the situation, disapproval may also be a public jeer towards the author of the not very amusing joke.
The presence of the funniness bip., is regular or constant in the humorous bip. since the own author also celebrates the joke when he lives it in his mind while reproducing it or making it up.
When we discussed about clumsiness and ridiculousness, plus jeer as social answer, we stated that humor was a derivation of those material absurdities towards the symbolic field. Funniness and humorous bipulsions, arisen out in this way, started to fulfill the function to keep the tribe in good mood. This contributes, among other things, to the largest productivity. It is known that efficiency in tasks of any human group, is better if the group is in good mood. For that reason, if one tribe holds that element as source of happiness, the enthusiasm to carry out tasks will be favored, as well as the good social relationship, and bad situations will be better tolerated. On the other hand, humor constitutes an important meeting element. It is nice “to join” the group, for example, when jokes arise as components of the social meeting. We may add, that humor takes place naturally in the frame of social relationship. It only works fully when there are two or more people.
Other psychic components of humor exist, besides absurdity. Not only absurdity is derived from jeer but also from the degradation towards the author of the mocking attitude. Such degradation takes place through the entrance way to pleasure of the aggression imp. In the origins of jeer, it was necessary to point out the author of a negative behavior as what he did was really disgusting. Thanks to that degradation together with laugh, the victim feels some useful displeasure that leads him to avoid such behaviors. For that reason, when it is about symbolic contents in the joke, certain degradation towards the object of the laugh may also be included.
The pleasure of jeer may also be a derivation from the entrance way to the pleasure of self-approval (or of moral easiness to avoid self-disapproval), that is to say, another subject’s clumsiness implies that it was not the own one; therefore, it would arise a self-approval (and/or sudden easiness) in a “moral carom” way.
In other cases, aggression imp. would be definitely present when it is no longer a mere spontaneous answer before a clumsy or ridiculous behavior but when it is a sarcasm.
Suggestions of sudden or surprising images of the entrance ways to pleasure of any impulse are also components of humor, that is, the sudden and surprising image of the object of satisfaction.
Beyond other secondary psychic components, an important element of the joke is the own satisfaction of the conservation imp. When the eventual humorist forces the receiver to imagine a serious real situation that seems to finish in something hideous; that provokes a progressive fear, until the direction of the content surprisingly changes towards something sure, causing a sudden easiness which provokes laugh. Other times, the receiver is in charge of the final part of easiness. The humorist forces the receiver to imagine something bad. Such images scare, but they are followed by the quick awareness that that does not happen “now” in reality.
21- Artistic bip.
It basically refers to the double tendency to assert beauty in the work that was carried out and to deny its ugliness. When talking about work, it should not only be understood as a properly artistic work, but also that all human production is included. For that reason, the values of bipulsion may appear as: “well done” or “bad done” work, brightness or lack of brightness in the performance of the task, etc.
The communication imp. may be present in the artistic bip., when one intends to transmit some message in the work or when trying to be expressed through it.
The spiritual bip. may also be included, when trying to get an answer of pleasure in those who will observe the work or beautiful fact, avoiding at the same time to cause the contrary effect for something unpleasant.
Another bipulsion that may be present is the originality one, as it is about carrying out something creative or novel, avoiding the lack of originality or ridiculousness.
The skillfulness bip. also appears when adding ability manifested in harmony and tidiness in the performance, as well as in easiness and “simplicity” with which a difficult task, in general, is carried out. This contributes to “virtuosity” or “mastership” in the performance of the task, as a superlative aspect of the positive value of the artistic bip.
Admiration and the signs of aesthetic pleasure constitute the approval way towards the author of the beauty. On the contrary, the signs of unconformity or of aesthetic rejection constitute the form of ethical disapproval towards the author. Here it is not necessary that the observer demonstrates directly his unconformity with what the author has made. Although an observer shows signs of aesthetic rejection towards a work without caring who the author is, it can be enough for the latter one to feel the moral displeasure of social disapproval. This is in this way, because disapproval towards the work is the disapproval to the behavior that was carried out.
Other bipulsions that are present inside the artistic one are: aesthetics, personal beauty, intelligence, knowledge, and expression of truth. Aesthetics is present because the author enjoys the beauty of his own work. Then, when the work includes the corporal presence (dances, corporal abilities, theatrical representations), the brightness of personal beauty can also be sought. On the other hand, intelligence or stupidity may also appear in the performance of the work. At the same time, the knowledge bip. is present when the beauty or perfection in the performance of the work or task means “to know how to do”. Finally, it is frequent the desire to show the truth through the work. Here truth-falsehood appear respectively like what is beautiful and what is ugly. Truth is naturally something beautiful, and for that reason it produces aesthetic pleasure (besides producing intellectual or ethical pleasure in other situations); while what is false, when it pretends to be true, is aesthetically unpleasant.
The artistic bip. as well as all bipulsions exist in all human beings. Any work, except those obliging to an absolute automation of behavior, entails the beauty or ugliness of its performance.
The usefulness of the artistic bip. is present in the interest of harmony and perfection of what is done as well as of “virtuosity” of the personal performance in social activities. The benefit is direct when the activity is the work and it is indirect when it deals with properly artistic activities, as meeting elements (dance, music, dramatizations, etc.). Then, as what is beautiful always coincides with what surrounds something useful for survival, the search for what is beautiful is always an approach towards what is good for life.
22- Goodness bip.
It is fundamentally spiritual in its essence. Nevertheless, it has an important moral component. Wickedness is refused or condemnable, while kindness is approved.
The function of the goodness bip. appears in the mutual help and in the search for what is good for the partners.
We have to keep in mind that bipulsions are not only determined in their features by psychic components, but also the special form of their combination, together with the context of regular situations of social life where absolute values appear, contribute to the concrete determination of each type of values. This way, goodness bip. has essentially the same psychic-motivational components than the social responsibility bip. (spiritual and strictly moral bip.). However, duty and the act of goodness, as notions that enclose genders of behaviors clearly defined, are organized or structured in such way that they are adjusted to different types of social situations. The fulfillment of duty is more overturned towards what is positive for the group as a whole, being more general, more impersonal in its orientation. Instead, the act of goodness refers to the direct benefit towards one or more individuals, but with a particularized orientation.
23- Generosity bip.
It is a derivation from the goodness bip., but adapted to a special type of situations. Nevertheless, mean or selfish and generous or altruist acts are special forms of wickedness and goodness; they are special absolute values of the goodness bip. Goodness-wickedness embrace a larger field of situations. Instead, selfishness-generosity are specific to the fact that the good thing one has is shared or offered or not.
The generosity bip. has the utility of assuring the “homeostasis” of the social organism, that is to say, the balance in the distribution of goods or products within the tribe. Reciprocity of generosity is better than a reciprocal selfishness or general meanness. From the two models of the tribe, the first one has a great advantage for the common survival.
24- Social responsibility bip.
Firstly, a consideration is necessary to know about the different meanings of the concept: responsibility. This concept means: condition, ability or capacity to respond.
Among the diverse meanings where the term is used, we find three fundamental ones:
1 - The first one has to do with being in charge or to respond before something or about the responsibility of a fact. Thus for example, one can state: “that subject is the responsible one for a certain fact” or “this factor is the most responsible one in x phenomenon”. Such meaning of the concept does not have a major importance for our context. It only refers to an objective condition in which a subject (or object) may be the responsible for something, no matter whether it is a positive or negative fact. This has little to do with the values of the social responsibility bip., which are basically about the individual's answer before needs or social demands.
