Hgeocities.com/canningafrica/canningfruits.htmlgeocities.com/canningafrica/canningfruits.htmlelayedxJdOKtext/htmlb.HSun, 17 Sep 2000 19:49:13 GMTZMozilla/4.5 (compatible; HTTrack 3.0x; Windows 98)en, *J Canning Fruits

HOME  CANNER PICTURES  |  TOOL PICTURES  |  JAR PICTURES  BOOKS  RECIPES  LINKS  |  GIFT IDEAS  |  CANNING SUPPLIERS 

Canning Fruits

  Canned fruits must be processed to insure their safety. The quickest way to process them is in a boiling water bath (212 F at sea level). Some people prefer to pressure can fruits. While a pressure canner can be used for some products, the total time needed for the canning process will be much longer in a pressure canner. This is because pressure canners require extra time to heat up, exhaust, pressurize and cool down.

Directions for canning fruits in a boiling water bath are given in the following sections. Optional pressure canning times for some of the products are given in the table below. Before you begin canning fruits, be sure that you've read the general instructions in the Canning Basics Section.

 

         Canning Liquids for Fruits

  Fruits may be canned in water, juice or a sweet syrup. The sweet syrup helps the fruit hold its shape, color and flavor; but does not preserve the fruit.

Directions for canning each fruit will specify the canning liquid that results in the product most like the commercially canned product. Most canning liquids contain sugar. However, you may want to experiment. You may be pleased with a water, juice or lighter syrup packed product

 

        Syrup Packs

  Sugar syrup is made by mixing water or juice extracted from some of the fruit (see Juice Packs - below) with sugar. The mixture is heated to dissolve the sugar and is kept hot until ready for use. Choose a syrup from the chart below to suit the sweetness of the fruit and your own taste.

          Juice Packs

  Commercial unsweetened apple juice, pineapple juice or white grape juice make good packing liquids for many fruits. These may be used as is or diluted with water. Juice can also be extracted from some of the fruit that's being canned or from fresh apples, pineapples or white grapes.

Syrups for Use in Canning Fruits

Type of
Syrup
Percent
Sugar*
Cups of
Sugar**
Per Quart
Liquid
Yield of
Syrup in
Cups*
How Syrup is Used
Commercially

Very Light
Light
Medium
10%
20%
30%

1
1
4
4
5

Very sweet fruit
Sweet apples, cherries, berries, grapes


Heavy 40% 2 5 1/3 Tart apples, apricots, sour cherries, goose berries, nectarines, pears, peaches, plums

Very Heavy 50% 4 6 Very sour fruit

*Approximate
**In general, up to one-half of the sugar may be replaced by corn syrup or mild-flavored honey. A large proportion of corn syrup may be used if a very bland, light-colored type is selected.

To Extract Juice-Thoroughly crush ripe, sound fruit. Heat to simmering over low heat. Strain through cheesecloth or a jelly bag.

Artificial Sweeteners

It's best to add these just before serving the fruit. Saccharin-based sweeteners can turn bitter during processing. Aspartame-based sweeteners lose their sweetening power during processing.

 

         Artificial Sweeteners

  It's best to add these just before serving the fruit. Saccharin-based sweeteners can turn bitter during processing. Aspartame-based sweeteners lose their sweetening power during processing.

        Preventing Foods from Darkening

  After they are cut or peeled, light colored fruits such as apples, pears and peaches will begin to turn dark. Also, the stem ends may darken after cherries are pitted or after grapes are removed from the stem. To prevent this, as you prepare the fruit for canning, place it in a holding solution made from one of the following:
  • One teaspoon or 3000 mg ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and 1 gallon water. If using tablets, crush thoroughly, before adding the water.
  • Commercial ascorbic acid mixture. Read the label on the container for the amount to use.

Hold the fruit in one of these solutions until you're ready to pack the fruit. Then drain the fruit well.

