A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to a Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions

Copyright © T. E. Bearden (Aug 92)
Association of Distinguished American Scientists


Utilizing fundamentally new definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the atomic nucleus may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential, referred to as the mass potential. The Whittaker EM biwave structure of the scalar potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for mass, including the atomic nucleus. This structure can be directly manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct EM alteration of the mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new class of nuclear interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms advanced for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications are hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification.

Some New Fundamental Definitions

To explain why more precise definitions are important, we quote a statement by Einstein: [Ref 1]

"... the scientist makes use of a whole arsenal of concepts which he imbibed practically with his mother's milk; and seldom if ever is he aware of the eternally problematic character of his concepts. He uses this conceptual material, or, speaking more exactly, these conceptual tools of thought, as something obviously, immutably given; something having an objective value of truth which is hardly ever, and in any case not seriously, to be doubted. ... in the interests of science it is necessary over and over again to engage in the critique of these fundamental concepts, in order that we may not unconsciously be ruled by them."

We begin with the quantum mechanical vacuum (QMV), considered to be composed of an intense flux of virtual particles, each of which arises from nowhere and immediately returns to nowhere. [Ref 2] We hypothesize that, a priori, all macroscopic phenomena must in some fashion consist of stable ensembles (forms) in equilibrium in the QMV. From this viewpoint we advance the following fundamental new definitions:

Energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. [Ref 3] Electromagnetic energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. [Ref 4] Work is the local scattering of energy -- the total disordering of the order in the virtual particle flux.[Ref 5]

A potential is any ordering, either static or dynamic or combination thereof, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. [Ref 6] Note that this makes the new definitions of potential and energy synonymous -- a potential is pure energy, a priori.[Ref 7] The potential also must be totally ordered internally, which is a quite new concept for physics.[Ref 8] Both energy and potential are collections of the individual energies of a host of individually-moving virtual particles. Neither energy nor the potential are directly observable, because the order is in and of the virtual state. A scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum, with respect to the external observer. A vector potential is any dynamic (non-stationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum, with respect to the external observer. Both scalar and vector potentials have totally ordered, nonlocal, Whittaker hyperspatial interiors.[Ref 9] Scalar potentials and vector potentials are simply different subsets of the energy domain. Both are stable forms in a dynamic VPF medium. One is stationary with respect to the external observer; the other is translating. Both potentials are open systems, continually being supplied with wave energy flowing in from the external universe, and continually emitting wave energy flowing out to the external universe. Both kinds of potentials possess ordered internal Whittaker bidirectional wave structures, flowing throughout local and nonlocal space wherever the particular potential has a nonzero convolution value.[Ref 10]

We shall concentrate on scalar potentials. An electrostatic scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. Its ordered Whittaker structure is an ordered lattice of spacetime/vacuum (Figure 1), and consists of a Fourier expansion of harmonic transverse EM plane waves, coupled to the phase conjugate of the expansion in 1:1 ratio. Scalar (potential) interferometry [Ref 11] between two or more scalar EM potentials is just the multiple simultaneous interferometry of their constituent Whittaker waves.

 Fig1: A
Whittaker-structured vacuum potential is an organized spacetime lattice.

"A" vacuum is a spacetime and, to the first order, a scalar potential. "The" ambient vacuum is a violently changing and interfering collection of potentials from moving particles all over the universe. I.e., "the" ambient vacuum is really an incredibly large number of conglomerated, interfering vacua/potentials.[Ref 12] Thus the scalar potential interferometry mechanism shown by Whittaker [Ref 13] applies to these ambient vacua, and generates the "zero-point EM fluctuation energy of the vacuum." This is a direct hyperspatial expression of Puthoff's "cosmological feedback principle," [Ref 14] including its determinism.

Since we are interested here primarily in EM, then to first order we take vacuum/spacetime to be an electrostatic scalar potential.