2 - The second meaning refers to the level of development of the “sense of responsibility”, to the attitudes where the subject assumes his responsibility to fulfill something or not, manifesting the fact of feeling the internal obligation of responding in favor of the group. Here, the absolute values appear as “responsible”-“irresponsible”. The responsible attitude is the one implying that the internal obligation or the call of duty in the subject works, who assumes it as something that he must do, no matter whether he fulfills it or not later. And irresponsibility as negative value shows that the individual has not developed enough his capacity to respond before social demands or to what the group needs. This way, the irresponsible attitude takes place when the internal obligation to fulfill something does not appear. The subject shows that he does not feel either the call of duty, or the fear not to fulfill it; he is directly unaware to the question on what he must do; fulfillment or non-fulfillment of duty lack psychic meaning for the individual. For that reason, this situation implies the attitude of “lack of responsibility” or “irresponsibility” as negative value.
3 - The third and last sense is the one we are most interested in. It refers to the cases where that sense of responsibility is already developed and the central question is outlined between fulfillment and non-fulfillment of a duty assumed like that. Here the full performance of bipulsion is present. The former sense is about the “putting in motion” of bipulsion; it refers to the sense of duty, whether it is developed or not. But once it is developed that capacity to feel the internal obligation of responding before each situation looking for what is positive for the group, and whether to fulfill with it or not acquires a psychic meaning for the subject, duty and its non-fulfillment start ruling as absolute values and will be sources of pleasure or moral-spiritual displeasure. On the other hand, if the basic responsibility or the sense of duty are not developed, duty and its non-fulfillment as values do not work. Therefore, the values: “responsible” - “irresponsible” we have already discussed are like the first instance of bipulsion. If the subject did not develop the sense of duty or the attitude of responsibility, he is considered an “irresponsible”, without going through the second functional instance of bipulsion. But once the sense of duty has been developed and the individual is “responsible” like a positive value of the first instance, the second instance is put into motion and is about fulfillment or not of a duty already assumed like that. Here the movement of absolute values takes place: to fulfill duty – not to fulfill duty, as values moving on the basis of an already developed social responsibility. Schematically:
There is a close relationship among these elements. The dynamism of the social coexistence situations makes both aspects appear combined, being practically impossible to distinguish them. But in order to make our work easier, we will only consider the performance of the second instance of bipulsion (to fulfill duty – not to fulfill it), supposing a normal level, average of development of the sense of duty; that is to say, we will suppose that the subjects are already responsible and all of them feel regularly the inner obligation or the call of duty. Such development of the sense of the basic social responsibility is something that should exist in the tribe. The own natural conditions of life encourage the moral and spiritual development in the group of individuals. For that reason, what is normal or natural, is the presence of that basic responsibility, as the capacity of living the inner obligation regularly. Lacking that capacity (lack of responsibility) is already an alteration of the normal psychic performance. The psychopath is the subject who has not practically developed the sense of duty or the capacity of living that inner obligation; to fulfill duty or not to fulfill it, do not have a psychic meaning, they do not involve pleasure or moral-spiritual displeasure for the individual.
There are intermediate levels of the development of the basic social responsibility. This way, a subject can “lack responsibility” just because his sense of duty is not very developed, but he is not a psychopath. Anyway, in the healthy psyche, there is always a considerable development of the sense of duty. For that reason, we will consider that development as already acquired, and we will only discuss about duty and its non-fulfillment as the fundamental absolute values of the social responsibility bip. These are the values working harder in a social environment where everybody is normal or healthy in such sense, and the call of duty works permanently. In other words, we will only rescue the last of the senses of that concept, making the act of social responsibility coincide with the fulfillment of duty and the irresponsible attitude with its non-fulfillment (remembering, obviously that the person showing an “irresponsible” behavior or attitude when non-fulfilling with his duty is, nevertheless, a subject that has the social responsibility developed in absolute terms, and for that reason he feels guilt as a moral-spiritual pain).
25- Abnegation bip.
We had observed that the social responsibility bip. gives rise to several particular bipulsions that contain the fulfillment – non-fulfillment of duty as common essence. In all the cases, these derived bipulsions suppose that basic development of the social responsibility or of the sense of duty.
The abnegation one stands out between derivations or specific forms of the social responsibility bip., as the one which is more often and significantly submitted to the call of duty; it is the one pushing more directly to respond at the service of the group and its interests.
There are two forms of acts or attitudes of abnegation or lack of abnegation that are expressed in the following pair of values: 1- lack of willing to work, laziness - working, devoted, willful attitude. 2- refusing to carry out an act of service or of personal sacrifice - act of service. The first form deals with an attitude in front of the daily work that has a social utility. Abnegated behavior and lack of abnegation refer, in this case, to the way in which the individual responds before daily obligations. Here the answer to objective demands of work is almost permanent, where the subject constantly gives up other things in order to fulfill his obligation (positive value), or he does not fulfill that obligation, felt as such inside him, taking into account other reasons leading him to his direct individual welfare, but guilt appears as a moral-spiritual displeasure before what is negative for the common welfare (negative value). The second form of abnegation (service act), different from the former one, refers to the individual's answer in front of special and unforeseeable situations that require a singular initiative in relation to what it corresponds to do. The other forms of duty are usually adapted to situations that set up formally what duty consists on. Instead, the service act, as an answer of the special individual devotion, re-fills that portion of reality that corresponds to situations that are incidental and unforeseeable. Here, an emphasizing of inner duty under the form of pushing force takes place. The subject feels the inner obligation in a significantly bigger level than the external one (although the social answer towards the act of individual sacrifice or towards the attitude of refusing to fulfill with it also persists).
Apart from being a specific form of the social responsibility bip., the abnegation bip. considered as a whole, also entails the presence of other bipulsions in its essence. One is the generosity bipulsion. That is to say, the abnegated act, besides being a direct form of duty, is at the same time, an act of altruism, generosity or renouncement; while the lack of the abnegation act implies a selfish attitude. Another bipulsion that is sometimes present in the abnegation one is the courage bip. This happens in the cases that the act of service, as special personal devotion, is at the same time a manifestation of courage and the denial to carry it out supposes a coward attitude.
Let’s say on the other hand, that the call of duty in any form, is a feeling arising out as an answer to a personal approach or rather to an external suggestion, but internally accepted, of what is better for social or group welfare. In case of not being internally accepted, either due to the absence of an appropriate development of the sense of social responsibility or because the person does not agree with the criteria, the behavior externally imposed will be carried out the same and it will be, in general, about the mere activity of the conservation imp. that avoids punishment or another negative consequence of the non-fulfillment.
It is necessary to emphasize that the social benefit or damage provoked by individual behaviors or attitudes are those which ultimately set what is positive or negative of behaviors. Thus, if a subject is very abnegated and laborious but what he does is not guided to social benefit, but it rather tends deliberately to harm the interests of the group, he will deserve repudiation, no matter how careful his performance was. However, when the social product is neuter or it neither favors nor hurts others, it takes place certain spontaneous valuation towards sacrificed behaviors or towards those behaviors implying a great personal effort. This phenomenon had the utility to favor and encourage those types of attitudes in the tribe, since although they do not lead to the concrete social benefit in any particular case, approval or recognition of effort in itself and disapproval or rejection of opposing attitudes mean a stimulus heartening the development of a proper “spirit of sacrifice” in all the members of the tribe, what ends up being positive for the survival of the group.
In those cases, where there is not a concrete social destiny of behavior, effort-laziness only appear as forms of the strictly moral good and bad. That is, as spiritual content is not present, which, together with the moral one shape duty or the act of social responsibility, the only one that stays is the moral good as essence of the sacrificed behavior. But when destiny of effort is the social benefit, the spiritual motivation joins there, together with the basic moral, turning it into an abnegation act as a form of duty.
26- Justice bip.
