Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
Nomadic Aryans invaded India ca. 1500 BC destroying the Indus valley
civilization and exterminating the Indus inhabitants. Thus ended the most
brilliant civilization of the ancient world. Subsequent to this invasion,
India was plunged into 2000 years of the Vedic Dark Ages. When cities were
built again, it was under Scytho-Greek influence. The ziggurat of the
Indus disappeared forever.
- Ash layers indicate
widespread burning down of Indus cities by the Aryans.
Fractured skulls and mutilated skeletons display axe
sword marks due to widespread massacre of the Indus inhabitants by
- Caste System of Apartheid
similar to US South arose when white Caucasoid Aryans
Semitic (`Pani' or Phoenician) & black Dravidian inhabitants.
Shivaism is still the Dravidian religion
(Tamil"civa", red, angry), while Vaishnavism is the
marks the Aryan
invasion in all respects. Pottery, architecture, Aryan weapons
(incl. the horse & chariot) & Aryan settlements occur towards the
end of the civilization atop the destroyed cities with primitive
fire altars and the new painted grey ware (PGW)
- Flooding is indicated
by the silt deposits and was caused
by the deliberate destruction of the indus dam and irrigation
system by the Aryans.
- Northern Dravidians
(eg. the Brahui, Bhil and Gonds occupy
isolated tracts of North and Central India showing that the
Dravidians were once spread over all of India.
Sanskrit Literature clearly records the Aryan
Indra, chief of the Aryan gods, is
repeatedly referred to as "destroyer of cities" and exterminator
of dasyus. In Tamil literature 1500 BC is the date
of the mythical destruction of Tamil civilisation; this coincides
with the Aryan invasion. In addition
Sanskrit contains many loanwords of Dravidian origin. Shiva is one
example (Tamil"civa"). Some sounds are also of Dravidian
Astronomical Science used by the Vedic ritualists
Semito-Dravidian Indus valley people as these were compiled during the
Indus Valley and are not referred to in the Avesta or Rig Veda.
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Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
Table of Contents
Around 1500 BC, the Indus civilization came, after 2000 years of
prosperity, to a comparatively abrupt end. Conclusive evidence shows that
the reason for this decline, in fact the sole reason for it, was an
invasion by highly barbaric Aryans. They invaded, destroying the Indus
cities and exterminating the native peoples.
Thick ash layers occur in the upper strata of many Indus cities.
At Nal the last phase of the Zhob-ware was burnt down so much so that the
mound is known as the Sohr Damb, or the Red Mound, from the reddening due
At Dabar Kot the upper 6 feet of the tell show 4 thick ash layers that
indicate repeated destruction by conflagration and the RG V encrusted
ware is associated with the last settlements of Harappa
[ Piggott 215 ].
At the Rana Ghundai mound everywhere overlying the foundation level of
the RG III c phase there are pockets of ash. Above the RG III c phase the
pottery is markedly different from the preceding type, the RG IV phase
pottery being painted with coarse bands. RG IV was again destroyed by
fire, and the RG V phase is marked by another change in pottery. The RG V
pottery is unpainted and contains patterns in relief [ Piggott p. 214 ].
At Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Chanhu-daro, skeletons/fragments of skeletons
indicate violent massacres in the final stages of the cities' history.
Huddled skeletons of persons murdered in the streets indicate that the
mass dyings were not due to poisonings etc. but were violent.
-- [ Piggott p. 145 ]
Copper axe-adzes are intrusive ar Harappan sites ( Harappa, Shahi-tump and
Chanhu-daro ) but are similar to those
found at North Persian sites ( Hissar III, Shah Tepe, Turang Tepe ) and
Akkadian sites ( Assur, Sialk B cemetary : here the specimens are
probably as late as the 9th century BC ).
-- [ Piggott p.228 ]
Swords 1.5 foot long and strengthened at the mid-rib are non-Harappan and
are found only in the later strata of the cities. These swords at
Mohenjo-daro have a tang and rivet to hold the handle exactly as found in
Palestine, where such implements are associated with the Hyksos 1800-1500
-- [ Piggott p. 229 ]
Copper harpoons found in the indus Valley are similar to those found in
Europe and elsewhere in Asia.