The Statistical Graviton Concept

With respect to the electrostatic scalar potential, a conceptual problem still exists. To trap EM energy, it would seem necessary to trap photons. Since any photon in the vacuum would seem of necessity to be moving at an average velocity c, one questions how one could have a "stationary ordering" of these extremely fast photons? Here one must turn to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where EM fields can interact with each other in ways other than the linear superposition existing in classical EM theory. In QED, waves can interact, couple, etc. -- as can photons.[Ref 15] We simply argue that, in one bidirectional waveset of a Whittaker structure, the antiwave is a true phase conjugate of the wave, hence its true time reversal.[Ref 16] We also argue that, if the antiwave envelope is totally coordinated with the wave envelope, then the antiphotons must be totally coordinated with the photons. We crudely visualize the photons and antiphotons moving "through" the inner space (hyperspace), coupling and uncoupling continually, which they can do since one is the precise phase conjugate of the other. But when momentarily coupled, the photon/antiphoton paired system has helicity 2, and is void of resultant E and H fields, so is temporarily devoid of the requirement for moving through space at c, light velocity. In other words, when coupled to the photon/antiphoton pair forms a spin-2 graviton, and the graviton system is stationary.[Ref 17] Shortly the photon and antiphoton decouple and each moves to couple with another partner. So in the potential there is a continual creation and annihilation of ordered spin-2 gravitons, and those statistical gravitons are what comprise the "electrostatic scalar potential."[Ref 18]

Fig 2: The photon
interaction is actually a graviton interaction.

Because of the arrangement of the Whittaker pairs into a harmonic series, all the EM wave sets in the entire Whittaker set are phase-locked, as was shown in Figure 1. This means that the phase-locked graviton sets -- and therefore the potential whose components they are -- represent an ordered spacetime lattice, ordered in frequency, energy, space, and time. It follows that, in the photon interaction, normally what is involved is a bustup (Figure 2) of the graviton, so that two interactions occur as follows: (1) the freed photon interacts "externally", primarily with the shell electrons of the atom, which reaction is contained in the textbooks, and (2) the freed antiphoton interacts internally with the nucleus of the atom to produce Newton's third law reaction force.[Ref 19] Almost all detection/observation is actually binary, [Ref 20] but half is usually ignored by euphemistically lumping it under Newton's third law, which is simply "evoked" out of nowhere, without a causative mechanism. At best, it is evoked "to preserve symmetry".

Quantum Change Is Engineerable

Because of the role of the potential in the Schroedinger equation, and the quantum potential in hidden variable theory, the unexpected Whittaker bidirectional wave order inside the scalar potential implies that quantum change (QC) is chaotic, not random. QC is in fact totally deterministic in this view, but the external macroscopic observer normally has no information on the specific VPF causative agents. Viewing quantum change as chaotic, it follows that it may be at least partially engineerable, if one can input and control the fundamental hidden order.

This can be done, by constructing an artificial spacetime lattice via Whittaker methodology, as pointed out above. Since the form of hidden order inside the scalar Schroedinger potential is simply a Whittaker structure, then artificially forming a proper bidirectional phase-locked EM waveset together with its coupled phase conjugate waveset produces such a potential. The exact inner content of the inner waveset can be deliberately selected (specific harmonic frequencies and number utilized, low and high frequency cutoffs, internal modulations on selected component frequencies, etc).[Ref 21] In this manner an artificial potential can be deliberately constructed so that the internal energetic EM bidirectional wave content of the local vacuum (i.e., of the Schroedinger potential) and spacetime is seriously altered, when that artificial potential exists in a region. In other words, in that region we make "a" vacuum portion of "the" ambient vacua into a single, deliberately structured, electromagnetically active spacetime.[Ref 22]

The Activated Local Vacuum And The Vacuum Engine

The locally activated spacetime now becomes a sort of vacuum engine that interacts directly and specifically with any physical system existing in it.[Ref 23] This application of the Whittaker method is similar to producing a wideband multifrequency radar signal, coupled to its simultaneous phase conjugation. The question now arises that, given the facility to construct an artificial potential as a local vacuum engine, what can be done with it to engineer the atomic nucleus?

