Albert Ralph Campbell, USMC

Congressional Medal of Honor

By W. Michael McMunn


Albert Ralph Campbell was born in Williamsport, Pennsylvania on April 8, 1875.  His father, Archibald (Archie) B. Campbell, Sr., was an Irish immigrant.  His mother, born in Pennsylvania, was named Anna or Annie.  The Campbell's had three other sons: Archibald (Archie), Jr., Wilson D., and Thomas B. (Thomas possibly died in childhood).


The family lived in an area of Williamsport known as Dutch Hill.  Despite the name, the area was inhabited by a large number of families of German ancestry.  The name Dutch Hill was probably a corruption of the German term “Deutsch.”


Archibald Campbell, Sr. was the superintendent of street works for the Williamsport Gas Company and, when he died in 1906, his obituary stated he was well known in the community.[1]


Little is known about the early life of Albert Campbell.  As a young man he was employed in Williamsport as a tinsmith.[2]  He moved to Philadelphia and while living there enlisted in the United States Marine Corps at the age of 22. His five-year enlistment began on October 7, 1897.[3]  His physical description in his Marine Corps records describes him as a diminutive man standing less than five feet, six inches tall and weighting 131 lbs.


Albert Campbell's enlistment took place several months before the February 15, 1898 sinking of the battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor killing 260 American sailors.  After a long-simmering feud that particular event brought the United States into a war with Spain.  The Spanish-American War was essentially fought on two fronts. With war having been declared by Spain on April 24, Commodore George Dewey’s naval forces engaged the Spanish in the Philippine Islands. Other United States forces then began assaults in the Caribbean on the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.  Marine Private Campbell saw service in both the Caribbean and Philippines.


His first sea assignment was with Company E, 1st Marine Battalion.  Drawing Marines from across the country the battalion was quickly formed in New York and then moved to Key West, Florida to stage for its invasion of Cuba.  Leaving from Key West on June 7, 1898 aboard the USS Panther, the Marines arrived off Santiago on June 10, 1898 and then sailed to Guantanamo.  Private Campbell saw action during fighting at Guantanamo Hill on June 11, 12, and 13 and at the end of the action to seize Cuzco Well on June 14.  Marine Corps records show his unit also participated in the naval bombardment of Manzanillo on August 12 and 13, 1898.  His Caribbean tour ended August 17, 1898.  The battalion returned to a hero’s welcome in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.


The Marines rest was short lived.  Following the defeat of the Spanish in Cuba, more naval and marine forces, including Private Campbell’s, were sent to the Philippines.  Once in there, the Marines participated in fighting at several places: his Marine battalion was in action at Orani from October 1st to the 4th, 1898 and at the engagement at Noveleta on October 8.[4]  Although hostilities with Spain ended in August and were finally settled in December 1898 with the Treaty of Paris, Philippine insurgents or insurrectos continued to fight the Americans.


At the same time other world events began to affect United States interests.  In June 1900, several detachments of the First Regiment, under the command of Major Littleton W. T. (Tony) Waller, were dispatched to China.  Over the past few years a Chinese secret society, known as the I Ho Ch’uan (Righteous Harmonious Fists), but referred to by the Westerners as “Boxers,” had become angry with the spreading influence of Western nations.  They began a rampage killing hundreds of Christian converts and at least one Western missionary.  Anti-foreign incidents continued to increase during 1898 and 1899.  


In early 1900, the Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi expressed support for the Boxers.  This action and the increasing militancy of the Boxers led eight Western nations to assemble a multi-national military force to be dispatched to China to protect their citizens and their interests.  This episode of American military history became known as the China Relief Expedition or, more popularly, the Boxer Rebellion.