-- [ Piggott p. 237 ]
Signs of flooding were discovered in the Indus cities, mainly in the form
of silt deposits. It was thus considered that this flooding explantaion
could explain the fall of the Indus cities and was considered as
the most viable alternative to the idea of an Aryan invasio. It was
subsequently discovered, however, that flooding had been pointed out as a
consequence several decades before the actual discovery of flooding.
It is now accepted that flooding was caused by the Aryans' destruciton of
the Indus dam and irrigation system, and was merely another aspect of the
+ He smote Vrtra who encompassed the waters [ RgV VI.20.2 ]
In Sanskrit, `vrtra' is an `obstacle', and denotes a barrage or blockage [
ISISH 70-71]. It is thus a word for `dam'.
Dams now called Gebr-band are found on many water-courses of the western
parts of the Indus region. Aryans shattered the dam system of the Indus,
leading to silt deposits in Mohenjo-daro [ S & T 369].
+ He smote Vrtra who enclosed the waters, like a tree with the bolt
[ RgV II.14.2 ]
+ He is referred to as `conquering the waters' ( apsujit ), which is his
+ Indra let loose the streams after slaying Vrtra [ RgV IV.19.8 ]
+ He cleaves the mountian, making the streams flow
[ RgV I.57.6; X.89.7 ], even with the sound of his bolt [ RgV VI.27.1]
-- [ RgV I.57.6; II.14.2; IV.19.8; VI.20.2; VI.27.1; X.89.7 ] [ ST 368 ]
+ When he [Indra] laid open the great mountain, he let loose the
torrents and slew the Danava, he set free the pent up springs,
the udder of the mountain. [ RgV V.32.1-2 ]
+ He slew the Danava, shattered the great mountian, broke open the
well, set free the pent up waters. [ RgV I.57.6; V.33.1 ]
+ He releases the streams which are like impisoned cows
[ RgV I.61.10 ]
+ He won the cows and soma and made the 7 rivers flow.
[ RgV I.32.12; II.12.12 ]
+ He releases the imprisoned waters [ RgV I.57.6; I.103.2 ]
+ He dug out channels for the streams with his bolt [ RgV II.15.3 ],
let the flood of waterrs flow into the sea. [ RgV II.19.3 ]
+ He caused the waters pent up by Vrtra to flow
[ RgV III.26.6; IV.17.1 ]
-- [ MacDonnell ] [S & T 368-9 quotg Macdonell ]
Another verse explicitly metnions him as a destroyer of dams:
rinag rodhamsi krtrimani
Now, rodhas = "dam" elsewhere in the Rig Veda and in later
Sanskrit [ S & T 369 ]. The above evidence, taken directly from the Rig
Veda and not from any secondary source, is sufficient to implacate the
Aryans as the destroyers of the dam systems of the ancient Indus.
= " he removed artificial barriers"
-- [ RgV 2.15.8 ]
Aryan settlements occur atop the destroyed cities towards the end of the
civlization. THey are primitive brick structures made of material taken
from the ruins of the preceding towns.
Aryan weaponry, including the horse and chariot occur towards the end of
the Indus cities' history.
Several Dravidian tribes still inhabit isolated parts of northern India.
The Brahui inhabit parts of Baluchistan and stil speak a Dravidian
language. The Bhils inhabit parts of southern Rajastan. The black Gonds
inhabit parts of central India about the Vindhyans.
The Aryans and Dravidians today still retain by and large, the original
features. The Aryans have fair-pale skin, leptorrhine (thin) noses and
straight hair. The Dravidians have broad noses, curly-wavy hair and
dark-black skin. They are related to the Africans [ Winters* ].
[ Risley ].
The Indo-Aryans belong to the Caucasoid or white race and are very
similar to Latins. The Indo-Aryan languages belong to the Indo-European
family of languages. Racially the Indo-Aryans posess white to fair skin,
thin noses and lips and straight hair.
References abound to an Aryan invasion in Sanskrit literature.
The ancient singer praises the god who "destroyed the Dasyans and
protected the Aryan colour." [ Rg.V. III.34.9 ] [ Ann. 114 ]
"the thunderer who bestowed on his white friends the fields, bestowed the
sun, bestowed the waters." [ Rg.V. I.100.18 ] [ Ann. 114 ]
Numerous are the references to
"the black skin" `Krishnam Vacham' [ Rg.V. IX.41.1, Sama Veda I.491,
] [ Ann. 114 ] which is mentioned with abhorrence.
" stromy gods who rush on like furious bulls and scatter the black skin."