 

         Canning Fruit Recipes

  Apple Juice

 

Good quality apple juice is made from a blend of apple varieties. For best results, buy fresh juice from a local cider maker within 24 hours after it has been pressed.

Refrigerate juice for 24 to 28 hours. Without mixing, carefully pour off clear liquid and discard sediment. Strain clear liquid through a paper coffee filter or double layer of damp cheesecloth. Hot pack-Sterilize pint or quart jars. Heat juice, stirring occasionally until juice begins to boil. Pour into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................5 minutes

Half-Gallons..................................................10 minutes

Apples

 

Select apples that are juicy, crisp and preferably both sweet and tart.

Hot Pack-Make a very light, light or medium syrup as previously described. Wash, peel, core and slice apples. Review recommendations to prevent darkening. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................20 minutes

Applesauce

 

Select apples that are sweet, juicy and crisp. For a tart flavor, add 1 to 2 pounds of tart apples to each 3 pounds of sweeter fruit.

Hot Pack-Wash, peel, and core apples. Review recommendations to prevent darkening. Place drained slices in an 8 to 10-quart pot. Add cup water. Stirring occasionally to prevent burning, heat quickly and cook until tender (5 to 20 minutes, depending on maturity and variety). Press through a sieve or food mill, if desired. If you prefer chunk-style sauce, omit the pressing step. If desired, add 1/8 cup sugar per quart of sauce. Taste and add more, if preferred. Reheat sauce to boiling. Pack into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Apricots

 

Follow preparation procedures, and processing times recommended for canning peaches. Peeling is optional.

Baby Food

 

Fruits are the only type of baby food that may be processed at home. The fruit is pursed or mashed (chunk-style) and processed as directed below.

Hot Pack-Select your favorite fruit or mixture of fruits (except figs). Stem, wash, drain, peel and remove pits if necessary. Measure fruit into a large saucepan, crushing slightly. Add 1 cut hot water for each quart of fruit. Cook, slowly until fruit is soft, stirring frequently. Mash fruit or press through a sieve or food mill. If desired, add sugar to taste. Reheat fruit to a boil. If sugar was added, boil until it dissolves. Pack fruit into hot half-pint or pint jars, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints................................................................20 minutes

To Serve-Heat the blended foods to boiling, simmer for 10 minute cool and sere. Store unused portions in the refrigerator and use within 2 days for best quality.

CAUTION: Do not attempt to can pursed vegetables, red meats or poultry. Proper processing times for pureed foods have not been determined for home use. Instead, can and store these foods using the standard processing procedures. Then puree or blend them at serving times.

Berries (Blackberries, Blueberries, Currants, Dewberries, Elderberries, Gooseberries, Huckleberries, Loganberries, Mulberries and Raspberries)

 

Choose ripe sweet berries with uniform color. Berries may be canned in water, juice or syrup. Prepare and heat the liquid of your choice. Wash 1 or 2 quarts of berries at a time. Drain, cap and stem if necessary. For gooseberries, snip off heads and tails with scissors.

Hot Pack - (Use blueberries, currants, elderberries, gooseberries, and huckleberries.) Heat to boiling, about 1 gallon of water for each pound of berries. Blanch berries in boiling water for 30 seconds. Drain. Place cup of hot syrup, juice or water in each hot jar. Pack hot berries into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars to inch from top with more hot syrup, juice or water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Cherries

 

Select bright, uniformly-colored cherries that are mature. They should be ideal for eating fresh or cooking.

Stem and wash cherries. Remove pits if desired. If pitted, treat to prevent stem-end discoloration as recommended. If cherries are caned un-pitted, prick skins on opposite sides with a clean needle to prevent splitting. Cherries may be canned in water, apple juice, white grape juice or syrup. If syrup is desired, select and prepare the syrup or your choice. If another liquid is used, heat it to boiling.