Concept Of The Mass Potential

As is well-known, the modern view of gravitational attraction of masses is that it is due to the trapped energy of those masses. To first order, we view the trapped energy in a mass as trapped EM energy, where the Einstein formula E=mc2 gives the magnitude of this mass-trapped EM energy.

With respect to the new definitions of potentials, a mass can now be viewed as an electrostatic scalar potential. However, its magnitude is enormous, due to the presence of the c2 term in the formula E=mc2. Hence we distinguish it because of its great power, calling it the mass potential.

Since most of the mass of the atom is in the atomic nucleus, we must change the vacuum VPF exchange with that nucleus if we wish to directly and deterministically manipulate the nucleus. I.e., we must alter and engineer the nuclear mass potential. To do this, we take advantage of the fact that the Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential applies to the mass potential of the nucleus. In other words, there is now a universal internal EM structure for mass, and that structure can be manipulated and engineered directly by Whittaker EM means. By altering its internal Whittaker structure (WS), the nucleus can be altered and changed. Conceivably the trapped EM energy of the mass of the nucleus can even be extracted and dispersed, dematerializing the nucleus.

To engineer the nucleus one must alter its VPF exchange with its local vacuum, changing the internal Whittaker waveset components of the nucleus. The artificial potential one applies creates scalar interferometry in the immediately surrounding vacuum flux, resulting in the introduction of chaotic EM energy (order) into the VPF absorption by the nucleus, and so into its internal mass potential. As time passes, more and more chaotic flux has entered the nucleus and been absorbed. The Whittaker structure of the mass potential thus will slowly "charge up" to a degree, with the incoming altered VPF pattern. Direct alteration of the "activated" or "charged-up" nucleus will gradually occur.

Inherent in this approach is the assumed primary postulate that every nuclear structure is already an equilibrium state or "form" in the virtual particle flux exchange with the vacuum. In this case, the internal energetic structure of the mass of the nucleus is changed slowly. With sufficient phenomenology measurements and experiments, we should be able to ascertain the specific artificial potential structures necessary to activate desired specific changes in the atomic nucleus.[Ref 24] Once the phenomenology is clarified in this fashion, one should be able to produce specific nuclear changes as desired.

Chaotic Nuclear Fission

As an example, consider nuclear fission of a radioactive element. The atomic nucleus is already in an unbalance energy state, but in an "energy well" or trap. However, it continually receives fluctuations in the background VPF absorbed from the local vacuum. According, its energy level is continually fluctuating about its "average" or nominal level, driven by the incoming fluctuations. If, for example, it receives a sufficiently powerful fluctuation for a sufficient duration, its energy level can change sufficiently for it to fission due to the extra absorbed energy. In this view, then, each nuclear fission is entirely deterministic. However, the external observer normally has absolutely no information on the incoming energy fluctuations, or the causality. Hence he can make no predictions for fission of a specific nucleus, but can only treat fission statistically for large ensembles of fissionable nuclei. In this view nuclear fission is chaotic, with hidden order but still statistical to the external observer.

However, if we deliberately and controllably augment the "fluctuation energy" input to selected material (nuclei) via Whittaker artificial potentials, we should be able to cause fission at will, by simply sending over-the-threshold energy pulses directly into the fissionable nuclei.[Ref 25] In an extreme case, we could perhaps cause prompt fission of all the exposed nuclei, but that would constitute a nuclear explosion. As a variation, we could send a few small "over threshold" pulses ever so often, thus simply increasing the fission rate or activity in little bursts. However, we would still have to release all the nuclear radiation the nuclei would normally emit in, say, the next 100 years, except just quicker. Such a simple approach might be sufficient for extended treatment of low-level nuclear wastes, but it would be expensive and unsuitable for the bulk of the nuclear waste problem and for much longer-lived radioactive isotopes.