[ Rg.V. IX.73.5 ]
The singers mention
"the black skin, the hated of Indra", being swept ourtof heaven
[ RgV. IX.73.5 ]
"Indra protected in battle the Aryan worshipper, he subdued the lawless
Manu, he conqured the black skin."
[ Rg.V. I.130.8 ] [ Ann.114 ]
The sacrificer poured out thanks to his god for "scattering the slave
bands of black descent", and for stamping out " the vile Dasyan colour."
[ Rg.V. II.20.7, II.12.4 ] [ ANn. 115 ]
"Dasam varnam adharam"
[ Rg.V. II.12.4 ]
[ Muir part I, p.43, II, p.284, 323 etc. ] [ Ann. 114 ff ]
Rakshas are aboriginals
- Ravana = Rakshasendra [ Ann. 111 ]
- Rakshas = Ceylon aborigines since Chinese tracvellers and CInghales
chronilces , Rakko or Yakko in the ernalculr [ An. 111 ]
Destruction of Cities -
The Aryan gods are proudly presented by the Vedic "sages" as the
destroyeres of cities. Of these Indra, later considered an incarnation of
the God Vishnu, is the prime culprit.
Indra is called Puroha or Purandhara, `sacker of cities' - [ S & T 366 ]
Indra overthrew 100 Puras made of stone ( asmanmayi ) for his worshipper
Divodasa [ RgV 4.30.20 ], evidently belonging to Sambara who is a
Dasa ( non-Aryan/demon ) of the mountain [ RgV 6.26.5 ]
-- [ Chanda ] [ S & T p.364 ]
No regard was shown to the life of non-Aryans.
An Aryan poet says,
" Ye mighty ones [ Asvins ] what do you do there;
why do you stay there among the people wh are held in high esteem
through not offering sacrifices;
ignore them, destroy the life of the Panis "
-- [ RgV I.83.3 ] [ S & T 365 ]
The famous Harappa hymn of the Rig Veda describes with praise Indra's
destruction of Harappa :
" In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of Virasakha.
This Hariyupiyah is likely to be the Harappa of tte Indus valley.
"At Hariyupiyah he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the rear fled
-- [ Rg.V. XXVII.5 ]
The date of 1500 BC corresponds to the end of a sangam period when
invasions by barbarians occurred.
The caste system is another `fossil' of the
Aryan conquest, with the lower and exterior castes representing the
aboriginal inhabitants that managed to survivie the Aryan slaughter.
Exactly the same occurred in other parts of the world where one race has
subjugated others, eg. Latin America ( Iberians conquered Aboriginals ),
USA ( Anglo-Saxons ruling over Hispanics and Afro-Americans ) etc.
These include the Adivasis ( aboriginal tribals ), the Dalits (
semi-settled aborigianls ) and the Sudras ( the lowest caste ). However,
some of the Sudras were imported under Muslim rule from Southern India.
The caste system consists of several different "varnas"
( Sans. "colors"), three of which are Aryan. The lowest caste,
the Shudra, consists of aboriginals, as well as the exterior untouchable
The Aryans introduced tremendous restrictions on the life of women,
including sati and child mariage. According to Aryan "Hindu"
(ie. Vaishnavite) scriptures, a man must marry a maiden one-third his
Cow-worship is another feature introduced by the Aryans. This probably
arose because the Aryans were nomads and hence required the cow.
Siva is the god of the Dravidians. Vishnu is the god of the Aryans
The star-calendar used by the Aryan-Vaishnavites today was adopted from
the Semito-Dravidian Indus Valley civilization, since:
The Indus people practiced astronomy because the streets are oriented
towards the cardinal directions, presupposing the use of the sun-stick.
A seal from Mohenjo-daro depicts an Indus deity with a star on either
side of his haed in the fashion of the Near East. Inanna-Ishtar, the
goddess of love and war, for example, was associated with the planet Venus
[ Parpola ]. This may have led to the cult of worshipping the planets, the
astral religion of India.
- It is not referred to in the Rig Veda or Avesta
- It was compiled when the Indus Valley was at its peak, before the
Aryans came to India. [ Parpola ]
Fire altars occur late towards the Indus cities history. They are
primitve in nature, constructed from material from the destroyed Indus
Aryans invaded several parts of the world, putting an end to various
brilliant civilizations. Babylonia was destroyed by Kassites, Hittites
and Mittani, Egypt was devastated by the Hyksos, and Minoan culture
by the Dorians.