Information from official U.S. Marine and U.S. Navy documents show elements of the detachment departed from Cavite, Philippine Islands, on June 14 aboard the USS Newark (C-1). The Marines landed at the port city of Taku Bar, China on June 18.   Another detachment left Cavite aboard the USS Nashville (PG-7) and arrived at Taku on June 19.  The total force, consisting of 8 officers and 132 enlisted men moved inland in an effort to relieve the siege at Peking.[5]   Company A was commanded by 19-year-old First Lieutenant Smedley Darlington Butler, who would later become a Marine Major General and a two-time Medal of Honor recipient.[6]


The Marines moved out by rail headed for Tientsin. Their first mission was to relieve the besieged foreigners barricaded in Tientsin.  The forces soon found that the rail lines had been wrecked by the Chinese.  Repairing rail line as they proceeded, the force marched the final twelve miles to the city.  The Marines and Navy bluecoats were supported with an M1876 3-inch navy landing gun and a Colt machine gun.


Under Major Waller, the Marines joined a small contingent of British soldiers and a larger Russian force of about 400 men.  Finding the road impassable, they bivouacked for the night, hoping to hold that position until reinforcements arrived.  Early in the morning of June 21, despite Major Waller’s objections, the Marines joined the Russians in an advance on Tientsin.  The 530-man force was putting itself against an estimated enemy force of 1,500 to 2,000 entrenched Chinese.


Private Campbell was a member of the crew on the Colt machine gun commanded by First Lieutenant William G. Powell.  The rest of the crew was made up of Corporal Thomas W. Kates, Private Charles Francis and one other man whose name is unknown. 


The Colt Model 1895 automatic machine gun fired a six-millimeter round.  These gas-operated guns, invented by John Moses Browning, weighed 35 pounds and had a rate of fire of about 400 rounds per minute.  The guns used by the Marines were usually mounted on wheeled light landing carriages that also carried along 2,000 rounds of ammunition in eight ammo boxes.  The gun could also be tripod mounted.[7]  The gun was often referred to as “the potato digger” since the exposed gas-operated actuating lever swung in an arc and often kicked up dirt when the weapon was fired.


Lt. Powell led the relief column with the Colt gun and his Marine crew.  The 3-inch gun quickly proved defective and was disabled and rolled into the river.  During the ensuing assault on Tientsin the allied force came under heavy fire from the entrenched Chinese. 


The Colt gun crew, having drawn heavy enemy fire, dwindled to two men with the unknown man killed and Corporal Kates and Private Francis being wounded.  Private Campbell was the only crewman not wounded.  The gun jammed several times and, under the orders of Lt. Powell, it was disabled and abandoned.  At this point Major Waller received word that the Russians would retreat and he followed after keeping up a fight for four hours as the Chinese pursued them.   Powell’s men provided rear security for the retreating forces.


In his July 6, 1900 report to Rear Admiral Louis Kempf, the Second in Command, United States Naval Force, Asiatic Station, Major Waller makes mention of a number of officers and enlisted men as worthy of special praise.  In part he states:  “Lieutenant Powell; for steadfast courage in the working of the Colt’s 6-millimeter gun under a venomous fire.  This was abandoned by Mr. Powell after he had disabled it.  The gun was in the Russian front and I couldn’t reach it to save it.  I do not believe it could have been saved with the force we had.”  Waller  goes on to say:  “Of the men I wish to say, while all, in engagements we participated in, behaved in such a manner as to bring forth the highest praise from the foreign officers, . . . the specially distinguished of these being Corporal Kates and Privates Campbell and Francis, with the Colt gun.”[8]


As a result of their courage under fire Corporal Kates and Privates Campbell and Francis were recommended for the Medal of Honor for distinguished conduct during the advance on Tientsin, China on June 21, 1900.


His Marine Corps record indicates that Campbell participated in action in China throughout the months of June, July and August.  He helped in the relief of Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Seymore, the battles of the East and West Arsenals, the battle of Tientsin on July 13 and 14, the capture of Peking on August 14, and the battle of Yangtsun on August 25, 1900.[9]  All of these battles pitted the multinational forces against entrenched Chinese and fanatical Boxer forces.  The Marines often pressed on with little sleep, under sweltering conditions and only one meal per day, yet, according to their commanding officers, their morale continued to be high.


