Main Table index
Total count: Languages: 233 / Tables: 355
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List of placename tables for minority and native languages, arranged by minorities and states. In most of the pages there are maps also.
- The Basque Country. You can view the placename tables or learn more about the Basques and our language (see also the Basque-Icelandic pidgin!). Also Occitan in the Basque Country.
- Ainu: native minority of Northern Japan.
- Albanian minorities in Kosovo (Yugoslavia), Montenegro, Macedonia; and also the Arbëreshë in Italy, and Arvanite & Cham in Greece. Minorities within Albania: Greek, Aroumanian.
- Algeria. Minorities within: Berbers (Tamazight language).
- Alsace and Lorraine. German speaking regions in France.
- Aragon. Aragonese is spoken in this Pyrenees area of Spain.
- Armenia. Direct transliteration from Armenian script. Also Kurdish. See Soviet sub-index.
- Aroumanian. Romance language spoken throughout the Balcans (Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania).
- Astur-Leonese. Asturian, and other varieties, spoken in northern Spain and Portugal.
- Australian Aboriginal languages: Guugu Yimithirr, Gooniyandi, Dyirbal, Arabana-Wangkangurru, Yagara, Yugambeh.
- Austria. Minorities: Croatian and Hungarian in Burgenland, Slovene in Carinthia and Styria.
- Azerbaijan. Place names have switched to Roman alphabet after independence from the former Soviet Union. Also Kurdish. See Soviet sub-index.
- The Basque Country. You can view the placename tables or learn more about the Basques and our language (see also the Basque-Icelandic pidgin!). Also Occitan in the Basque Country (French/Basque/Occitan table).
- Belarus. Belorussian names substitue former Russian names. See Soviet sub-index and Transliteration scheme.
- Belgium. Multi-language state: Flemish, French, German, Walloon.
- Belize. Garifuna minority. Check the Native American sub-index.
- Berbers: Tamazight language in Algeria and Morocco. Tarifit in Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish colonies).
- Brittany. Celtic nation in the French state.
- Bolivia. Aymara, main native american language.
- Bosnia: old German settlements.
- Bulgaria, minorities within: Aroumanian, Turkish. Bulgarian minority in Yugoslavia. See also Transliteration scheme for Bulgarian.
- Canada. Micmac, Slave and others. See Native American sub-index and also Inuit. Also placenames of native origin and Gaelic in Nova Scotia.
- Catalan. Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands. Also Northern Catalonia (Rousillon) in France, and part of Aragon.
- Caucasus. A sub-index of this Babel Tower of nations and languages.
- Chamorro, the language of Guam (US colony in the Pacific).
- Chechnya. A brave independent nation. Russian / Chechen (names in the new romanised alphabet)
- Chile. Kawesqar and Mapudungun, two Native American languages.
- China. Minorities within: Uyghur in Chinese Turkestan; Tibet. Minorities within the Republic of China (Taiwan): Atayal.
- Colombia. Inga language. Check the Native American sub-index.
- Cornish. The language of Cornwall in southern Great Britain.
- Corsica. Corsican, a variant of Italian, is the language of this French island.
- Creoles of the World: Papiamentu.
- Croatian minorities in Austria, Hungary, Romania, Italy (Molise region) and Slovakia. Minorities within Croatia: Italian, Istro-Romanian, Hungarian, German.
- Cyprus: Greek-Turkish table for the unrecognised Turk Republic of North Cyprus.
- Czech in Romania (Banat). Minorities within the Czech republic: German.
- Denmark. German-Danish minorities in the border area (Slesvig). See also North Frisian and Greenland Inuit.
- Dutch-speaking minorities (Flemish) in Wallonia (Belgium) and France.
- El Salvador: Pipil-Nahuatl; check the Native American sub-index.
- Estonia. Minorities within: Swedish, Russian, Võro-Seto language. Also Estonian in Russia.
- Ethiopia. Minorities within: Oromo nation.
- Finland. Minorities within: Sami and Swedish. See also Finnish minorities abroad in Sweden, Norway (Kven people) and Russia (Ingrian Finns and others).
- Flemish (Dutch) in France and Belgium.
- France. Minorities within: Basque, Breton, Occitan, Corsican, Catalan, German in Alsace-Lorraine and Flemish. In the colonies: Tinrin in New Caledonia or Kanaky. See also French and Franco-Provençal in Aosta Valley (Italy) and French and Walloon in Belgium.
- Frisia. In the Netherlands: Western Frisian. In Germany: Eastern Frisian in Saterland, and Northern Frisian in Slesvig (including Danish names).
- Friuli. The language in the region Friuli-Venezia Guilia in northern Italy.