Need For Neutralization

A highly desirable alternative would be the safe prompt neutralization of the bulk of the radioactive wastes. As a first approach, the fundamental nuclear decay chains themselves could be altered. Ideally new decay chains could be found in locally asymmetrical ST conditions, with substantially reduced levels of harmful nuclear radiation and byproducts. If successful, this approach would be an improvement over prompt fissioning, but for longer-lived radioactive isotopes, decreasing the release time still would involve appreciable emission of nuclear radiation, and accumulation of undesirable radioactive byproducts.

Applying Scalar Interferometry

It would be ideal if the trapped EM energy in the mass potentials of the radioactive nuclei could be extracted and converted directly into nonlinear Whittaker scalar potentials -- into pure, hidden EM hyperspatial energy. Theses resulting energetic potentials could be formed into beams in a Whittaker scalar interferometer, to transmit the extracted EM energy through hyperspace to a distant interference (discharge) zone for release harmlessly as heat or electricity which radiates away.[Ref 26] It would be highly desirable to utilize a more distant scalar interference "energy dump" zone, beyond the atmosphere and out in space, well away from the earth. The energy would be extracted by a scalar interferometer used in an endothermic mode, and would be "dumped" at the distant disposal site by a scalar interferometer used in an exothermic mode.

In its Whittaker internal structure, a scalar potential beam contains a bidirectional flow of EM waves and energy through hyperspace. There EM waves are flowing in both directions. Between separated spatial points in the flow that are at the same 3-space potential (magnitude), the net EM energy exchange is zero. Between separated spatial points in the flow that are at differing 3-space potential (magnitude), a nonzero net EM energy flow exists. Net "scattering" EM energy (heat) flows through hyperspace from the point at higher potential to the point at lower potential.

Fig 3: Whittaker
Interferometer in Endothermic Mode for Energy Extraction From the Mass Potential of Radioactive

Thus by simply biasing the electrical ground potential of the scalar interferometer "transmitters", the interferometer can produce the emission of heat energy in the distant interference zone (IZ), or the extraction of heat energy from that IZ. For distant heating, the interferometer is said to be in the "exothermic" mode, and energy must be continually fed into it, to emerge at the distant IZ. For distant cooling in the IZ, the interferometer is said to be in the "endothermic" mode. Note that, in the endothermic mode, heat emerges at the transmitters themselves, and must be disposed of.

Figure 4 shows the conceptual use of a Whittaker interferometer in the exothermic mode, for use in transferring the extracted EM heat energy to a distant dump IZ. Again, mode control is achieved by relative biasing of the electrical ground of the interferometer, compared to the ambient potential of the IZ.

From a review of the two cited Whittaker papers, both uses of the Whittaker scalar interferometer (WSI) appear feasible. If so, with a suitable deterministic Whittaker structure, an endothermic WSI could be used to directly extract the EM energy from the mass of the radioactive nuclei, in essence dematerializing those nuclei and thereby completely neutralizing them, and producing large quantities of heat. The heat could be temporarily captured in a reservoir, and used as an input to an exothermic WSI which transmits the extracted EM energy through hyperspace to a spatial IZ point safely beyond the earth's atmosphere, dumping the waste EM energy there, so that it radiates harmlessly away into space as heat and light.

Fig 4: Whittaker
Interferometer In Exothermic Mode for Energy Transmission and Dumping.

It is strongly accented that presently these are hypothesized uses of Whittaker scalar interferometry, and they remain to be experimentally falsified or verified. However, they are solidly based on the theoretical foundation of the Whittaker-structured scalar EM potential, which has heretofore been ignored in physics. Further, the basis for these hypotheses are testable. The proposed Whittaker EM is in fact more comprehensive than classical EM, since all classical EM can be shown to be replaceable by Whittaker scalar interferometry.[Ref 27] We believe, therefore, that we have proposed a totally new class of nuclear interactions, and mechanisms which warrant experimental and theoretical investigation.

