What are the different Tatar groups (ethnography)?

This may not be appropriate as we don't want to play into the Russian Divide and rule policy. However might be appropriate at a later date to come up with statistics as to how many Tatars live in Moscow, Siberia etc.

From a post on TMG from Suyumbika Ziganshina <ziganshi@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu>


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:                                                                         : 
:Suyumbika Ziganshina, FSA Graduate Fellow   We are all in the gutter, but: 
:Graduate School of Library & Info Science   some of us are looking at the:  
:University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign   stars.                       :  
:Telephone: (217) 332-5801                                 Oscar Wilde    : 
:                                                                         : 
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Bennigson & Wimbush (The post is not exact quotation. Some minor changes have been made.) (p. 231)

Tiumen (tumen) and the Tobol Tatars: Self denomination "Tiumenli" and "Tobolik". In 1926 there were 22,636 Tiumen and 32,102 Tobol Tatars.

Tara Tatars, self-denomination Tarlyk (Darlik ?) In 1926 there were 11,517 Tara Tatars, in the valleys of Irtysh and Tara.

Baraba Tatars, self-denomination Baraba, 7,528 in 1926.

Bukharlyks, originally 15th and 16th century fur merchants from Central Asia and western Siberia. 11,659 in 1926.

There are other groups there, the Volga Tatars, the Astrakhan Tatars, the Kasimov group and the Bashkirs (Bashqurts).

Astrakhan Tatars, self denomination Karagashly, are mixtures of the Nogais and Astrakhan Tatars. They speak and write the same language as the Kazan Tatars. 43,000 in 1926.

Kasymov Tatars are the refugees from Kazan Khanate who settled in Riazan in the 15th century under the leadership of Kasym Khan. 7,399 in 1897.

Lithuanian Tatars also called Polish or Belorussian Tatars are descendants of the Nogai Ordu (Horde) to whom Grand Duke Vitautas applied for assistance in his struggle against the Teutonic Order. After the victory at Grunwald (1410) they were invited to settle in Lithuania. They speak mostly Polish but are Muslim. Probably around 5,000 left. Some migrated to the USA and live in Brooklyn :-)..

The largest groups is probably the Volga Tatar group. [Mine: Volga seems to be corruption of Bulgar (Bolgar).]

Volga Tatars proper, also called Kazan Tatars. Before the revolution they called themselves 'Turks' and in some cases Bulgars. They are descended from the Volga Bulgars, of turkicized Eastern Finns and of the Golden Ordu Turkic tribes. They range in ethnic type from the purely Finnic (blond and blue eyed) to the mongoloid type resembling Kazakhs.

Mishars, turkicized Eastern Finns (Meschera and Mordvinians). They preserve their Finnic ethnic type and speak a western dialect of Kazan Tatars. About 200,000 in 1912.

Teptiars, Volga Tatars who migrated east after the Russian conquest of Kazan and settled among the Bashkirs. Their dialect is a mixture of Tatar and Bashkir. 300,000 in 1912.

Kryashans, Volga Tatars converted to Christianity, mainly during two campaigns. One in the late 16th century in which Muslim Tatars and animist Turks and Finns were converted. The second in the first half of the 18th century, during the reign of Tsarina Anna, when a large number of Muslim Tatars were forced to convert. They've been assimilating continuously. Probably no more than 250,000 presently.

(p. 234)

The ancestors of the Volga Tatars attained a high level of urban civilization in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries and their culture was not destroyed either by the Mongol invasion of the 13th century or by the Russian conquest of the 16th. In the 19th century the Tatar cities of Kazan, Orenburg, Troitsk, and Astrakhan ranked among the great cultural centers of the Islamic world.

This background explains the Tatar community's exceptional capacity for survival. Not only has it resisted pressure over centuries aimed at their assimilation by the Russians, but they even succeeded in converting to Islam and Tatarizing some Eastern Finns (Udmurts, Maris, Mordvinians) and Christian Turks (Chuvash). The exact number is not known but is certainly considerable. This process was especially strong between 1905 and 1928. At the same time, the Tatars are the only Muslim Turkic nationality which, because of its diaspora, is being linguistically being assimilated by Russians.

(p. 241)

Bashkirs: 1,371,000 in 1979. The ancestors of the northern and western Bashkirs were Ugrian or Finnic tribes, turkified and islamized during the period of the Golden Ordu and the Kazan Khanate. The southern and eastern Bashkirs are descendants of the Turkic tribes closely related to Kazahs and Nogais.

Krimchak: The Krimchak Jews (called Krimtschaki in Russian) are one of the smallest and least-known Jewish groups. The Krimchaks were rabbinical Jews who lived on the Crimean peninsula (especially in Kaffa). Important settlements of Krimchaks began in the 16th century. They spoke a form of Crimean Tatar. In 1926 there were 6000 speakers of the Krimchak language. Today, there are virtually none. The Krimchaks did not know the Hebrew language but they did use the Hebrew script. Their occupations were primarily farming and crafts. The exact origins of the Krimchak Tatars are unclear. (contributed by Kevin Brook <kbrook@acad.bryant.edu>)


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Bryant College Class of 1997                      kbrook@acad.bryant.edu 
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             http://acad.bryant.edu/~kbrook/khazaria.html 
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Copyright (c) 1996 by Iskender Agi.
October 16, 1996 at 12:09 PM
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