- Galicia. In the northeast of Spain they speak Galician, a language close to Portuguese.
- Georgia. Direct transliteration from Georgian script. See Soviet sub-index for minorities within: Abkhaz, Kurdish and South Ossetia. Check also the Laz-Mingrelian page.
- German minorities in Eastern Europe, old and present, in Poland, Hungary, Czech republic, Slovakia, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia, Slovenia. Also in Italy (South Tirol + Walser and Bavarian communities), Belgium, Denmark, Alsace-Lorraine (France) and Transylvania (Romania). Minorities within Germany: Sorbian, Danish, Low German or Low Saxon, Eastern (Saterland) and Northern Frisian.
- Greece. Minorities within: Macedonian, Turkish (Western Thrace), Aroumanian, Albanian (Arvanite & Cham). Greek minorities in Italy (Griko & Graecanic) Albania and Turkey (Istanbul region and Muslim Pontic Greeks). See also the Greek-Turkish table for Cyprus.
- Guam (US colony in the Pacific): Chamorro.
- Guatemala: Maya languages and others; check the Native American sub-index.
- Honduras. Garifuna minority. Check the Native American sub-index.
- Hungarian minorities abroad: Transylvania (Romania), the Banat, Vojvodina (Serbia/Yugoslavia), Ukraine (Transcarpathia), Slovenia, Croatia and Austria (Burgenland). Minorities within Hungary: Slovenian, Croatian, German, Romanian, Slovak and Serbian.
- India: Tamil, Malayalam and native forms for brittish colonial names.
- Iran. Minorities within: Kurdistan.
- Iraq. Minorities within: Kurdistan.
- Ireland. Gaelic in the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland. Also Ulster-Scots in Northern Ireland.
- Italian minority in Croatia and Slovenia. Minorities within Italy: Friulian, Sardinian, Greek (Griko & Graecanic communities), Croats in Molise, Germans (South Tiroleans, Walser, and Bavarian communities), Slovenian, Arbëreshë-Albanian, Occitan, Ladin, French and Franco-Provençal in Aosta Valley.
- Japan. Minorities within: Ainu, native people of Hokkaido.
- Jewish languages: Yiddish in Europe, and Karaim in Lithuania and Ukraine.
- Kazakhstan. See Soviet sub-index and Transliteration scheme. Names in Kazakh replace former Russian names.
- Kosovo: Albanian-speaking region opressed by Serbia (Yugoslavia).
- Kurdish, Kurdistan. Kurdish minorities in Syria, Lebanon and Turkey (here); in Iran and Iraq ( here); and in the former USSR (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan).
- Kyrgyzstan. See Soviet sub-index and Transliteration scheme. Names in Kirghiz replace former Russian names.
- Ladin: Rheto-romance language in Italy.
- Latvia: Livonian and Polish minorities.
- Lebanon: Kurdish minority. Arabic / Kurdish table.
- Lithuania. Minorities within: Polish, Karaim jews. Also Lithuanian in Kaliningrad, Russia.
- Low German or Low Saxon in Germany and the Netherlands.
- Luxembourg. Behind French and German lies Luxembourgish, the national language.
- Macedonian minority in Greece. Minorities within Macedonia: Albanian, Aroumanian, Turkish. See also Transliteration scheme for Macedonian.
- Manx. Extinct Gaelic language of the Isle of Man, now recovering.
- Malta. Table for English-Maltese (semitic language close to Arab).
- Maya languages in Guatemala and Mexico.
- Mexico: Zapotec and other Native American languages (check the sub-index).
- Moldova. Gagauz minority. Placenames have changed to the Latin alphabet. See Soviet sub-index.
- Mongolia. Minorities within: Tuvinian. Cyrillic mongolian transliteration scheme.
- Montenegro: see Jugoslavia. Also Albanians in Montenegro.
- Morocco. Minorities within: Berbers (Tamazight language).
- Native American sub-index. From Inuit to Guaraní, through Cheyenne and more.
- The Netherlands. Minorities within: Frisian, and Low German or Low Saxon in the mainland; Papiamentu in the Nederlands Antillen. Dutch-speaking minorities (Flemish) in Belgium and France.
- New Caledonia or Kanaky (French colony in the Pacific). Tinrin language.
- New Zealand. Maori is the indigenous language of Aotearoa.
- Nicaragua. Garifuna minority. Check the Native American sub-index.
- North America. Sub-index for native U.S. and Canada nations. Inuit, Navajo, Ojibwe and more.