This form of duty sometimes entails the essence of the act of altruism or generosity. This happens when certain selfish temptation, whose performance would mean an unfair action, is counteracted by the altruism of motivation that urges to act fairly. The respect bip. is also included some times. This happens when one acts fairly, with sense of justice, showing at the same time consideration and respect for other people's rights; while the act of injustice involves lack of respect and consideration towards the eventual damaged person.
The function of this bipulsion is also to ensure the “homeostasis” or the balance in all the aspects of the social relationship (distribution of goods, tasks, retributions, equality of rights, absence of privileges, etc.). The internal balance is something vital for all living organisms. Although the social organism is a sociological phenomenon, it keeps on being biological in its more general essence. For that reason, its new specific laws, although they are of a superior level taking into account the degree of the functional organization, can never be opposed to the most basic laws of the biological level. Among those essential laws, shared by all the living organisms, we find the homeostasis or self-regulation of the internal balances. At the primary social organism, this function is fulfilled by the interaction of the activity of many bipulsions among which the justice one stands out. The subject appreciates in his own fair or appropriate behavior to the eventual rules of justice, a moral good and something that is good for the group, as it favors coexistence and the best performance of the group.
Behaviors: fair or unfair, can also be present in the second phase of the global ethical bip. and its derived ones. This happens when a prize or punishment (moral or material) that a subject will be awarded are preceded by a question on what prize or punishment is the fairest, whether it was his blame or not, if he deserves recognition, etc. The expression: “to do justice” also referred to the application of punishment or the granting of certain prize, makes a clear reference of the presence of the justice bip. as motivational component and regulator of the ethical answer.
27- Loyalty bip.
Proceeding with loyalty in certain situation is the duty to respond to a common cause with consequence, it is not to deceive the expectations of a fundamentally implicit or implied commitment, it is not to move away from the behavior line that others think the subject will follow.
Fidelity is practically synonymous of loyalty. The only difference would lie in the affective aspects of the fact. Loyalty usually refers to more formal commitment of higher social importance; it is the submission towards a person, group or cause which appear as moral authority. Instead, fidelity-infidelity mainly appear in more intimate or more private engagements and without that relationship of moral authority.
Disloyalty is not always betrayal. An act of disloyalty may be for example: insubordination, negligence, desertion or simply to abandon the cause expressing disagreement. Instead betrayal, apart from disloyalty, is composed of other elements, among them we can mention deliberated deceit, as well as attack, especially towards the own group, becoming against it and trying to harm it. In other words, betrayal always implies disloyalty, but not vice versa.
The loyalty bip. is useful when comparing two imaginary tribes, where their members feel the duty to be loyal to the group and to the common cause in one of them, and in the other one, nobody knows what that is.
28- Information bip.
When somebody knows something important, especially for the group, he will feel the duty to inform it, being a non-fulfillment to hide information of social importance.
The communication imp. is added under the form of duty, with its nec. to transmit the information. For such reason, the information bip. not only seeks for pleasure and avoids moral-spiritual displeasure by fulfilling duty, but it has the concrete satisfaction of that impulse as well. That absolute motivational combination offers more safety than the transmission of all the important information.
29- Keeping one’s word bip.
Different from loyalty bip., where commitment is more stable and more implicit, in this bipulsion, it is about the fulfillment or not of express and occasional engagements. Among them we find for example: promises, pacts, treatments, agreements.
When fulfilling or not fulfilling a commitment, the word of honor is at stake. Once one has promised something, the duty to fulfill it appears. When values work with certain strength, it is very humiliating to break one’s word.
The function of the bipulsion is to allow the members of the tribe to behave in such way that the fulfillment of duty of what each one has to do, is a fact. Non-keeping one’s word is something that disorganizes plans, disrupting group tactics or strategies. For the good performance of the tribe, it is important certain security so that each one will fulfill what he promises. For that reason, the ethical rejection towards the person breaking his word is naturally harsh.
30- Respect bip.
The respectful attitude and the lack of respect are specific forms of the strictly moral good and bad. But apart from the strictly moral bip., the respect frequently entails the essence of other bipulsions. One is that of goodness; that is to say, to show respect or consideration is a good act in many cases and lack of respect, an expression of wickedness. On the other hand, humility bip. is also included in the respect one, when the respectful attitude is at the same time a manifestation of recognition and valuation towards the other person, as a proof of the subject’s conviction that he is not the most important one, but the other one is as important and valuable as him, deserving therefore all respect and consideration towards his person. At the same time, arrogance is present when lack of respect or consideration is an expression of the little value or importance that the subject gives to the other one. That attitude implies the presumption that one is superior or more important and therefore there are no reasons to respect the others “too much”.
Respect is directly useful to human relationships. It favors the effective performance of the group, as useless fights or hostilities are avoided (this is extensive to relationships among tribes). Respect is also overturned towards symbols, customs and other tribal elements that encourage the spiritual unity of the members of the tribe.
31- Expression of truth bip.
It is a specific form of the strictly moral bip., since it is good to tell the truth while lying and deceiting is a moral evil. The essence of the information bip. may also be contained; that is, when telling the truth the duty is also to provide with some information of social importance, and to lie implies at the same time, to misinform, to hide or to change facts, non fulfilling with the duty of introducing them.
The bipulsion is useful to avoid the transmission and the convincing of the false information that it is harmful for the adjustment to the demands of reality. As true information is an advantage for the survival of the tribe, an aesthetic-ethical pleasure or displeasure had to develop itself in the receiver of the information or in any observer, considering the truthfulness or falsehood of what another one expresses.
The expression of truth and information bipulsions are very similar and in many cases they merge. Positive values are in general more inseparable: to tell the truth and to inform; while sometimes, it does not happen the same with the negative ones, that is to say, in some cases one lies without hiding (“to make up” a history) or vice versa (to hide a content without saying a word).
The expression of truth and information bipulsions also have an important influence on the own practical behavior. When somebody knows that he will not be able to lie or to hide, because that would imply a sure moral condemnation and/or self-condemnation, that situation leads to avoid actually the performance of negative concrete acts.
32- Tribal devotion bip.
It is an expression of the maximum appreciation to the Tribe (the capital letter makes reference to the sense of homeland, town or “collective spirit”). Worship and holly respect towards it, is something selected by nature, in order to favor the spiritual unity of the members of the tribe as well as self-discipline and the continuous existence of a common cause.
There is an internal and external duty to pay tributes to the “collective spirit”. To honor what is supreme and its holly symbols is, at the same time, a manifestation of loyalty and of respect; moreover the own offense or mistakes towards that supreme entity are signs of disloyalty and lack of respect.
The abnegation bip. is usually present in this tendency. Devotion towards the Tribe is not only orally expressed during ceremonies, but it is also expressed in facts. It is important to work for it and to defend it under any circumstance. The criteria of what is good for the Tribe makes the call of duty appear spontaneously. That collective spirit, according to its requirements “calls” for its fulfillment. The subject feels inside him that the Tribe-homeland needs him. Therefore, he feels the moral-spiritual obligation to offer his services, as a tribute to what is worshiped and worthy of the best offerings.
The concrete pleasure of the bipulsion lies in the fact of worshipping or when paying a tribute to the Tribe, which is combined with emotion and astonishment before the symbols embodying that collective spirit, which is magnificent and holder of the maximum virtues. The view of such greatness produces a deep astonishment and admiration as aesthetic-ethical pleasure before what is good. Then, praises and signs of approval or of maxim esteem entail the mechanics of the second ethical phase. It is added to it, the fact that it is a duty to honor and worship the Tribe, like signs of respect and loyalty. The concrete displeasure of the bipulsion, we are discussing about, arises when the collective spirit is offended or when one does not fulfill with it.
The special valuation that one usually has towards a leader or towards the chief of the tribe encloses the natural over-valuation towards what he is representing. The leader's figure (or the leaders’ if there is more than one) is taken as the “personification” of that larger thing which is the true content of the supreme valuation.