Hot Pack - Remove cherries from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Place cherries in a large saucepan. Add cup water, juice or syrup to each quart of fruit. Bring to a boil. Pack cherries in hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jar to inch from top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Raw Pack - Remove cherries from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Add cup hot water, juice or syrup to each hot jar. Fill jars to inch from the top with drained cherries, shaking down gently as you fill. Add more hot liquid, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................25 minutes

Cranberries

 

Hot Pack - Make a heavy syrup as recommended. Wash and remove stems from cranberries. Drop into boiling syrup. Boil 3 minutes. Pack into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jar to -inch from top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..............................................15 minutes

Cranberry Sauce
(about 2 pint jars)

 
1 quart cranberries
1 cup water
2 cups sugar

 

Hot Pack-Wash cranberries. Cook berries in water until soft. Press through a fine sieve. Add sugar and boil 3 minutes. Pour boiling hot sauce into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Figs

 

Select firm, ripe, un-cracked figs. The mature color depends on the variety. Avoid overripe figs with very soft flesh.

Hot Pack-Prepare a light syrup as recommended. Wash figs thoroughly and drain. Do not peel or remove stems. Cover figs with water and boil 2 minutes. Drain. Gently boil figs in syrup for 5 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons bottled lemon juice to each hot quart jar; 1 tablespoon to each pint jar. Or, add teaspoon citric acid to each hot quart jar; teaspoon to each hot pint jar. Pack hot figs into hot jars leaving -inch head space. Fill jars with hot syrup to inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................45 minutes

Quarts............................................................50 minute

Fruit Puree
(For any Fruit Except Figs)

 

Hot Pack-Stem, wash, drain, peel and remove pits, if necessary. Measure fruit into large saucepan, crushing slightly if desired. Add 1 cup hot water for each quart of fruit. Cook slowly until fruit is soft, stirring frequently. Press through sieve or food mill. If desired, add sugar to taste. Reheat pulp to boil. If sugar was added, boil until it dissolves. Pack puree into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Grapefruit

 

Raw Pack-Select firm, sweet, eating-ripe fruit. Selections may be packed in water, citrus juice or syrup as recommended. If a syrup is used, prepare a very light, light or medium syrup and bring to a boil. Wash and peel fruit. Remove white tissue to prevent a bitter taste. Break fruit into sections. Fill jars with sections and water, juice or hot syrup leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................10 minutes

Grapes

 

Choose unripe, tight-skinned, preferably green seedless grapes harvested two weeks before they reach optimum eating quality. Prepare a very light or light syrup. Stem, wash and drain grapes. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent stem-end darkening.

Hot Pack-Heat to boiling, 1 gallon fresh water per pound of grapes. Remove grapes from anti-darkening solution and drain well . Blanch grapes in boiling water for 30 seconds. Drain. Pack hot fruit into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars to -inch from top with hot syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................10 minutes

Raw Pack-Remove grapes from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Pack drained grapes in hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jar to inch from top with hot syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Grape Juice

 

Hot Pack-Select sweet, well-colored, firm, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking.

Sterilize pint or quart jars. Wash and stem grapes. Place grapes in a saucepan and add boiling water to cover grapes. Heat and simmer slowly until skins are soft. Strain through a damp jelly bag or double layers of cheesecloth. Refrigerate juice for 24 to 48 hours. Without mixing, carefully pour off and save clear liquid. Discard sediment. If desired, strain through a paper coffee filter for a clearer juice. Place juice in a saucepan. Sweeten juice to taste, if desired. Heat, stirring until juice begins to boil. Pour into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quart..................................................5 minutes

Half-Gallons...................................................10 minutes

Mixed Fruit Cocktail
(about 6 pint jars)

 
3 pounds peaches
3 pounds pears
1 pounds slightly underripe seedless green grapes
10-ounce jar maraschino cherries
3 cups sugar
4 cups water

 

Stem and wash grapes. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent darkening. Dip ripe but firm peaches, a few at a time, in boiling water for 1 to 1 minutes to loosen skins. Dip in cold water and slip off skins. Cut in half, remove pits, cut into -inch cubes and place in anti-darkening solution with grapes. Peel, halve and core pears. Cut into -inch cubes, and place in solution with grapes and peaches.