Upon returning to the Philippines the Marines resumed their sporadic fights against the Moro insurrectos.   Campbell’s military record shows that he served with credit during the deadly and controversial campaign on Samar from October 22, 1901 through March 2, 1902.  It was at this time that Campbell was recommended for a second Medal of Honor for “distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy at Death Gulch near Basay, Samar, P.I. November 2 to 7 1901”.[10]  On Samar Campbell was involved in action targeting the strongholds of Moro chieftain Vincente Lukban.


Following a devastating rebel attack on soldiers of the U. S. Army’s Company C, 9th Infantry at Balangiga, Army Brigadier General Jacob (''Howling Mad Jake'') M. Smith, commander of the military district that included Samar, ordered Major Waller and his Marines to pursue the Moro leader in the rugged mountains of the island.  A battalion of Marines under Major Waller and Captains David D. Porter and Hiram I. Bearss embarked on the USS New York (CA-2) on October 22, 1901. 


The information in Private Campbell’s personnel file differs somewhat from Major Waller’s post-action reports.  In a November 12, 1901 report to his superiors Waller recounted the unit’s actions from November 1 through November 12.  While it mentions several encounters with the enemy there is no mention of particularly outstanding individual conduct by its members nor is there any mention of a place called “Death Gulch.”[11]


In mid-November three columns approached Lukban's jungle fortress on the fortified defenses on the Sohoton cliffs, along the Sohoton River.  The insurrectos used captured Krag rifles, traps, bows, spears, bamboo cannon and tons of rock suspended in cages to defend the camps. 


According to Major Waller’s report of November 23, 1901, to the Adjutant-General, Sixth Separate Brigade, a Colt gun was in support of Captain Porter's mission and was carried by native porters.  The Colt gun was manned by Gunnery Sergeant John M. Quick, who had been awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, Acting Corporal Henry Glenn, and Private Campbell.  The preparations took about ten minutes and, at a given signal, the Colt gun and the riflemen opened fire killing about 30 of the enemy and routing the other defenders.[12]


In his post-action report Major Waller wrote that "Private Campbell is mentioned for his conspicuous work with the Colt gun under extreme difficulty.''  Porter and Bearss were recommended for Medals of Honor or Brevet Medals.  Three Marine lieutenants, two sergeants, two corporals, Private Campbell and a Navy surgeon were recommended for honors.  Major Waller’s recommendations were endorsed by Brigadier General Smith.  Medals of Honor were awarded to Porter and Bearss some 30 years later.  Although Campbell’s records indicate he was recommended for a Medal of Honor it was never awarded.  Aside from the medals awarded to Porter and Bearss no other Medals of Honor were awarded for the Sohoton raids.


The action in Samar, undertaken in horrific conditions, would live on in Marine Corps history.  Those Marines who had seen action in Samar would henceforth be recognized for special honor.  Whenever a veteran of Samar would enter a room someone present would call:  “Stand gentlemen, he served at Samar.”


Back in Washington, D.C. the Navy Department prepared General Order No. 55. This document, issued July 19, 1901, awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor to Corporal Thomas W. Kates, Private Charles Francis and Private Albert Ralph Campbell among a number of other Marines and sailors.  All of the citations were very brief in their description of the Marines' heroic actions in the face of the enemy.  Campbell’s citation stated merely:  ''In action at Tientsin, China, 21 June 1900.  During the advance on Tientsin, Campbell distinguished himself by his conduct.''


It was not until March 24, 1902, that former tinsmith, now Marine Corps Private Campbell, while still serving in the Philippines, acknowledged receipt of the Medal of Honor and rosette.[13]


Following his tour of duty in the Philippines Campbell returned to the United States and served at Navy Yards in Brooklyn, New York and Washington, D.C.  He was promoted to the rank of Corporal on August 9, 1902 and on October 6, 1902 he completed his enlistment receiving an honorable discharge.  His record noted that he was of “Excellent Character.”