Leadership as phenomenon, has the utility to favor the organized performance of the group. In spite of the willingness of the members of the tribe, if there is not a proper centralization of information and coordination of the group tasks, the performance of the social organism would be untidy and inefficient. For that reason, it is important that the person who knew how to get the appreciation of all, being recognized as the representative of the tribe and of its holly collective spirit, is respected and offered loyalty. The chief's figure (probably an old man whose personal values and wisdom give him the sufficient moral authority) is one of the symbols of the collective spirit. For that reason, the special respect to the leader is equivalent to the one existing towards anyone of the symbols and badges, which represent that genuinely venerable Tribe.
Concerning ceremonies where the collective spirit is honored, they serve as one more element of physical and spiritual meeting and they contribute to recharge moral forces, renewing the interest to work for the common cause, which is in benefit for the group.
The tribal devotion bip. is an important psychic and motivational premise of the religious phenomenon. But that tendency, for which one lives working and serving to a supreme entity, to which one offers the best of oneself and to whom one pays tributes and renders honors, does not mean that it exists an innate religiosity. That tendency shows us only that nature selected those tribes which were more protected and loved by their members.
Let’s interrupt the analysis of religiosity for a moment. Besides the tribal devotion bip., there are other important psychological elements, which are useful for it; these are: intellectual bip. (together with its derivations: knowledge and rational) and the conservation, joy and recovery impulses.
The intellectual bip. tries to give explanation to the phenomena, avoiding confusion, lack of cognitive domain, bewilderment, like states of intellectual displeasure. In the primitive thought, considering the lack of knowledge on the cause-effect relationships of many phenomena and being necessary to give some explanation, the appearance of magic-animist or religious conceptions about them became feasible or “expectable”. Under those conditions, such ideas would cover that intellectual or cognitive necessity, and that would put in order the chaos of confusion and uncertainty in some way, providing certain sensation of “control of the situation” that would allow them to behave better in front of Nature.
Regarding the conservation imp., it is also present as psychic material of religion. Fear to death finds in the supposition of immortality, the ideal solution like a reason of easiness. Then, the joy imp. adds its desire for that eternal life which not only frees one from death, but it is a source of pure pleasure as well (paradise, etc.). Such supposition is so attractive that it causes, according to the case, a continuous illusion, accompanied by the rejection to any logics or reason attempting against that belief considered as sure and certain.
The other impulse that participates as support of the religious idea is the recovery one. The idea that there are superior beings who protect and help the person, means to recuperate the sensation of protection and security offered by parents or adults during childhood. The recovery imp. also influences when it acts in the frame of the spiritual bip.; this is, when the loss of loved beings and the physical impossibility to meet with them again, lead to encourage the belief that they still live in other world and that some day one will meet with them again.
In this way, there are several psychic elements or tendencies of motivation in which the religious phenomenon is supported. But this phenomenon is not something indispensable for the healthy psychic performance. The tribal devotion bip., for example, does not need gods to work naturally for the tribe, homeland, the supreme ideals of an association or any feasible valuable entity. The intellectual, knowledge and rational bipulsions, do not require religious ideas, as they currently have a scientific conception of the world, which satisfies reason much more than the confused and arbitrary religious explanations. Regarding the conservation, joy or recovery impulses, they can work normally guided to the real world or even towards dreams and fantasies, but where it is not necessary to forget the difference between what is illusory and what is real.
The primitive ones may have had elements of religiosity. But at least in the evolutionary line that ended up in the primary social organism, it had to be something minimum and as part of the feelings of worship towards the Tribe or collective spirit as well as to the memory of missing ancestors or heroes and other tribal symbols. Such elements, as we have already stated, would fulfill the function to favor the spiritual unity and to sustain moral forces. But apart from those useful tribal feelings, it becomes evident that tribes that were too ruled by religious ideas, had necessarily to stay in the fight for survival, as it was something objectively negative to the purposes of the indispensable adjustment to reality, to the laws of nature.
For that reason, the important presence of religion in modern times is more explainable from the sociological and historical level, from its function like part of the ideological apparatus of ruling classes, reason why it has always been supported and sustained materially by them. Spreading of images and interpretations deforming reality has the effect to hinder awareness of the oppressed ones, about the true and earthly causes of their condition, thus impairing their will and capacity of reverting it.
33- Group moral bip.
Let’s consider a sport team as a model. The group moral bip. helps each member of the team to achieve a good or outstanding behavior or task for the group and to avoid all negative or bad act of his team. The good attitudes of the team cause moral pleasure in the identified subject. This is one kind of self-approval but referred to the group behavior. A concrete social approval may also take place if somebody congratulates the subject for the good performance of his team or when external flattering words are said to the group. Then, what is bad in the group produces moral displeasure in the individual, consisting on the “group self-disapproval” or on the social disapproval towards the subject for the bad performance of his team or on the external humiliation towards the group.
Global moral is present in the structure of the group moral bip. Let’s remember that the global moral bip. expands itself, embracing the group of bipulsions that entails in their essence, the mechanism to look for what is properly good and to deny what is properly bad. But in this case, it is not a simple ramification or isolated derivation of global moral bip., but, anyone of the derived bipulsions of the global moral may be included in the movement of the group moral bip. This way, one may try that the group has skilled, intelligent, brave, heroic, abnegated behaviors, etc. It is the application or transfer from that huge moral mechanism to the group’s behavior. For that reason, when saying that the group moral bip. is made up of a global moral, one should understand that it is made up of any of the bipulsions derived from it. All the forms of what is good or bad of the own group are included.
Besides the moral global bip., the spiritual one is also present in the group moral. The sport team, in the example, is the O.M.F.I. Therefore one wishes everything that is positive for it. What is favorable for the team will cause a spiritual pleasure, and what is negative or bad in general will produce a spiritual displeasure in the subject.
As well as the spiritual bip. is based on the activity of the M.F.I., the group moral supposes the activation of a new identification mechanism: the M.F.M.I. (mechanism of fraternal and moral identification). The good performance of the group not only produces spiritual pleasure as something favorable happens to the O.M.F.I., but the added moral identification makes the good performance of the group be extensive to the own identified subject as well, who works for the result of his team. For that reason, the team is the O.M.F.M.I. (object of mechanism of fraternal and moral identification). The individual identifies himself simultaneously with his group, in terms of fraternal and moral aspects. All what is good or meritorious of the O.M.F.M.I always produces a moral-spiritual pleasure. This is the group’s feeling of pride and honor.
The M.F.M.I. has a great flexibility in relation to the possible objects of the fraternal and moral identification. The mechanism can work in a parallel way to a sports club, a working group, a political association, etc. We can also see this flexibility when two or more groups are distributed at random to play a game, so that the group moral bip. starts working in the members of each group. Here the M.F.M.I. adopts that occasional group as object. Each subject tries to help his group to win or be the best, according to the nature of the activity.
Although the M.F.M.I. is subject to that diversity of possible occasionenal objects in which fraternal and moral identification may appear, it exists a stable and invariable O.M.F.M.I in primitive man: the tribe. The fraternal and moral identification with the tribe is something that remains. It is always a pride what is good or outstanding in the tribe and it is bad or humiliating what is negative of it.
It is also possible that it existed, during the time of the primary social organism, one division into several stable sub-groups, mainly determined by the relationship they had (family, lineage, genes)* as it has been observed in different contemporary tribes. In such case, the group one belongs to would also constitute a stable O.M.F.M.I.