Combine sugar and water in a saucepan and bring to boil. Remove fruit from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Add cup of hot syrup to each hot jar. Then fill each jar to inch from top, with a few cherries and the fruit mix. Fill jars with more hot syrup, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints...........................................20 minutes

Mangos

 

Raw Pack-Make a light or medium syrup. Add cup of lemon juice to each quart of syrup. Select green, firm, non-fibrous fruit. Peel and slice. Place in hot syrup. Allow fruit to stand in syrup until it cools. Pack fruit in hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Boil syrup for 5 minutes. Fill jar to inch from top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Nectarines

 

Follow preparation procedures and processing times recommended for peaches. Nectarines are washed but not peeled before canning.

Oranges

 

The flavor of oranges is best if not canned alone. Oranges are best when canned with equal parts of grapefruit. Follow procedures and processing times recommended for grapefruit.

Papaya

 

Hot Pack-Make a medium or heavy syrup. Add cup lemon juice to each quart of syrup. Select firm ripe fruit. Peel and remove seeds. Cut fruit in cubes and put in a medium syrup. Cook papaya gently in syrup for 2 to 3 minutes. Pack hot fruit in hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jar to -inch from the top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Peaches

 

Choose ripe, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality, allow peaches to ripen for at least 1 day after harvest. Peaches can be packed in very light, light or medium syrup. They can also be packed in water, apple juice or white grape juice. Prepare the liquid and keep it hot.

Dip fruit in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds until skins loosen. Dip quickly in cold water and slip off skins. Cut in half, remove pits and slice if desired. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent darkening.

Hot Pack-Remove peaches from anti-darkening solution and drain well. In a large saucepan heat drained fruit in syrup, water or juice. Bring to a boil. Pack hot fruit into hot jars leaving -inch head space. When packing halves, place them cut side down. Fill jars to inch from top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Raw Pack-Remove peaches from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Pack raw fruit into hot jar, leaving -inch head space. When packing halves, place them cut side down. Fill jars with hot liquid to -inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................25 minutes

Quarts............................................................30 minutes

Pears

 

Choose ripe, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality allow pears to ripen for at least 1 day after harvest.

Hot Pack-Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat apple juice, white grape juice or water. Wash and peel pears. Cut lengthwise in halves and remove core. A melon baller or metal measuring spoon is suitable for coring pears. To prevent discoloration follow the appropriate directions. Remove pears from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Boil drained pears 5 minutes in syrup, juice or water. Pack hot pears into hot jars, leaving - inch head space. Fill jars to inch from the top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes
NOTE: A hot pack gives the best quality product. If a raw pack is used, follow the directions and processing times for raw packing peaches.

Pineapple

 

Hot Pack-Select firm, ripe pineapples. Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat water, apple juice or white grape juice. Peel and remove eyes and tough fiber from pineapples. Slice or cube the fruit. In a large saucepan, add pineapple to syrup, water or juice. Simmer for 10 minutes. Pack pineapple into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars with hot liquid, to -inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Pineapple

 

Hot Pack-Select firm, ripe pineapples. Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat water, apple juice or white grape juice. Peel and remove eyes and tough fiber from pineapples. Slice or cube the fruit. In a large saucepan, add pineapple to syrup, water or juice. Simmer for 10 minutes. Pack pineapple into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars with hot liquid, to inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints................................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Plums

 

Select deep-colored, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality, allow plums to ripen at least I day after harvest.

Plums may be packed in water or syrup. If syrup is used, prepare a very light, light or medium syrup according to directions. Stem and ash plums. To can whole, prick skins on two sides of plums with fork to prevent splitting. Freestone varieties may be halved and pitted.

