Abbreviations, Explanations,
References, Bibliography

This site is not an absolutely complete and detailed catalog of Baltic coinage due to the fact, that coins, especially during the Livonia Confederation, had a numerous die variants. However, still the site challenges to cover all the known types and minting dates, thus being the accurate identifier. Also the number of known die variants for each type of coin is given. Mostly these are the variants of legend punctuation and/or abbreviations.

In order not to return to the Main (MAIN button) page, you can surf and see all the pages (like a tour) in logical order by clicking the NEXT button. Where it will bring you, see the ALT text.
BACK button will bring you back to the general introduction of the larger articles.
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The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this site:

g - metric grams.

mm - metric millimetres.

Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe - the chemical symbols for metals (gold, silver, copper, nickel, zinc, iron), used as coin metals.

Ag 875 - The number after the chemical symbol shows the fineness of metal according to the metric system. In this instance, it is silver of 875 fineness.

ND - not dated. Often in brackets is shown the period, when this coin was struck. For instance, ND(1540-1546), 1540, 1542-1560 means, that this coin was struck as not dated within 1540-1546, and also dated coins were struck in 1540, and each year from 1542 till 1560.

* - sign, used in legends. Printed instead of rosettes or opening signs of legend.

/ - sign, used in legends. Separates the lines in legends.

All the cities, towns, historical places have their modern name in this site. The old, historical names are shown in brackets after the modern name. Example: Kuldiga (Goldingen).


All the b&w pictures are borrowed from the books No.8 and No.9 (according to the list below).
The colour pictures are from my collection. If you would like to see any pics in other resolution or size, just ask.


  1. Ahlstrom, B. & Almer, Y. & Jonsson, K. Sveriges Besttingsmynt/Die Munzen Der Schwedischen Besitzungen/Coins of the Swedish Possessions. Stockholm, 1980. (AAJ.)

  2. Berga, T. Numismatika par Latvijas senatni. Riga, 1992

  3. Ceplite, R. XV-XVI gs. Livonijas monetu depozits Ruzinas ciema. Numismatika. Riga, 1968

  4. Ceplite, R. Laika no 1621. lidz 1701. gadam Riga kalta siknauda un tas apgroziba. Numismatika. Riga, 1968

  5. Davenport, J.S. European Crowns, 1484-1600. Frankfurt, 1977. (Dav.)

  6. Davenport, J.S. European Crowns, 1600-1700. Galesburg, 1974. (Dav.)

  7. Davenport, J.S. German Talers, 1500-1600. Frankfurt, 1979. (Dav.)

  8. Ducmane, K. & Vecins, E. Nauda Latvija/Coins and Banknotes in Latvia/Geld in Lettland/Deneznie znaki v Latvii. Latvijas Banka, 1995

  9. Fedorov, D. Moneti Pribaltiki XII-XVIII stoletij: Opredelitel monet. Tallinn, 1966. (Fed.)

  10. Haljak, G. Estonian Coin Catalogue/Eesti Munt Kataloog, 1st Edition. Tallinn, 1993

  11. Haljak, G. Livlandische Munzen aus der Ordenszeit 13.-16. Jahrhundert/Orduaegsed Liivimaa Mundid XIII-XVI Sajand. Tallinn, 1997. (Hal/97.)

  12. Krause, C.L. & Mishler, C. & Bruce, C.R.II Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1601-1700. Iola. (KM.)

  13. Krause, C.L. & Mishler, C. & Bruce, C.R.II Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1701-1800, 1st Edition. Iola. (KM.)
Some popular reference sources are not used, because simply I do not have them. Thus, the coins in this site are rarely referred to these sources. This includes Gumowski, M., Handbuch der Polnischen Numismatik, (Gum.), also Hutten-Czapski, E., Catalogue de la Collection des Medailles et Monnaies Polonaises, (H.Cz.)
No.11, by G.Haljak, actually is the latest and the most accurate catalog, concerning the coinage of the Livonia Confederation. It compiles all the previously gathered information by D.Fedorov and other authors and adds all the latest discoveries.

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If any comments, ideas or questions, let me know.

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