* Refer to Morgan Lewis H. La Sociedad primitiva. Ed. Colofón (Morgan Lewis H. "The primitive Society". Ed. Colofón)
The existence of such sub-groups would be something positive for the survival of the tribe, as they would fulfill two important functions. One is referred to the marking out of relationships. That would order and make it easier the tendency to avoid reproduction among co-sanguineous (incest); this would be possible keeping in mind the importance of the genetic variation. That is to say, the social organisms that survived were those whose members tended to avoid sexual contact with direct or co-sanguineous relatives, as that was something negative to the purposes of genetic transmission to descendant. The other function of those divisions would be to encourage emulation or competition in the moral field among the groups, where subjects would be interested in honor and in the good image of the group they belong to. This situation would mean the presence of a stimulating condition for the best performance and the most efficiency in the group.
Besides the identification with diverse groups, there is a special form in which the M.F.M.I works and it consists on considering an outstanding and admired individual as an idol, with which a strong identification takes place. In that situation, the idol’s successes or feats generate a pleasure similar to the one generated by the own success. The idol is as the “representative” of the subject; he is the executor of his eagerness. This mechanism would have the function to guide the learning. As the identified boy or teenager want to be as the idol, they tend to imitate him or to copy his behavior. It is the adoption of models leading the boy or teenager to develop themselves by learning to do all the good things that idols do (what is for sure something favorable for the survival of the tribe). Such a mechanism remains in the adult, but childhood and adolescence are the stages where it works fully. The weight of this function declines in adults, as the development of the capacities and values of personality are practically concluded. However, certain identification with exemplary individuals (heroes, etc.) that want to be imitated, still remains. This contributes to keep and to harden the whole system of values and to guide the direction of moral ideals that the subject sets up for himself.
It is necessary to point out that the phenomenon we are discussing works with the psychic mechanics of the group moral bip., that is to say, what is good in the idol the subject is identified with produces a spiritual and moral pleasure and what is faulty or negative in that admired person, produces a spiritual and moral displeasure (reason why it becomes difficult to admit his mistakes). In other words, we should not lose sight of the reaction of pleasure or displeasure of the identified subject, as an answer to what is good or bad respectively in the object of the fraternal and moral identification. This is what defines the group moral bip., out of which that phenomenon is a special case.
What is good or bad in the group also work when the honor of the group is attributed to a representative. Here, we are referring to an individual’s merit or demerit. But as that subject is conceived as a member of the group or as a “part” of it, his good performance is a pride for his partners. The merit simultaneously belongs to the individual and to the group he belongs to. The outstanding subject is one of “ours”. Therefore, his merit is extensive to each individual identified with the group.
In a word, the M.F.M.I. and the group moral bip, can work with anything that the subject conceives as “his”. It is as if the moral I broadened itself, containing all the groups, people, animals or objects with which the fraternal and moral identification is set up. As well as the only fraternal identification making the spiritual bip. may appear with the most diverse entities, for whom one desires what is good or favorable, in the same way, the added moral identification making the group moral bip., also has a great scope of possible contents. For example, when the plot of a movie leads one to be in “favor” of the main character, it means that one adopts him spontaneously as an object of the M.F.M.I., so that, feats of that character are usually lived as if they were the own ones.
Before continuing with the following bipulsion, we will analyze the relationship between the group moral and tribal devotion bipulsions. What we find in common between them is that they act in relation to the same object. Thus, Tribe-homeland is what is worshipped and honored, paying tributes to it, but at the same time what is good and bad of that Tribe-homeland is lived as if it were the own situation.
Firstly, we have to distinguish two parallel states of the normal psychological performance. If we observe a tribe, we will see that it has domestic and foreign relationships. At domestic level, the individual I works; and at foreign level, social I or “we”. Each individual is “I” in relation to his partners and to the Tribe; and he is “we”: the Tribe, in relation to all what is strange from it. He is “I” for the inside and “we” for the outside. They are two parallel and complementary states of the self-perception or self-conscience. In the domestic affairs, the subject is distinguished in his individuality. Here it works I, you, he and the Tribe. But externally, all that is merged and lived as a global “we” without major distinctions of component elements.
In domestic affairs, each one faces his partners and the Tribe with its holly symbols. As here the merger of we, does not exist but internal components are distinguished, the subject is something different in relation to each one of his partners and to the Tribe with which he must be faithful with. For that reason, the tribal devotion bip. works in the inner aspect of the tribe, when the individual I and each internal component are distinguished. Here “the Tribe” appears on the top and separated from the individual I. One thing is the subject and another one, the Tribe to which he worships and honors. Instead, group moral bip. works in relation to what is outside, with “we”, where components are not distinguished. That we or social I, is the merger of the group of elements in the experience. This makes the individual feel that he is the Tribe that the Tribe is him. His moral pleasure or displeasure depend on what is honorable or dishonorable for the Tribe. The Tribe, as a whole, is the enlarged I of the subject.
During ceremonies in which the Tribe is worshiped and rendered honors (or homeland, association, etc.), the psychic reactions of both bipulsions combine themselves. On one hand, one sees the Tribe from its “internal face”. Something strange to the individual is perceived. Here the tribal devotion bip. works, when the Tribe is paid tributes and honored. On the other hand, the tribe is also seen from its “external face”. It is observed the external image of what is also the subject, being present the group moral bip, whereas a feeling of honor and pride is lived by the own Tribe.
34- Teaching bip.
The positive value occurs when one teaches something to another subject and he understands or shows signs of having learned. The negative value appears when there is a specific ignorance in the other one, about what the subject knows or knows how to do, being added the incomprehension or lack of knowledge of that person, of what one is trying to teach.
Among the elements present in the structure of the teaching bip., we find: the spiritual bip., that is to say, one tries to benefit the other when transmitting him a useful knowledge. Then the communication imp. is present, as a content is transmitted to the receiver. The generosity bip. may also be found, when one wants to share something good he has. The information bip. is included when one feels the duty to transmit knowledge. The skillfulness bip. also participates, whereas other people's learning depends on certain extent, on the skillfulness or clumsiness of the person who intends to teach. Lastly, we frequently find the three ethical bipulsions, which change taking into account the situation. Here one intends that the other one does, says or understands things well, avoiding the fact that he does, says or understands them badly or that he does not know what he should know. The second ethical phase consists on the approval or disapproval towards the eventual student, as he learns or not what he should know.
The complement of the teaching bip. is fundamentally made up of the knowledge bip.; so that, the process of social learning takes place, the interest in the teaching of the person who knows is together with the interest in the learning of the person who ignores. Thanks to these mechanisms, the tribe is able to transmit the cultural contents to the new generations in a fluent way.
35- Rational bip.
It arises out from a complex combination of moral and intellectual elements. Its absolute values have diverse forms to show up according to the context of the situation, but in general they can be divided into two types, summarized in the following pair of values: 1- false knowledge - true knowledge. 2- irrationality-rationality. The values: truth-falsehood of the knowledge express the strengthening of the intellectual or cognitive motivation, where the presence of moral components is minimized. Here, the subject's interest is practically limited to rescue what is true and to reject what is false in reasoning, opinions, interpretations (other people's or the own ones) of the phenomena of reality. On the other hand, the values: rational-irrational make reference to a strengthening of the moral components of motivation, where it is about the evolvement of the mental abilities, intelligence, creativity, knowledge, being stressed the question on the proper or inadequate form in which one has the power of reasoning.
In this last part of the bipulsion, the values: rationality-irrationality are conceived or evaluated, being also other approaches in mind, such as convenience-inconvenience, adaptation-inadequacy or opportunity-inopportunity, concerning opinions, decisions, initiatives or actions of the people, according to the general circumstances of the situation; that is to say, diverse approaches referred to the adaptation of the reason to other values, interests that are at stake, are taken into consideration, when one acts in a way or another in certain situation; example: fairness in acting, convenience for the welfare of what is done, etc. So that, “good sense”, “common sense”, “criteria” or the lack of them, as well as what is reasonable or not in certain behavior or attitude, are concepts making reference to other aspects that are taken into account, when the rational or irrational performance of a subject is evaluated.