Hot Pack-Add plums to water or hot syrup and boil 2 minutes. Cove, saucepan and let stand 20 to 30 minutes. Pack hot plums into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars with hot plums and cooking liquid or syrup leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack raw plums firmly into hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Fill jars with hot water or syrup to inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints..................................................................20 minutes

Quarts....... .......................................................25 minutes

Rhubarb

 

Hot Pack-Select young, tender, well-colored stalks from the spring or late fall crop.

Trim off leaves. Wash stalks and cut into to 1 inch pieces. In a large saucepan add cup sugar for each quart of rhubarb. Let stand until juice appears. Heat gently to boiling. Immediately, pack rhubarb mixture in hot jars, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................15 minutes

Zucchini-Pineapple

 
4 quarts cubed or

shredded zucchini
46 ounces canned

unsweetened pineapple juice

1 cups bottled lemon juice
3 cups sugar

 

Hot Pack-Peel zucchini and either cut into -inch cubes or shred. Mix zucchini with other ingredients in a large saucepan and bring to a boil. Simmer 20 minutes. Fill hot jars with hot mixture and cooking liquid, leaving -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints............................................15 minutes

 

Boiling Water Bath Processing Times for Fruits at Altitudes Over 1000 Feet

 
  Process Time (Minutes)
at Altitudes of:

Fruit Style of Pack Jar Size 1001-3000 ft. 3001-6000 ft. over 6000 ft.

Apple Juice Hot Pints or Quarts
Half-Gallons
10
15
10
15
15
20

Apples Hot Pints or Quarts 25 30 35

Applesauce Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Baby Food Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
25 30 35

Berries Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
20
20
25
20
20
30
25
25
35

Cherries Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints or Quarts
20
25
30
20
30
35
25
35
40

Cranberries Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Cranberry Sauce Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Figs Hot Pints
Quarts
50
55
55
60
60
65

Fruit Puree Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Grapefruit or Oranges Raw Pints or Quarts 15 15 20

Grapes Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
15
20
25
15
20
30
20
25
35

Grape Juice Hot Pints or Quarts
Half-Gallon
10
15
10
15
15
20

Mangos Raw Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Mixed Fruit Cocktail Raw Half-Pints
or Pints
25 30 35

Papayas Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Peaches
Apricots or
Nectarines
Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
30
35
35
40
35
40
40
45

Pears Hot Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
35
40

Pineapple Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Plums Raw or
Hot
Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
35
40

Rhubarb Hot Pints
Quarts
20 20 25

Zuchinni-Pineapple Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
20 20 25

 

Processing Times and Pressures for Some Fruits in a Pressure Canner

 

Caution: As altitude increases, the processing times for each food listed below stays the same, but the canner pressure must be increased! In a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner

  • At altitudes of 0-2000 feet, process at 6 pounds pressure.
  • At altitudes of 2001-4000 feet, process at 7 pounds pressure.
  • At altitudes of 4001-6000 feet, process at 8 pounds pressure.
  • At altitudes of 6001-8000 feet, process at 9 pounds pressure.
In a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner
  • At altitudes of 0-1000 feet, process at 5 pounds pressure.
  • At altitudes above 1000 feet, process at 10 pounds pressure.

 
Fruit Style of Pack Jar Size Processing Time (Minutes)
at a Given Pressure

Applesauce Hot Pints
Quarts
8
10

Apples Hot Pints or Quarts 8

Berries Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
8
10
10

Cherries Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints or Quarts
8
10
10

Fruit Purees Hot Pints or Quarts 8

Grapefruit or Oranges Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
8
8
10

Peaches, Apricots, or Nectarines Hot or Raw Pints or Quarts 10

Pears Hot Pints or Quarts 10

Plums Hot or Raw Pints or Quarts 10

Rhubarb Hot Pints or Quarts 8

 

All information Courtesy the "University of Georgia - So easy to Preserve Guide ".

CanninAfrica compiled and maintained

 by Rosalie Acornley Webmaster.