1.Homer (9th Century B.C.?) Iliad Odyssey

2.The Old Testament

3.Aeschylus (c.525-456 B.C.) Tragedies

4.Sophocles (c.495-406 B.C.) Tragedies

5.Herodotus (c.484-425 B.C.) History

6.Euripides (c.485-406 B.C.) Tragedies (esp. Medea, Hippolytus, The Bacchae)

7.Thucydides (c.460-400 B.C.) History of the Peloponnesian War

8.Hippocrates (c.460-377? B.C.) Medical Writings

9.Aristophanes (c.448-380 B.C.) Comedies (esp. The Clouds, The Birds, The Frogs)

10.Plato (c.427-347 B.C.) Dialogues (esp. The Republic, Symposium, Phaedo, Meno, Apology, Phaedrus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Sophist, Theaetetus)

11.Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Works (esp. Organon, Physics, Metaphysics, On the Soul, The Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, Poetics)

12.Epicurus (c.341-270 B.C.) Letter to Herodotus Letter to Menoeceus

13.Euclid (fl.c. 300 B.C.) Elements

14.Archimedes (c.287-212 B.C.) Works (esp. On the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies, The Sand-Reckoner)

15.Apollonius of Perga (fl.c.240 B.C.) Conic Sections

16.Cicero (106-43 B.C.) Works (esp. Orations, On Friendship, On Old Age)

17.Lucretius (c.95-55 B.C.) On the Nature of Things

18.Virgil (70-19 B.C.) Works

19.Horace (65-8 B.C.) Works (esp. Odes and Epodes, The Art of Poetry)

20.Livy (59 B.C.-A.D. 17) History of Rome

21.Ovid (43 B.C.-A.D. 17) Works (esp. Metamorphoses)

22.Plutarch (c.45-120) Parallel Lives Moralia

23.Tacitus (c.55-117) Histories Annals Agricola Germania

24.Nicomachus of Gerasa (fl.c. 100 A.D.) Introduction to Arithmetic

25.Epictetus (c.60-120) Discourses Encheiridion (Handbook)

26.Ptolemy (c.100-170; fl. 127-151) Almagest

27.Lucian (c.120-c.190) Works (esp. The True Way to Write History, The True History, The Sale of Creeds)

28.Marcus Aurelius (121-180) Meditations

29.Galen (c. 130-200) On the Natural Faculties

30.The New Testament

31.Plotinus (205-270) The Enneads

32.St. Augustine (354-430) Works (esp. On the Teacher, Confessions, City of God, On Christian Doctrine)

33.The Song of Roland (12th century?)

34.The Nibelungenlied (13th century?)

(Völsunga Saga is the Scandinavian version of the same legend)

35.The Saga of Burnt Njal

36.St. Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-1274) Summa Theologica

37.Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) Works (esp. The New Life, On Monarchy, The Divine Comedy)

38.Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-1400) Works (esp. Troilus and Criseyde, The Canterbury Tales)

39.Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Notebooks

40.Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy

41.Desiderius Erasmus (c.1469-1536) The Praise of Folly

42.Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

43.Sir Thomas More (c.1478-1535) Utopia

44.Martin Luther (1483-1546) Table Talk Three Treatises

45.François Rabelais (c.1495-1553) Gargantua and Pantagruel

46.John Calvin (1509-1564) Institutes of the Christian Religion

47.Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays

48.William Gilbert (1540-1603) On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies

49.Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) Don Quixote

50.Edmund Spenser (c.1552-1599) Prothalamion The Faërie Queene

51.Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Essays Advancement of Learning Novum Organum New Atlantis

52.William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Works

53.Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) The Starry Messenger Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences

54.Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Epitome of Copernican Astronomy Concerning the Harmonies of the World

55.William Harvey (1578-1657) On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals On the Circulation of the Blood On the Generation of Animals

56.Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) The Leviathan

57.Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Rules for the Direction of the Mind Discourse on the Method Geometry Meditations on First Philosophy

58.John Milton (1608-1674) Works (esp. the minor poems, Areopagitica, Paradise Lost, Samson Agonistes)

59.Molière (1622-1673) Comedies (esp. The Miser, The School for Wives, The Misanthrope, The Doctor in Spite of Himself)

60.Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) The Provincial Letters Pensees Scientific Treatises

61.Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) Treatise on Light

62.Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) Ethics

63.John Locke (1632-1704) Letter Concerning Toleration "Of Civil Government" (second treatise in Two Treatises on Government) Essay Concerning Human Understanding Thoughts Concerning Education

64.Jean Baptiste Racine (1639-1699) Tragedies (esp. Andromache, Phaedra)

65.Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Optics

66.Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) Discourse on Metaphysics New Essays Concerning Human Understanding Monadology

67.Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Robinson Crusoe

68.Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) A Tale of a Tub Journal to Stella Gulliver's Travels A Modest Proposal

69.William Congreve (1670-1729) The Way of the World

70.George Berkeley (1685-1753) Principles of Human Knowledge

71.Alexander Pope (1688-1744) Essay on Criticism Rape of the Lock Essay on Man

72.Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) Persian Letters Spirit of Laws