The general absolute values of the rational bip. are absolute particular values of the bipulsions forming it. Among these ones, the fundamental ones are: the intelligence and the knowledge bip. An accurate or true reasoning, for example, is an intelligent act and knowledge while a contradictory, incoherent or misleading reasoning is, according to the case, a stupidity and an expression of ignorance on the topic in question. Let’s remember that the stupid-intelligent acts and to know-to ignore are composed, at the same time, of other more basic values, which are accumulated and still remain in the largest scope of the rational bip. Such is the case, for example, of the important presence of the intellectual bipulsion.
The participation of the truth expression bip. is frequent in the rational one. As it is something habitual that is spoken or said at the same time that one is thinking, the truth expression bip. wants truthful ideas, avoiding untrue ideas. This situation contributes to “to think a little” before speaking.
Another bipulsion that may be present is the artistic one. The working-out of a coherent, true reasoning, expressed with logical clarity, is the performance of something that has its beauty. On the contrary, the incoherent, confused, contradictory or false reasoning is always aesthetically unpleasant. For that reason, in the rational bip. of the person that receives an already elaborated reasoning, the aesthetics bip. is usually present (together with the natural stressing of the intellectual motivation manifested in such cases).
The courage bip is also included on many occasions. When truth is something hard or threatening, it will not be accepted by the person lacking enough courage for it. Cowardice works by “amputating” the conclusions, which will end up in a hard truth.
Lastly, the ethical bip. may also be included as a component of the rational one. When the truthfulness of knowledge and the avoiding of falsehood is achieved, the mechanism of the ethical bip. is present in order to reject lies, deceits, contradictions (as proof of falsehood), and pleasure and approval towards the clear manifestation of truth. That ethical function, born in the social relationship transfers its “mechanics” to the thought and to the knowledge of truth in general as well as to the rejection of falsehood in any field. For that reason, besides curiosity, intellectual, moral, aesthetic pleasure, etc., that ethical element in the psychic composition of the rational bip. would also be added as it is interested in the truth of knowledge and rejection of falsehood.
On the other hand, regarding the concrete ethical answer towards the person who issues a reasoning, it consists on “to agree with” (approval) or on the criticism and objection (disapproval).
The usefulness of the rational bip. is evident. The domain over the environment is more effective when subjects are interested in the certainty or truthfulness of knowledge on the phenomena and their relationships.
Such function would mark the origin and the essence of science and philosophy. The rational bip. has also an important role as motivational support in discussions or debates, where one tries to sustain the convenience of a group decision. In other words, it is the bipulsion working fully in the “politics” of the tribe. The exchange of opinions and ideas flow inside the group, when making a decision together imply, from a global point of view, that the social organism, as a living, giant and intelligent being, is “thinking” what is going to do.
Regarding the point of view about what is truth or not, is based ultimately on the word of practice and on the concrete outcomes of the interaction with reality. The facts of reality themselves “say” what is right or not. The success or failure of each action based on certain ideas are the ones showing whether certain idea or knowledge was right or not. The “true” reasoning and knowledge managed by a tribe are fundamentally those that are protected by the positive outcomes of practice. Although reason and logics may be anticipated to the verdict of that, this is just an activation for the evidences which do not require practical tests. But facts speak louder than words.
36- Heroism bip.
The acts of treason and heroism always move the ethical-dangerousness bip. in the observers. The answers are extreme: maximum punishment for the traitor and maximum honors for the hero.
Those absolute values leave a large intermediate space. There are just a few situations which are excluding. But when that happens, one has to choose just between an act of treason or an act of heroism.
In the heroism one, a similar case than in the originality bip. turns up, that is to say, many times neutrality is not like that. In certain situations, refusing the fact to carry out an act of treason, when all the conditions were available to tempt the subject to carry it out, is something praiseworthy. Refusal to betray does not necessarily imply heroism, but it is worthy of recognition. On the other hand, refusal to carry out an act of heroism, when the situation suggests it, although it is not an act of treason, may also be a disgusting attitude.
Let’s observe the structure of the bipulsion:
The tribal devotion and loyalty bipulsions would be the only ones comprising both parts of the heroism bip. The tribal devotion one is fundamentally present in the extreme values, that is, in the acts of treason and heroism, without participating a lot in the intermediate values. Instead, the loyalty one appears in the two pairs of partial values. The rest of the component bipulsions is arranged considering just one segment.
As we can appreciate, both parts have certain autonomy. Only when reality excludes the extreme values, all the partial components gather, making the motivational force of the bipulsion more powerful.
The function of this tendency is having the tribe and each one of its members always prepared to give the best answer in front of any extreme situation. In such cases, it is essential that subjects show the maximum value for the survival of the tribe, being the act of treason the largest domestic and external ban.
37- Personal performance bip.
This bipulsion has great importance from the point of view of motivation. The interest in the good performance in the activity carried out, besides having a great push force in terms of the weight of motivation, it practically encourages behavior in a continuous way.
Artists, scientists, sportsmen, religious, politicians, professionals commonly tend to have a good performance or outstanding efficiency in their activity. Regarding workers, they may only be fully interested in the good performance as value, when favorable social conditions exist for it; this is, when productive work has a high social valuation and whose yield is clearly assigned to the benefit of the group: tribe, town, community.
The personal performance bip. is a true “motivational funnel”. Its absolute values entail the essence of many other values arranged under its movement. The good performance - bad performance are values clearly present in the psychic surface. At that point, values such as skillfulness-clumsiness, intelligence-stupidity, creativity-lack of creativity, knowledge (theoretical and/or practical)-ignorance, responsibility-irresponsibility, sacrifice spirit - lack of working will, rationality-irrationality, among others, may be expressed. It is a bipulsion integrating a group of partial values that may be present or manifested in the good performance - bad performance.
Within the group of partial values, which may be included in the movement of the personal performance bip., two general types may be distinguished. One is referred to the spiritual and strictly moral values: altruism, social responsibility, abnegation, etc. The stressing of this aspect of the motivation is expressed in the interest in feeling that one does something useful for the group or that it means a contribution or aid to the common welfare. Here, the personal efficiency- inefficiency are experienced by the subject in terms of the personal performance that contributes to the interests of the group, feeling himself “useful” or “useless” according to it. The other aspect of motivation has to do with the values of skillfulness-clumsiness, creativity - lack of it, to know how to do - not to know how to do, etc. When this area of values is stressed, good performance - bad performance or efficiency-inefficiency, show up in what we call the “outstanding” performance, “of the good ones”, or “poor” performance, “lack of brilliantness”, etc.
The basic social activity where the burdened absolute values of this tendency move is, with no doubts, the labor activity. From a wide point of view, we can state that work (together with human relationships surrounding and sustaining it) constitutes the great object of satisfaction of man's highest needs. The system of bipulsions was born and developed around the social work of the tribe.
Although the personal performance bip. is a powerful force of the motivation, the objective importance of the good performance in work has a superior reach than the subjective one. We understand for subjective, intentional behaviors, effects looked for as purposes by the subject; while what is objective also includes what is outside the subjects’ intention, it embraces the effects that are not intentionally looked for. This means that in spite of the great interest in the good performance, the other motivations not included directly in the personal performance bip. have, nevertheless, the function of objectively favoring the labor efficiency. For example, it is not only aspired to know or to understand certain phenomenon to answer a concrete difficulty during work or to use that knowledge in the practice, but the truth itself of knowledge is also looked for curiosity or for the simple interest in knowing. But here, subjectivity has usually no relation to the fact that this knowledge may be useful in any further problem during labor activity. The support to work, of knowledge acquired in that way, is something objective. The same happens with the interest in avoiding clumsiness, ridiculousness, stupidity, cowardice, etc. The best development of the skills, for example, which is achieved only when the skillful acts looks for the moral pleasure and the clumsiness avoids jeer, is something that in the end favors the good labor performance. Another case is humor. This contributes to keep the good mood and enthusiasm during work favoring the group performance. But nobody makes jokes with the purpose of increasing the productivity.