- Norway. Minorities within: Sami and Kven (Finnish-speaking people)
- Occitania. Tables for France, the Basque Country (French/Basque/Occitan), the Valadas Occitanas of Italy and Val d'Aran in Catalonia (Spanish/Catalan/Occitan table).
- Papua New Guinea: Loniu and Enga languages.
- Paraguay: Guarani language.
- Peru. Quechua language.
- Poland. Minorities within: German, Lemko (Ruthenian) and Ukrainian. See also Yiddish and Polish minorities in Lithuania, Latvia and Ukraine.
- Portugal. Astur-Leonese spoken in Miranda region. See also Portuguese in Spain and Galician, the sister language of Portuguese.
- Quechua most spoken indian language in South America (Peru...)
- Romania. Hungarian and German in Transylvania and the Banat; Czech in the Banat; Croatian and Serbian. Aroumanian in Dobrudja. Also Romanian in Moldavia and Ukraine, and in Hungary.
- Romansh. The Rhaeto-Romance language spoken in Switzerland (Graubünden/Grischun).
- Russia. A sub-index with several tables: Uralic nations, the Caucasus... Also listings of places that changed their Soviet names. Russian minorities outside: in Estonia and Alaska.
- Ruthenia. Rusyn language in Slovakia, Poland (Lemko people) and Ukraine (Hutsul people).
- Sami. The native people of northern Scandinavia. Four tables for Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia. Complete data.
- Sardinia. Italian/Sardinian table.
- Scania. A region within Sweden with its own language.
- Schleswig. Danish and German minorities live in the boundary area of Germany-Denmark.
- Scotland. Table for Gaelic and Scots-Lallans. Also Gaelic in Nova Scotia, and Scots-Ulster in Northern Ireland.
- Senegal. Wolof language.
- Serbia: see Yugoslavia. Also Serbian minorities in Romania and Hungary.
- Slovakia. Minorities within: Rusyn, Hungarian, German, Ukrainian and Croatian. Also Slovak in Hungary.
- Slovenian. Minorities abroad in Austria, Hungary and Italy. Minorities within Slovenia: Gotschee Germans, Italian and Croatian.
- Sorbian. Slavic language in the Lusatia (Lausitz) area in eastern Germany.
- South Africa. Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Pedi, Afrikaans...
- South Tirol. German language region in Italy. Aslo Walser German names from Italy.
- The former Soviet Union. A sub-index with several tables: national minorities in Russia, old Soviet communist names that changed, recovery of national languages after independece, change of alphabets...
- Spain. Minorities within: Basque, Galician, Astur-Leonese (including Asturian), Occitan in Aran valley, Aragonese and Catalan. In the colonies: Tarifit (Berber) in Ceuta and Melilla.
- Sweden. Minorities within: Finnish, Scanian and Sami. See also the Swedish minorities in Finland and Estonia.
- Switzerland. Minorities within: Romansh.
- Syria: Kurdish minority. Arabic / Kurdish table.
- Taiwan: Atayal and other aboriginal languages.
- Tajikistan. See Soviet sub-index. Names in Tajik replace former Russian names.
- Tibet. Chinese-Tibetan tables.
- Turkey. Minorities within: Kurdish, Laz-Mingrelian, Greek (in Istanbul, and the Pontic Muslim Greeks in the Black Sea). Also Turkish minorities in Western Thrace (Greece), Bulgaria, and Macedonia. See also Turkic nations in the Soviet sub-index and the page for the Turk Republic of North Cyprus.
- Turkmenistan. Names in Turkmen replace former Russian names. Also Kurdish, and Turkmen in Uzbekistan (see Soviet sub-index)
- United Kingdom. Minorities within: Irish and Ulster-Scots in Northern Ireland, Gaelic and Scots-Lallans in Scotland, Manx, Welsh and Cornish.
- Ukraine. Russian, Ukrainian; Crimean Tatar, Polish, Hungarian; also Ukrainian minorities abroad... Check the Soviet sub-index.
- USA. See the North American page and the Native American sub-index. Languages like Cheyenne, Navajo... Also Russian in Alaska (!) and Chamorro in Guam.
- Uyghur nation: Uyghuristan. Turkic nation within China.
- Uzbekistan. See Soviet sub-index and Transliteration scheme. Names in Uzbek replace former Russian names. Also Karakalpak (Kazakh dialect).
- Wales. English/Welsh table + Welsh names for the rest of the world.
- Yiddish in Europe.
- Yugoslavia. Minorities within: Bulgarian; Albanian in Kosovo and Montenegro; Hungarian and German in Vojvodina and the western Banat. See also Serbian in Hungary and Romania.
- Zimbabwe: Shona language.
Last updated: 1999.12.20
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