Other Potential Applications

Obviously a great many other potential applications of this approach suggest themselves for investigation. We have previously pointed out two successful experiments by Sweet, one for extracting useful EM energy from the vacuum, and one for production of unilateral forces (without Newtonian third law recoil), including antigravity.[Ref 28] We have also pointed out the implications of the approach for possible testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics.[Ref 29] In other publications we have also pointed out the implications for application to neural science and to medical science, particularly for development of new healing therapies for presently incurable or nearly incurable major diseases.[Ref 30] It has also been suggested that earth stress lights, known in over 1200 locations in the U.S. alone, may be due to natural scalar interferometry, where the stressed sides of a rock fault, with stress relief in the fault, piezoelectrically produce Whittaker potentials on each side of the fault, resulting in distant-interfering Whittaker scalar potential interferometry.[Ref 31] It has also been suggested that ball lightning is a similar Whittaker scalar potential phenomenon, due to separately highly charged clouds acting as a Whittaker scalar potential interferometers. Further, it has been experimentally proven that living systems accomplish limited transmutation of elements, with minuscule power and signal strength.[Ref 32] Whittaker scalar interferometry modification of the atomic nucleus has been hypothesized as the active mechanism utilized.[Ref 33] Finally, it has been hypothesized that living systems utilize the inner EM for thought formations, thinking, long term memory storage in mass potentials of atomic nuclei, and for deep cellular control, as in the master cellular control system discovered by Popp.[Ref 34] Numerous other potential applications can readily be constructed.


In this paper we have proposed major new definitions of some fundamental entities in physics, which lead to an altered perspective on spacetime and matter interaction. These definitions, which amount to a redefinition of the entire energy ansatz (beginning), imply a totally new class of nuclear interactions, where the mass of the nucleus is considered as a powerful scalar EM potential, with a directly engineerable internal Whittaker bidirectional EM wave structure. The new internal, hyperspatial EM hypothetically can be utilized to directly engineer the Schroedinger equation, thereby deterministically engineering quantum change itself. In addition, both atomic nuclei and the vacuum/spacetime can be activated, so that they become active engines, interacting preferentially with local systems, which are driven by their altered virtual photon flux exchange with the surrounding vacuum.

The cited Whittaker theory establishes a greatly expanded but engineerable EM, with external (spatial) and internal (hyperspatial) subsets. Scientists and engineers are urged to seriously study the two cited Whittaker papers and their implications, and to set up experiments to falsify or verify the hypotheses advances.

Notes And References

  1. Quoted from Albert Einstein, "Foreword", to Max Jammer, Concepts of Space: The History of Theories of Space in Physics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969, p. xi-xii.

  2. The quantum mechanical vacuum (QMV) concept in quantum field theory is just the modification of the classical "empty vacuum" concept to take into account the spontaneous creation and annihilation of virtual particles, required by quantum mechanics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The QMV is a plenum, not an emptiness, and it is filled with enormous energy. Cf Timothy Boyer, "The classical vacuum", Sci. Am., Aug. 1985, p.70; Walter Greiner and Joseph Hamilton, "Is the Vacuum Really Empty?", Am. Sci., Mar.-Apr. 1980, p.154; I.J.R. Aitchison, "Nothing's plenty: The Vacuum in modern quantum field theory", Contempt. Phys., 26(4), 1985, p.333-391; Jack S. Greenberg and Walter Greiner, "Search for the sparking of the vacuum", Phys. Today, Aug. 1982, p.24-32; Richard E. Prange and Peter Strance, "The semiconducting vacuum", Am. J. Phys., 52(1), Jan. 1984, p.19-21; R. Jackiw and J.R. Schrieffer, "The decay of the vacuum", Nucl. Phys. B., 190, 1981, p.944.

  3. The present definitions of energy in physics are quite vague and often in error. Energy is usually defined as the "capacity to do work". From our viewpoint, such a "definition" states that "order is the disordering of order", which is erroneous. Certainly energy has the capacity to do work, because it can be scattered. Stated in that fashion, it is just a statement about energy, and acceptable. But one cannot properly say that energy is the capacity to do the work. In fact that current "definition" has no content as to the actual nature of energy.

  4. To define a particular field of energy, we simply select the quantum particle of that field and consider just the order in that particle's virtual flux in the vacuum. In other words, we select one type of potential from the conglomerate of potentials that comprise the vacuum.