The whole structure of human motivation practically ends up in the benefit for the best performance of the common work. This is like this, because the natural selection has been choosing the tribes taking into account their major efficiency in the achievement of the means of subsistence, but it was not “interested” in knowing what certain social organism did in order to be more efficient than others in work. It chose the tribes that have the best global performance, without being interested in its domestic organization. Finally, the only social organisms which survived were those whose internal elements were organized in such way that the diverse absolute interests of their members ended objectively in the best performance of the group.
38- Moral fight bip.
It refers to what we understand as “sporty spirit”, emulation, agonistic, “competition spirit.” Let’s see its usefulness for survival.
Any tribe intending to survive must have a strong fraternal or spiritual unity and a clear tendency to cooperation and aid, in first place. The tribe bearing that, has one of the maximum advantages and it can never lose. But one principle of dialectical logics indicates that contradictions or fights among opponents are essential for any improvement. The social work of the tribe needed an internal contradiction to improve its productivity. This way, nature had to encourage fight among the members of the tribe, without harassing the spiritual unity. This was difficult to achieve, since all internal fights appear as excluding taking into account the cooperation and aid. But the sporty spirit came out from the “galley” of nature. This implies a fight during the labor activity, to see who is more successful in hunting for example or who carries out certain work in a better way. This moral fight means a great encouragement for the uninterrupted progress and improvement of the tribe’s productivity. At the same time, that sporty spirit is not opposed against the fraternal unity and cooperation, but on the contrary. As the task is more amusing and the enthusiasm to carry out activities is encouraged, friendship and the best affective relationships among the members of the tribe are favored.
If we suppose that a great number of the members of the tribe will go out to look for food, it would be a negative idea if all of them went together, bothering one another. The primary division of work consists on being separated in several groups to go to different areas, increasing the possibilities to get food. In those situations, emulation happens. Let’s consider two of these groups. Let’s suppose that both return in the late afternoon. One brings plenty of food and the other one does not bring anything. The group pride and the congratulations will be for the first group. Reproaches, humiliation or jeers will be for the second one. Such psychic results lead one to develop an interest for the good result.
Emulation or moral fight in order to be better and/or to avoid being worse is something that had to work spontaneously during the activity of the groups. But during primitive life, it might have been expressed as a game or moral challenge.
What we have stated is one of the many cases in which usefulness of the moral fight bip. or of emulation appears like a phenomenon. But obviously, this not only happens at group level but at individual level as well, the moral challenge to see who is able to carry out certain task or who does it better. All this, necessarily leads to favor the performance capacity of the tribe and of all its members.
The “sporty” internal contradictions among the members of the tribe are fights in relation to the excluding effects of winning or losing, but they are one more element to cooperation in relation to the effect of the survival of the tribe, since they contribute to increase the global capacities of the group and its effectiveness to achieve the means of subsistence.
Apart from speeding the productive efficiency, those mechanisms reinforce friendship and the spiritual unity of the individuals. Nowadays, we clearly perceive this in the sports environment. People who meet in order to practice diverse sports or games to win or to lose, in spite of the intense fights for the excluding result they develop the closest fraternity.
In the primary social organism, all these fights correspond to the moral field. The equal material distribution is not affected at all, which assures the continuous internal harmony and “homeostasis” of the social organism. This latter issue is ensured in the tribe, because each individual has developed the moral-spiritual values, which lead them spontaneously to proceed fairly. But in case he does not act like that, he will be socially repudiated and humiliated as he will be considered selfish, damned, unfair, disloyal, etc.
The moral fight bip. entails, firstly, the essence of the moral global bip. To win-to lose or victory-defeat, as absolute values, are specific forms of what is globally good-bad. They are good and bad facts respectively for the subject and for that reason they cause moral pleasure or displeasure.
To win - to lose also entail as important psychic component, the feeling of success-failure. Although the anticipatory bip. appears in all goals of intention as generalized psychic reinforcement, its central absolute values (success-failure) have great significance within the moral fight bip. Joy is practically inseparable from success or frustration and feeling of failure, together with the moral pleasure or displeasure that produce respectively the facts of winning or losing. For that reason, the anticipatory bip. makes an important part in the psychic structure of reactions of pleasure-displeasure for the victory-defeat.
Besides the global moral and anticipatory bipulsions, the aggression imp. may be present. Winning means to overcome the opponent, to defeat him. The game opponent, for example, is transitorily the object of the mechanism of fraternal anti-identification (O.M.F.A.). For that reason, together with moral pleasure and happiness for success in the victory feeling, the pleasure that something negative happens to the opponent is usually added. At the same time, the own defeat implies the victory (what is positive) for the O.M.F.A., which generates the automatic displeasure before what is good for the opponent. Such “anti-spiritual” reactions are sustained by the psychic antagonism arising out from the own operation of the mechanism of fraternal anti-identification.
It is necessary to state that this does not mean aggression itself in the sense of violence or hostility among the subjects. It is only a special way of activation of the entrance way to pleasure that the aggression imp. has as secondary component immersed and confused in the only pleasant reaction of victory. This reaction is mainly made up of moral pleasure, plus happiness or feeling of success for the achievement of the goal, to which it may be added or not, a piece of pleasure coming out from the aggression imp., because of the fact that the opponent has been defeated. That opponent may be the closest friend. It is only the “rule of the game” and not aggression in the violent meaning of the word. This situation is comparable to what happens with the activation of the aggression imp., in the second ethical phase; that is to say, the reaction of affective rejection or anger towards another person are also sustained by the aggression imp., but in a completely different orientation regarding the destructive or sadistic forms of the impulse. These latter ones are closer to the field of mental disruption than to the normal performance of the psyche.
The tendency we are analyzing is very rich in terms of the diverse ways in which contrary values may be present. Those forms, winning-losing or victory-defeat, are the clearest, concrete or direct, but they may also appear as: to be able to do it - not to be able to do it, to do it better - to do it worse, to be winning - to be losing, more than... - less than..., to lead - to be led, to be better - to be worse, to overcome - to be overcome, to be capable of... - not to be capable of... In all cases, it is a moral fight where the diverse values are at stake.
The absolute values of the moral fight bip. do not have practically any psychic meaning in themselves, but they constitute a general mechanism in which the other values work. The values of the other bipulsions move naturally in the frame of the moral fight bip. The facts of winning-losing show for example, skillfulness or clumsiness manifested in those results or intelligence-stupidity, creativity - lack of creativity, according to the characteristics of the activity. The fight may also consist on acting or not more courageously than another subject in front of a danger, to lead or to be led in knowledge, to have a better or worse performance in social activity, etc. This way, winning-losing or the “better”- the “worst”, as absolute values of the moral fight bip., may take any of the values of the other bipulsions like “materials” to debate.
Winning-losing, to be better - to be worse, are not simple particular and isolated ways of moral values, but a general way of the movement of the other values. They constitute something like the “game field” for values. Agonistics or sporty spirit are as an added engine favoring the maximum dynamism of the performance of moral motivations. For that reason, winning-losing only acquire real sense when other values are placed (or when non moral values and interests are put at stake using victory as a mean).