7. Rival Theories
Several other explanations have been put forth to explain the demise of
the Indus civilisation besides the Aryan invasion. These are:
These have severe problems, however.
- Environmental catastrophes - These include:
- Internal Decline - These explanations claim that slavery, or
some other revolt destroyed the Indus civilisation.
Cometary Impact . The problems with this theory are:
Thus, although a cometary candidate for the extinction has been found in
Comet Enke [ ], this is a far-fetched theory, to say the least. The
destruciton of several civilizations simultaneously requires a global
catastrophe. But some civilizations, eg. in Central and South AMerica, and
China, survived the 1500 BC discontinuity. Asteroidal impacts tend to
leave larger craters and more iridium, so the arguments against this
variant of impact apply more forcefully.
Flooding . Undisputed evidence of flooding has been found in the
form of silt deposits and barrage system erected as a defensive measure.
Flooding thyus remained a serious candidate until it was pointed out that
several Vedic scholars had realized that the Aryans had destroyed the
irrigation and dam system of the Indus. Thus flooding is a natural
consequence of Aryan invasion and not an independant mechanism.
- No crater/craters
have been found with an age matching 1500
BC, nor of the requisite size. The size is narrowly constrained, for if
the impact was too large, catastrophe would have been global, while if it
were too small, the effect would have been negligible.
- No iridium anomaly ,
of all impacts from
the mammoth K/T Chiczulub crater [ ALvarez ] to the Sudbury intrusive,
has been found in the Indus valley of the required age.
- No shocked glasses ,
deformation features, have been found anywhere near the Indus valley.
1. To suppose that, after two millenia of stability some internal revolt
was the cause behind the downfall is stretching the imagination.
2. No evidence has been found for this, and when indisputable evidence of
violence perpetrated with new weapons exists, it is disregarding evidence.
Although the following may seem rather harsh, yet it is necessary to
expose the real designs of some of the opponents of one of the most
well-established theories of all time.
The opponents of the concept of Aryan invasion fall into 3 categories:
These mostly have ulterior motives. The former oppose any vilification of
their "gods" who are implicated in the worst massacres and atrocities
recorded in history. They wish to see the Vedas, in acutality the songs of
promitive cow-herds, as the repository of all science.
The latter do not want to accept that their ancestors
perpetrated such crimes.
One religious fanatic who opposed the notion of Aryan invasion during
its infancy was Narendra Nath Datta, later known as Vivekananda. All he
could do was to vilify honest schloars:
- Aryan Hindu Fanatics
" And what your European pandits say about the Aryan's sweeping fron some
foreign land, snatching away the alnds of the aboriginals and settling
India by exterminating them, is all pure nonsense, foolish talk. Strange,
that our Indian scholars too say amen to them, and all these monstrous
lies are taught to our boys. This is very bad indeed.
In what Veda, in what Sukta, so you find that the Aryans came to India
from a foreign country? Where do you get the idea that they slaughtered
the wild aborigines? What do you gain by talking such nonsense?"
-- [ ` Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda ', 1963, p.534-535 ]
[ Panda 70 ]
Another fundamentalist who opposed the notion of Aryan invasions is
Srviastava, who apparently only conducted his research to prove the
innocence of the Aryan gods :
"Indra, therefore stands completely exonerated"
-- [ Srivastava 441 ]
Later, lacking any scientific evidence whatsoever, he degenerates into
vilifying Wheeler himself :
" .. we see him as a brgiadier in the British army during WW II, we feel
he could not interpret the dubious evidence of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
in any other manner "
-- [ Srivas 442 ]
" Both Dayananda and Aurobindo refuted in clear terms the historical
doctrines of Aryan invasion and struggle of Aryans with Dravidian, which
was originated by the Westerners and has even been popularised among a
large section of the Indian Historians."
Who this Dayananda was must be fully exposed.
-- [ A.K.Pateria, `Modern Commentators of the Veda', p.63 ] [ Panda 70 ]
The Aryans were so barbaric that they did not even have a word
for brick in Sanskrit [ S & T 372 ] [ Woolley ]
- [ RgV ] = Rig Veda, see eg.
- `Hymns of the Rig-veda', R.T.H.Griffith, 1896
- `The Rig-Veda: An Anthology', W.D.O'Flaherty 1981
- `Vedic Hymns', 2 vols. (1891-97), F.M.Muller and H.Oldenburg
- [ Manu ] = `Manu Smirti', Manu, Aryavarta 10 000 BC - 1500 BC
?; several translations exist.