  5. Negative work is also possible. E.g., by imposing a phase conjugate reflection, theoretically the scattered (disordered) energy used to perform work can be retroreflected afterwards, restoring the original order (energy), which can then again be disordered (used as work). We accent that this does not violate overall conservation of energy. The system is not closed , but is open and driven by its seething virtual particle flux (VPF) exchange with the vacuum. Every charged particle and every atomic nucleus is in such a violent VPF exchange, and is a driven, open system. With a gating process (such as phase conjugate retroreflection), Prigogine's thermodynamics of nonlinear system away from thermodynamic equilibrium applies. For an example of phase conjugate retroreflective reordering of EM energy after it has been scattered, see David M. Pepper, "Applications of optical phase conjugation", Sci. Am., 254(1), Jan 1986, p.65.

  6. There is presently no acceptable definition of potential in physics. The acceptable "definition" of the electrostatic scalar potential (ESP), e.g. is simply a prescription for calculating its magnitude. It does not at all tell what the ESP is. See also Note 7.

  7. See "Potential", in Robert M. Besancon, Ed., The Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd Edn., Van Nostrand and Reinhold, New York, 1974, p.729-731. The concept of potential has developed as two fundamental notions: (1) as the "internal" storage of energy in some fashion, and (2) as a scalar function whose space rate of change yields a vector force. Our comment is that the two cited E.T. Whittaker papers, together with the QMV, drastically enlighten both notions, extending the understanding of what a scalar potential actually is (both internally and externally), and its non-local, internal, hyperspatial energetic connection with the rest of the universe.

  8. The ordering itself is still an equilibrium form in an open system. Due to the flux, virtual particles are continually entering, leaving, or appearing and disappearing in the equilibrium form. The ordering is like a whirlpool in a river: The form or ordering may be stable, but the water molecules are continually passing through the stable, ordered form. If we control or alter the input and output flows, we can control and alter the equilibrium form at will, even to dispersing or "dematerializing" it.

  9. The ordering structure is mathematically given by E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics", Math. Ann., Vol 57, 1903, p.333-355. See also E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic filed due to electrons by means of two scalar potential functions", Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1094, p.367-372. More recently the Whittaker structure (WS) inside potentials -- including the Schroedinger potential -- has been shown by V.K. Ignatovich, "The remarkable capabilities of recursive relations", Am. J. Phys., 57(10), Oct. 1989, p.873-878. For the same in acoustics, see Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy", Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p.396-397.

  10. The local (spatial) aspects of the scalar potential are its magnitude and gradient at a point in 3-space. The nonlocal (hyperspatial) aspects are the organized internal flows of energetic waves through hyperspace, to and from that "magnitude/gradient" point in 3-space and every other point in 3-space.

  11. Per Whittaker, 1904, ibid.

  12. The conglomeration implication for vacuum-spacetime of these definitions, or of the gist of them, has previously been pointed out by W. Misner, K.S. Thorne and J.A. Wheeler, Gravitation, 1973, p.399. Quoting: "... The terms 'gravitational field' and 'gravity' refer in vague, collective sort of way to all of these entities. Another, equivalent term for them is the 'geometry of spacetime.'" Our comment is as follows: In other words, the notion of the geometry of spacetime is also a vague, conglomerated concept, and it also must not be primary, but must be composed of other field effects and things -- which of course is Sakharov's hypothesis that gravitation is not even a primary field of nature, but is always due to interactions and effects of other fields. See A.D. Sakharov, "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the Theory of Gravitation", Sov. Phys. Dokl., Vol. 12, 1968, p.1040.