The moral fight bip. is the one that tests values. Victory-defeat are in charge of demonstrating the true quality of behaviors; they are those making objective what is subjective. If for example there are doubts about who is more skillful for certain activity, the continued victory of a subject, in a game requiring that skillfulness, will speak volumes on the issue.
Although this is not always like that, that is to say, sometimes bad luck makes the one who has acted more skillfully lose, nevertheless, it exists a relatively automatic mechanism by means of which a widespread psychic answer of moral pleasure or displeasure takes place before victory or defeat respectively, without caring mostly whether victory, for example, was a product of skillfulness or it was just by chance. Such mechanism has the function to assure the prize to skillfulness and moral punishment to clumsiness (or to other values eventually at risk). Firstly, most games are not of pure chance, but there is almost ever one part that is subject to differential skillfulness. Then, although chance determines that victory occasionally falls on the subject that acted clumsily or less skillfully than other ones and where we could say that the moral prize was spoiled, because that one was awarded to the subject who acted more clumsily, anyway when influence of chance is extinguished as time passes by, victory corresponds in general or frequently, to the person acting more skillfully. For that reason, the spontaneous moral pleasure-displeasure for victory-defeat as well as social approval-disapproval towards those results, as if they were always the result of skillfulness or clumsiness respectively, are in short or in the “long run”, right prizes and punishments towards those last values.
The generalized psychic answer before results is the only way in which effectiveness of prize to skillfulness and punishment to clumsiness may be ensured. As in many cases it is impossible “to isolate” the level in which the victory of one subject (or his best performance) was determined by chance or in what proportion it was the result of his skillfulness, it is only left the moral generalized prize towards the winner. This ensures that, in general terms and along many days, the distribution of moral prizes and punishments will be efficient and accurate, as the influence of chance is extinguished, which is distributed homogeneously for all, appearing the imbalance of a major real prize to skillfulness and the major punishment to clumsiness.
In the games of pure chance, that generalized psychic answer before the winning-losing results intends “to survive” as if they were always the product of skillfulness or clumsiness respectively (this is obviously part of that unavoidable “waste” of generalization). In such cases, although skillfulness-clumsiness are concrete or materially absent, they remain in “spirit”. Thus, when a player throws the dices achieving an excellent result and wins the game, a moral pleasure usually takes place in the subject, just as if it had been the product of his “endowment”; while losing that game, frequently causes a spontaneous feeling of clumsiness, in spite of clearly knowing that chance is the only decisive factor of the outcome.
Although all bipulsions with moral motivation can attend the “game field” of the moral fight bip., there are some of them which move with more regularity than others under its sphere. The following bips. are the ones that stand out: skillfulness, intelligence, rational, personal performance and group moral.
The skillfulness bip, as we have already seen, has in victory-defeat a clear field of its manifestation.
The intelligence bipulsion, on the other hand, tests its values when a game or challenge is played and it requires the use of intellect. This way, intelligence or clumsiness of the own performance are expressed in the result of the dispute.
The rational bip. participates in the fight field where its absolute values are put at stake when brainstorm occurs. At this point, victory-defeat adopt the form of “being right”-“not being right” or winning-losing the discussion or debate. Many times it is painful to lose in this fight, having to agree with, because it means to admit the own stupidity and irrationality. For that reason in some circumstances one intends not to agree with it, if it is not the maximum evidence. As long as there is an exit, one will get away thorough the “climbing plants” of thought, avoiding humiliation of defeat of the own ideas and mainly, of witnessing the eventual opponent's satisfaction for his “rational victory”.
Debates or brainstorms are, with no doubts, of great usefulness for the survival of the tribe. It is an internal contradiction in the field of opinions that encourages the progress or improvement of the ideas of the group and with it, the most appropriate adjustment to reality. In the tribe, the “judge” lies mainly in the facts of reality, reason why it is almost always clear who the winner is or who “was right”.
Concerning the personal performance and the group moral bipulsions, they have their best natural unfolding in the frame of the moral fight bip. In the case of the personal performance, winning-losing or to do it better or worse, adopt the form of better performance - worse performance, or if the social activity allows the registration of concrete results, the dispute may be planned in terms of winning-losing. Regarding the group moral bip., this is, as we have already stated, a grand scale replica on the values of the individual behavior, but applied to the group. That is the reason why all the values of the group behavior may also work with the mechanics of the moral fight bip. This way, the group will try to be the best in skillfulness, intelligence, courage, labor performance, etc. Besides, the group will try to win in any challenge, since in that victory, the diverse positive values that form a winning team are included.
The absolute values of the moral fight bip. are like a kind of holder of values at stake. Victory-defeat or the “better”-“worse”, are the containers in motion which include the other values that are subject to the result of the fight. The level of psychic importance of winning-losing always depends on the values that are at stake in those results. This way, skillfulness-clumsiness in an entertainment game may be at stake as well as one lawyer’s capacity and prestige in winning-losing lawsuits or a political candidate in winning-losing elections and the group of values and the honor of an entire town in winning-losing a war. For that reason, winning-losing or victory-defeat only acquire a true significance when other values are put at stake.
In the tribe (we always talk about the primitive human tribe or primary social organism), putting values at stake used to happen regularly. The own conditions of the tribe’s life offered the most appropriate field so that sporty or emulative character appears during the own performance of work. Hunting, fishing, harvest, for example, are activities allowing a clear ascertaining of the result, at the individual as well as at the group performance. For that reason, one can deduce that they used to put the values at stake concerning good or bad performance, either individual or group one, as the outcome of a natural combination of work and sport. In such way, as values of the personal performance and group moral bipulsions are regularly put at stake, the whole group of smaller values that are under them would be put at stake. As the personal performance and group moral bipulsions gather, at the same time, a considerable quantity of other values, when putting at stake the good performance-bad performance (individual or group) in the victory-defeat result, the whole other values that are there would be put simultaneously at stake (skillfulness–clumsiness, intelligence-stupidity, sacrifice spirit-lack of willing to work, to know how to do-not to know how to do, etc.). This way, it was common that a good part of the values worked under the mechanics of the moral fight bip. The results of work-sport had to constitute an important axis or objective parameter to reveal and evaluate the values of many bipulsions.
That natural emulative or sporty way of the primitive subjects’ work is not only deduced from the objective conditions offered by hunting, fishing, harvest and other labor activities of the primitive ones, but it may be deducted from other reasons. One is the motivational autonomy of sport. The enthusiasm and interest that sports provoke as well as the high appreciation of victory may not have risen from “nothing”, but they would be largely an inheritance from that way of primitive work. We can also appreciate that primitive inheritance in the universal and spontaneous form of the children games, where winning-losing are almost ever central elements. And this would fit into in the well-known fact that the game of the smaller members of a species, tends to be a copy, a preparatory simulation of mature activity. Another argument and the most important one, is the one derived from the logical dialectics and from the laws of the evolution of species. Firstly, the domestic fights or contradictions constitute a certain stimulus for the maximum efficiency of the group. Then, as natural selection picked out tribes according to their largest global efficiency in labor, it becomes evident that a tribe which turns labor activity into a sporty game, where at individual as well as at group level, emulation or moral fight for the best performance take place; such tribe will achieve an important advantage and it will be asserted over the rest.
to see the structure of bipulsions again]
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© Author: Alberto E. Fresina
Title: "The Laws of Psyche"
Title of the original Spanish Version:
"Las Leyes del Psiquismo"
Printed in Mendoza, Argentina
Mendoza, 14th July, 1999
Copyright registered at the National Copyright Bureau in 1988, and at the Argentine Book Camera in 1999, year of its publication.
Translated by Ana El kassir with the collaboration of Marcela Berenguer
Characteristic of the original copy in Spanish: Number of pages: 426; measures: 5.9 x 8.27 x 1 inch; weight: 1.2lb.
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