- [ Garud ] = Garuda Purana
- [ Atharva ] = Atharva Veda
- [ Taitt. Samh. ] = Taittriya Samhita
- [ Agarwal ] = D.P.Agarwal, `Archaeology of India',
Institute of Asian
Studies, Copenhagen K 1982,
- [ Allchin ] = ` The Rise of Civilization in India and
N.Delhi, 1983, B. and R. Allchin
- [ Ammerman ] = `The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of
Populations in Europe', A.J.Ammerman and L.L.Cavali-Sforza,
Princeton Univ. Press 1984
- [ Aravanan ] = `Physical and cultural similarities between Dravidian
and African', K.P.Aravanan,
J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1976) 23-27
- [ Alvarez ] = `Extraterrestrial cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary
L.W.Alvarez, W.Alvarez, F.Asaro and H.V.Michel,
Science 208 (1980) 1095-1108
- [ Alvarez SA ] = `An extraterrestrial impact',
W.Alvarez and F.Asaro,
Scientific American 263 (1990) 44-52
[ Ann. ] = `The Annals of Rural Bengal', W.W.Hunter,
Broomhill House 1868, reprinted in `Landmarsk in Indian Anthropology',
vol. 7, Cosmo Publishing, N.Delhi 1987
- [ Basham ] = A.L. Basham,
`The Wonder That Was India', Grove Press, New
York, NY 1954
- [ Boyce ] = M. Boyce, `History of Zoroastrianism', v.1.
- [ Bradke ] = P.v. Bradke, `Dyaus Asura, Ahura Mazda, und die
Asuras', Halle 1895
- [ Casal ] = J.-M. Casal, `Fouilles de Mundigak' Paris
- [ Cardone ] = `Indo-European and Indo-Europeans', ed. G.
H.M.Hoenigswald and A. Senn, Univ. of Penn. Press 1970
- [ Chanda 26 ] = ` The Indus Valley in the Vedic Period ' -
Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India
Vol. 31 ( 1926 ) Delhi
- [ Chanda 29 ] = ` Survival of the Prehistoric Civilization of the
Valley ' - R.P.Chanda, Mems. of the ASI No. 41 ( 1929 )
- [ Chanda 41 ] = ` Harappa ' - R.P.Chanda,
Science and Culture Vol. 6 ( 1941 ) Calcutta, 377 - 381
- [ Childe 26 ] = `The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European
Gordon V. Childe, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 1926
locates the Indo-Aryan home north of the Black Sea
- [ Childe 37 ] = Gordon V. Childe, ` The Indus Civilization',
Antiquity 11 (1937) 351
- [ Childe 54 ] = `New Light on the Most Ancient East', Gordon
V. Childe, N.Y. rev. ed. 1954
- [ Childe 42 ] = `What Happened in History', Penguin 1942, 1976
- [ Childe: Origins ] = Childe, V.G. The Aryans, A Study of
- [ Dandamaev ] = Dandamaev, M.A. and V.G. Lukonin,
`The Culture and Social
Institutions of Ancient Iran', Cambridge 1989
- [ Elfenbein ] = `A periplus of the Brahui problem', J.Elfenbein,
Studia Iranica 16:2 (1987) 215-233
- [ Elst ] = `Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar'
by Koenraad Elst 1993,
against the concept of Aryan invasions.
- [ Emeneau ] = M. Emeneau, `The Dialects of Old Indo-Aryan',
`Ancient Indo-European Dialects', Berkeley 1966
- [ Fairservis ] = `The Roots of Ancient India',
W.A.Fairservis, Chicago University Press 1962
- [ Frye ] = R.N.Frye, `The History of Ancient Iran', Munich
- [ Ghirshman ] = R. Ghirshman, `L'Iran et la migration des
Indo-Aryens et Iraniens.' Leiden 1977.
- [ Goetze ] = A. Goetze, `Hethiter, Churriter und Assyrer',
- [ Gonda ] = J. Gonda, `Vedic Literature', Wiesbaden 1975
- [ Hale ] = W. Hale, `Asura in early Vedic religion', Delhi
- [ Hessar ] = Dyson, R. and Howard, S.(eds.) `Tappeh Hessar:
Reports of the
Restudy Project', 1976 Florence.