  13. E.T. Whittaker, 1904, ibid.

  14. H.E. Puthoff, Phys. Rev. D., 35(10), May 15, 1987, p.3266-3269.

  15. Indeed, in QED a photon can even interfere with itself. There are still serious problems with the photon concept, however. Four different major models are used. Cf. Richard Kidd et Al, "Evolution of the modern photon", Am. J. Phys., 57(1), Jan. 1989, p.27-35. The "energy" of a photon is not localized, but is distributed over the entire volume of the field and there is, in general, no use in attaching a coordinate to the photon. A photon in general cannot be described by wavefunction, but only for special cases. In geometrical optics as well as Maxwell's electrodynamics, there is no room for photons. The complex one-photon wavefunction should not be identified with the EM field. For a given photon number, the electric or magnetic fields at a point cannot be measured as a function of time. For states with a fixed photon number, the expectation value of the electric field is zero even for a very large photon number, so that in this case the correspondence principle cannot be used. For additional strong anomalies in the photon concept, see J. Strand, "Photons in introductory quantum physics", Am. J. Phys., 54(7), July 1986, p.650-652. In his later years Einstein wrote: "All these 50 years of pondering have not brought me closer to answering the question: what are light quanta? Of course, today, every rascal thinks he knows the answer, but he is mistaken". (P. Speziali, Ed., Albert Einstein-Michele Besso Correspondence 1903-1955, Hermann, Paris, 1972.)

  16. For proof that the phase conjugate antiwave is truly time-reversed, cf. M. Ohno and K. Takagi, "Schlieren visualization of acoustic phase conjugate waves generated by nonlinear electroacoustic interaction in LiNbO3", Appl. Phys. Lett., 60(1), Jan. 6, 1992, p.29-31.

  17. Note this concept represents a unification of EM and gravitation.

  18. If the average coupling is spin-2, then the local vacuum/ST is said to be uncurved. It possesses time symmetry, charge symmetry, and does not preferentially interact with locally embedded systems. If on the other hand the average coupling is greater than 2 (say, 2.1), then the local vacuum/ST is curved. It has time and charge asymmetry, and preferentially interacts with systems. Specifically, it has a surplus of coupled photons, is activated and excited, and so can "decay" to serve as an EM energy source. If the average coupling is less than 2 (say, 1.9), then the local vacuum/ST is curved in the other direction. It has time and charge asymmetry, and preferentially interacts with systems. Specifically, it has a deficiency of coupled photons, is activated and excited, and can serve as an EM energy sink. By tailoring the Whittaker structure of potentials and adding them to the local vacuum, such curvature effects can be produced.

  19. In fact there is strong evidence for this. First, the Newtonian third law reaction is essentially universal. In quantum field theory, Newton's action force is generated by the exchange of virtual photons. The phase conjugate (time-reversed) third-law "anti-action" force must be generated by exchange of virtual antiphotons. Further, these antiphotons do not normally emerge from the nucleus out through the electron shells and enter the external circuit to be measured. Hence they must "burrow within" the atom to react with the nucleus. The point is, there are almost always two photons that interacted, not just one. It follows that, if we divert the antiphotons from going to the nucleus and instead we switch them outside the atom, the Newtonian third law reaction force should vanish. Precisely this happens. In a pumped phase conjugate mirror, the mirror does not recoil when antiphotons are emitted as a phase conjugate replica wave. This provides strong experimental evidence of the decoupled antiphoton's generation of Newton's third law reaction, and the binary-photon (graviton) interaction concept.

  20. Richard Kidd et Al, 1989, ibid, p.30. Also see E. Goldwasser, Optics, Waves, Atoms and Nuclei, Benjamin, New York, 1965, preliminary edn., p.190-191.

  21. Indeed, one can conceivably build-in any higher dimensional aspect one wishes, by nesting. I.e., one chooses one of the internal EM waves in Whittaker set. One expresses that wave as the interference of two scalar potentials, via Whittaker 1904. Then each of these two hidden scalar potentials in turn has a hidden bidirectional Whittaker waveset structure, which again can be deterministically tailored. The second engineered waveset is in yet a higher hyperdimension than was the first waveset. Theoretically this can be repeated as many times as desired.