73.Voltaire (1694-1778) Letters on the English Candide Philosophical Dictionary

74.Henry Fielding (1707-1754) Joseph Andrews Tom Jones

75.Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) The Vanity of Human Wishes Dictionary Rasselas The Lives of the Poets (esp. the essays on Milton and Pope)

76.David Hume (1711-1776) Treatise on Human Nature Essays Moral and Political An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding

77.Jean Jaques Rousseau (1712-1778) On the Origin of Inequality On the Political Economy Emile The Social Contract

78.Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) Tristram Shandy A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy

79.Adam Smith (1723-1790) The Theory of Moral Sentiments Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations

80.Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Critique of Pure Reason Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals Critique of Practical Reason The Science of Right Critique of Judgment Perpetual Peace

81.Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Autobiography

82.James Boswell (1740-1795) Journal (esp. London Journal) Life of Samuel Johnson, Ll.D.

83.Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) Elements of Chemistry

84.John Jay (1745-1829), James Madison (1751-1836), and Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) Federalist Papers (together with the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution of the United States, and the Declaration of Independence)

85.Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Theory of Fictions

86.Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) Faust Poetry and Truth

87.Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) Analytical Theory of Heat

88.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) Phenomenology of Spirit Philosophy of Right Lectures on the Philosophy of History

89.William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Poems (esp. Lyrical Ballads, Lucy poems, sonnets; The Prelude)

90.Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) Poems (esp. "Kubla Khan," Rime of the Ancient Mariner) Biographia Literaria

91.Jane Austen (1775-1817) Pride and Prejudice Emma

92.Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) On War

93.Stendhal (1783-1842) The Red and the Black The Charterhouse of Parma On Love

94.George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824) Don Juan

95.Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) Studies in Pessimism

96.Michael Faraday (1791-1867) Chemical History of a Candle Experimental Researches in Electricity

97.Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Principles of Geology

98.Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The Positive Philosophy

99.Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) Père Goriot Eugénie Grandet

100.Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Representative Men Essays Journal

101.Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) The Scarlet Letter

102.Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) Democracy in America

103.John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) A System of Logic On Liberty Representative Government Utilitarianism The Subjection of Women Autobiography

104.Charles Darwin (1809-1882) The Origin of Species The Descent of Man Autobiography

105.Charles Dickens (1812-1870) Works (esp. Pickwick Papers, David Copperfield, Hard Times)

106.Claude Bernard (1813-1878) Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine

107.Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Civil Disobedience Walden

108.Karl Marx (1818-1883) Capital (together with the Communist Manifesto)

109.George Eliot (1819-1880) Adam Bede Middlemarch

110.Herman Melville (1819-1891) Moby Dick Billy Budd

111.Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) Crime and Punishment The Idiot The Brothers Karamazov

112.Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) Madame Bovary Three Stories

113.Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) Plays (esp. Hedda Gabler, A Doll's House, The Wild Duck)

114.Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) War and Peace Anna Karenina What is Art? Twenty-Three Tales

115.Mark Twain (1835-1910) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Mysterious Stranger

116.William James (1842-1910) The Principles of Psychology The Varieties of Religious Experience Pragamatism Essays in Radical Empiricism

117.Henry James (1843-1916) The American The Ambassadors

118.Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) Thus Spoke Zarathustra Beyond Good and Evil The Genealogy of Morals The Will to Power

119.Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) Science and Hypothesis Science and Method

120.Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Interpretation of Dreams Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis Civilization and Its Discontents New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

121.George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) Plays (and Prefaces) (esp. Man and Superman, Major Barbara, Caesar and Cleopatra, Pygmalion, Saint Joan)

122.Max Planck (1858-1947) Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory Where Is Science Going? Scientific Autobiography

123.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) Time and Free Will Matter and Memory Creative Evolution The Two Sources of Morality and Religion

124.John Dewey (1859-1952) How We Think Democracy and Education Experience and Nature Logic, the Theory of Inquiry

125.Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) An Introduction to Mathematics Science and the Modern World The Aims of Education and Other Essays Adventures of Ideas

126.George Santayana (1863-1952) The Life of Reason Skepticism and Animal Faith Persons and Places

127.Nikolai Lenin (1870-1924) The State and Revolution

128.Marcel Proust (1871-1922) Remembrance of Things Past

129.Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) The Problems of Philosophy The Analysis of Mind An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits

130.Thomas Mann (1875-1955) The Magic Mountain Joseph and His Brothers

131.Albert Einstein (1879-1955) The Meaning of Relativity On the Method of Theoretical Physics The Evolution of Physics (with L. Infeld)

132.James Joyce (1882-1941) "The Dead" in Dubliners Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Ulysses

133.Jacques Maritain (1882- ) Art and Scholasticism The Degrees of Knowledge The Rights of Man and Natural Law True Humanism

134.Franz Kafka (1883-1924) The Trial The Castle

135.Arnold Toynbee (1889- ) A Study of History Civilization on Trial

136.Jean Paul Sartre (1905- ) Nausea No Exit Being and Nothingness

137.Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn (1918- ) The First Circle The Cancer Ward

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