- [ Hillebrandt ] = A.Hillebrandt, `Vedische Mythologie', t.2.
- [ Hillebrandt ] = A. Hillebrandt,`Aus Alt-Neu indischen',
- [ ISIH ] = ` An Introduction To The Study of Indian History' ,
D.D. Kosambi Bombay 1956 ] = ISIH
- [ Kaegi ] = F.Kaegi,`The Rigveda', London 1886
- [ Kohl ] = P. Kohl, (ed) `The Bronze Age Civilization of Central
Asia: Recent Soviet Discoveries', Armonk, NY 1981
- [ Konow ] = S. Konow, `Zur Frage nach den Asuras',
in: `Beitrage zur
Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte Indiens. Festgabe Hermann
Jacobi zum 75 Geburstag dargebracht', Bonn 1926
- [ Kuiper ] = F.B.J.Kuiper,
`Aryans in the Rigveda', Leiden, 1991
- [ Linden ] = C.W.J.v.d.Linden, `The concept of deva in the Vedic
Age', Utrecht 1954
- [ Mackay ] = `Further Excavations at Mohenjo-daro',
2 vols. Delhi
1938; is an investigation revealing the massacres that occurred.
- [ Mahadevan ] = `Dravidian models of decipherment of the Indus
script: A case study', I. Mahadevan,
Tamil Civilization 4 (1986) 133
- [ Mahadevan rev ] = `An Encyclopedia of the Indus Script',
I.Mahadevan, review of Paropola's `Deciphering the Indus Script'
in Int'l J. of Dravidian Lingiustics (Trivandrum, Jan.1997).
- [ MacDonell ] = A.A.MacDonell, `The Vedic Mythology',
- [ Mallory ] = `In Search of the Indo-Europeans : Language,
Archaeology and Myth', J.P.Mallory, Thames and Hudson, London 1989
- [ Marshall ] = J.Marshall, `Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus
- [ Matas ] = E. Aguilar Matas `Rgvedic Society', Leiden 1991 ?
- [ Mayhofer ] = M. Mayhofer, `Die Indo-Arier im alten Vorderasien,
einer analytischen Bibliographie', Wiesbaden 1966
- [ Muller ] = H. Muller-Karpe, (ed.) 1984
`Neolithische-kupferzeitliche Siedlungen in
der Gyoksjur Oase, Sud-Turkmenistan', Munchen 1984
- [ Ooosten ] = J.Oosten, `The War of the Gods: the social code in
Indo-European mythology' London 1985
- [ Panda ] = `Rationale of Astrology', Dandapani Panda,
[ Parpola ] = `Religion reflected in the iconic signs of the Indus script:
penetrating into long-forgotten picto+graphic messages', Asko Parpola,
Visible Religion , 6 1988
[ Parpola Book ] = `Deciphering the Indus Script', Asko Parpola, Cambridge
University Press, 1994
[ Muir ] = `Original Sanskrit Texts', Muir
- [ Piggott : Wheel ] = Piggott, S. `The Earliest Wheeled
Transport', Ithaca 1983
- [Piggott] = `Prehistoric India' by S. Piggott, Penguin Books
Middlesex UK, 1952 p.145
- [ Possehl ] = `Ancient Cities of The Indus', N.Delhi 1979
- [ Pumpelly ] = T. Pumpelly, `Explorations in Turkestan:
Expedition of 1904', Washington 1908
- [ Rau ] = W. Rau, `The Meaning of Pur in Vedic Literature',
- [ Redford ] = M. Redford,`Egypt, Israel and Canaan in Ancient
Times', Princeton 1992
- [ Renfrew Bk ] = `Archaeology and Language: the Puzzle of
Indo-European Origins', C. Renfrew, Cambridge Univ. Press 1988
- [ S & T ] = ` History of Science and Technology in Ancient India -
Beginnings ' - D. Chattopadhyaya, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd. Calcutta 1986
an excellent rebuff of the opponents of the Aryan invasion idea; quotes
from all the following ref's of Kosambi and Chanda
- [ Singh ] = P. Singh, `Burial Practices in Ancient India',
- [ Snoy ] = P. Snoy, `Die Kafiren' Frankfurt-am-Main 1962
- [ Sparren ] = M. Sparreboom, `Chariots in the Veda',
- [ Srivastava ] = `The Myth of Aryan Invasion of Harappa Town
by K.M.Srivastava, in
`Frontiers of The Indus Civilization',
eds. B.B.Lal and S.K.Gupta,
Delhi 1984 p.437-443
opposes the notion of Aryan invasion.