  22. Note that this "activation" of the local vacuum and spacetime constitutes a local curvature, as discussed in Note 18 above. The activated local vacuum/spacetime has now become a vacuum engine. We are attempting to accomplish controlled vacuum engineering, in the sense referred to by Nobel Laureate T.D. Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory, Harwood, New York, 1981, Chapter 25: Outlook, "Possibility of Vacuum Engineering", p.824-828. As Lee points out, this has not yet been tried in physics, but it may be possible to do it. Our assertion is that applying the Whittaker methodology is a major way to do it deterministically and testably.

  23. A locally activated spacetime (ST) is a curved local ST, where the much stronger EM force is utilized as a curvature agent. Curved local ST violates local symmetry in one fashion or another; by the CPT theorem, one must only uphold overall CPT symmetry, not individual symmetries. Violation of a local symmetry usually occurs in pairs; e.g., violation of local charge symmetry and local time symmetry. In this fashion a curved ST (vacuum engine) may serve as either a source or sink for EM energy, but there will be associated changes in the local time rate of flow. We stress that such local asymmetry of ST is possible only because everything is a driven, open system and is not closed. If one extends one's system consideration, overall symmetry and conservation laws are upheld. For consideration of what can be done with a locally asymmetrical ST, see E.B. Smetanin, "Electromagnetic field in a space with curvature -- new solutions", Sov. Phys. J., 25(2), Feb. 1982, p.107-111.

  24. E.g., we have hypothesized that living systems can much more readily transmute along the isomer chain, since converting a single proton to a neutron or vice versa would suffice. Flipping one quark would be all that was required in that case, which should be much easier than wholesale moving of entire nucleons. As an example, chickens were shown by Kervran to be able to transmute potassium into calcium, and his experiments were rigorously replicated by Japanese researchers. It is pointed out that one isotope of potassium is a natural isomer for calcium, and could be converted by the "single quark flip" hypothesis. See also Note 32.

  25. Note that this is precisely producing a local asymmetry in the spacetime (ST) which the radioactive nucleus occupies. For proof that the nuclear decay probability increases in a locally asymmetrical ST, see V.I. Petukhov and I.A. Kuzin, "Weak processes in the field of a gravitational wave", Sov. Phys. J., 27(12), Dec. 1984, p.1025-1029.

  26. For the theory (and proof) of scalar potential interferometry, see E.T. Whittaker, 1904, ibid.

  27. For mathematical proof, see Whittaker, 1904, ibid.

  28. Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy", Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Aug. 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts, p.370-375.

  29. T.E. Bearden and Walter Rosenthal, "On a testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics", Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Aug. 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts, p.487-492.

  30. T.E. Bearden, Gravitobiology, Tesla Book Co., 604 Date Ave., Chula Vista, CA, 91910, 1991.

  31. T.E. Bearden, Fer-de-Lance, Tesla Book Co., 1986. For report of a rigorous scientific experiment with earth stress lights, conducted by Vestigia, see T.E. Bearden, The Excalibur Briefing, 2nd Edn., Strawberry Hill Press and Tesla Book Co., 1988, p.35-52. In the book my explanation, actually written in 1978, was incomplete and, in light of today's understanding, it was also substantially flawed. The Vestigia experiment, however, was rigorous and flawless.

  32. In 1977 Louis Kervran was nominated for a Nobel Prize for having proven that living systems transmute elements to a limited degree. His work was replicated by Japanese researchers and others, but is still unknown to most biologists and biophysicists. See Louis Kervran, Transmutations a Faible Energie (Naturelles et Biologiques), Maloine S.A., Paris, 1982.

  33. T.E. Bearden, Gravitobiology, 1991. E.g., the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain are hypothesized to be usable as an exceedingly weak scalar potential interferometer (per Whittaker 1904, ibid).

  34. Cf. Fritz Albert Popp, "Photon Storage in Biological Systems", in Fritz Albert Popp et Al, Eds., Electromagnetic Bio-Information: Proceedings of the Symposium, Marburg, September 5, 1977, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1979, p.123-149; also Biophotonen. Ein neuer weg zur Losung des Krebsproblems, Verlag fur Medizin, Heidelberg, 1976in German.

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