- [ Thieme ] = P. Thieme, `Der Fremdling im Rigveda'
- [ Vats ] = M. Vats, `Excavations at Harappa' Delhi 1940
- [ Wikander ] = S.Wikander, `Der arische Mannerbund',
- [ Woolley ] = L.Woolley, `History of mankind: Culture and
Development', Vol. I, Pt. 2, pp.353-365, The Beginning of
- [ Raikes 65 ] = R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro Floods',
- [ Raikes 67 ] = R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro Floods - Riposte',
Antiquity 41 (1967) 309-310
- [ Raja+Frawley ] = `Vedic Aryans and the Origins of
by N.S. Rajaram and David Frawley, World Heritage Press 1995
against the Aryan invasion `theory'.
- [ Raja ] = `Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth',
by N.S. Rajaram, Voice of India Publication,
an opponent of the Aryan invasion idea.
- [ Renfrew ] = `The Origins of Indo-European Languages', C.
Scientific American 261:4 (Oct.1989) 106-114
hypothesizes that the spread of Indo-European languages was
- [Risley] = `The People of India' by Sir H.H.Risley 1915
2nd ed., edtd. by Sir W. Crooke 1969
- [ Senghor ] = `Negritude and Dravidian Culture', L.S.Senghor,
J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1974) p.4
- [ Tala ] = `The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism',
by Shrikant G. Talageri, Voice of India, 1993
opposes the notion of Aryan invasions, as do [ Raja ], [ Raja+Frawley ],
and [ Elst ].
- [ Tuttle ] = `Dravidian and Nubian', E.H.Tuttle,
J. of the Amer. Oreintal Society 52 (1932) 133-144
- [ Upadhyaya ] = `Dravidian and Negro-African', U.P.Upadhyaya,
Intnl. J. of Dravidian Linguisitsics 5:1 (1976) 32-64
- [ Weiss ] = `The Genesis and COllapse of Third Millenium North
H. Weiss, M.-A.Courty, W. Wetterstrom, F. Guichard, L. Senior, R. Meadow
and A. Curnow,
Science 261 ( 1993 ) 995 - 1004;
suggest that a volcanic eruption caused the fall of Akkad
- [ Winters ] = `The Indus Valley Writing is Proto-Dravidian',
Clyde A. Winters,
J. of Tamil Studies 25 (1985) 50-64
- [ Winters ] = `The Harappan Script',
Clyde A. Winters,
J. of Tamil Studies 30 (1987) 89-111
- [ Winters ] = `The Inspiration of the Harappan Talismanic Seals',
Clyde A. Winters,
Tamil Civilization 2 (1984) 1-8
- [ Winters ] = `Review article on Dr. Asko Parpola's
"The Coming of the Aryans to Irna and India and the CUltural and Ethnic
Identity of the Dasas", Clyde A. Winters,
Intnl J. Of Dravidian Lingiuistics XVIII (1989) 98 - 127;
a rebuff to Parpola's theory that the Dasas were Aryans.
- [ Winters ] = `The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Language
and Culture', Clyde A. Winters,
1st Intnl Symosm. on Asian Studies 5 1105-1120
- [Winters:Agri] - `African Influences on Indian Agriculture',
J of African Civlization, 3:1 (April 1981) p.100-110
- [Winters:Sympos] - `The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African
1st Intl Symposium on Asian Studies 5 p.1105-20
- [ War ] = P. Chakravarti, `The Art of War in Ancient India',
- [ Waddell ] = L.A.Waddell,
`The Makers of Civilization', Angriff
Press, Hollywood, CA 1929
- [ Weisman ] = Charles A. Weisman,
`The Origins of Race and
Civilization', SFA 1990
- [ Wheeler 47 ] = `Ancient India', No.3 (1947) 82, SIr
- [ Wheeler 66 ] = `Civilization of the Indus and Beyond',
- [ Wheeler 79 ] = `The Indus Civilization', 3rd ed., Cambridge
- [ Wheeler 59 ] = `Early India and Pakistan', London 1959
- [ Wheeler 50 ] = `5000 years of Pakistan: An Archaeological
Outline', Londoon 1950
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