Nothing is known of his whereabouts for the next 20 months.  However, on June 25, 1904, while living in St. Louis, Missouri, he presented himself for re-enlistment in the United States Marine Corps.[14]  After initial processing he was sent to the Marine Barracks, Mare Island, California.


Once in California Private Campbell began having minor disciplinary problems including: creating a disturbance, absence from his watch, absence from reveille, and neglect of duty.  As punishment the Marine received restrictions on three occasions between September 27 and December 7, 1904.  On December 20, 1904, as he neared the end of a 15-day restriction, Campbell unexplainably deserted from the Marine Corps.[15]


The Marine Corps immediately placed a $20 reward on his head for his apprehension and return to Marine custody.  Despite the promise of the reward, Campbell was never returned to the Marine Corps.


In a February 2004 article in Naval History magazine Lieutenant Colonel Merrill L. Bartlett, USMC (Retired) notes that the “Old Corps” Marines of Campbell’s era “recorded a scandalous desertion rate.”  He goes on to say that “low pay, excessive hours of tedious guard duty, poor food, life in unsanitary barracks, and sleeping on straw-filled mattress ticks contributed to the problem.”[16]  Not to excuse his conduct but Campbell’s desertion was not an isolated event in the Marine Corps of the day.


Lieutenant Colonel Bartlett looked at the records of some of the era’s enlisted men.  Of the eleven men he listed, three had deserted; others had offenses for drunkenness, disorderly conduct, and absences without leave. Several had received dishonorable discharges.  All had one thing in common:  all had earned the Medal of Honor.  Campbell had served in the Boxer Rebellion with four of the men mentioned by Bartlett:  Sergeant John Adams, Corporal Harry Adriance, Private James Cooney, and Corporal Thomas W. Kates.  Corporal Kates and Campbell served on the same Tientsin, China Colt gun crew.  Kates deserted in 1903 and, like Albert Campbell, he never returned to the Marine Corps.


For the next thirteen years Albert Campbell's life is again a mystery.  He does appear briefly on September 23, 1918 through correspondence from a Los Angeles attorney to the Marine Corps.[17]  In the letter the attorney inquires if Albert Campbell could return to the Marine Corps. 


Why, thirteen years after his desertion, would Albert Campbell be interested in returning to the Marine Corps?  Had his patriotism suddenly become aroused by the fight in Europe?  The answer to this question is most likely found if the letter is placed in the context of World War I.


In September 1918 with World War I still raging the United States was found needing more troops.  Congress determined that a third draft registration was necessary in September 1918 and this call would extend the ages for conscription from 18 to 20 years on the younger end and from 32 to 45 years at the upper age range.  Campbell would have been 43 years of age and, despite his prior military service, he would have been required to register.


As required, Albert Campbell presented himself for registration at Local Board No. 16, Los Angeles, California, on September 12, 1918.  On the registration card he declared that his nearest relative was a daughter named Ida May Campbell and that he was employed as an ''aeroplane worker.''[18]  It is possible that Mr. Campbell would have been exempt from selective service induction because of his employment in the aircraft industry.  (The Selective Service boards ceased classifying registrations for those men over the age of 36 on November 11, 1918.[19])


The October 3, 1918 response from the Marine Corps recounted Campbell’s 1897 enlistment, his 1904 re-enlistment and further noted his desertion. Colonel David D. Porter[20], now Assistant Adjutant, stated that any disciplinary action for the desertion was more than likely precluded by the statute of limitations but Mr. Campbell should present himself for induction under the Selective Service laws.  According to Colonel Porter, if local Marine Corps authorities had no problem with Mr. Campbell’s return to service Headquarters, Marine Corps would not stand in the way.[21]


In all likelihood the attorney’s letter was prompted by Campbell’s desire to know how to react to the draft registration call and to voluntarily re-enter the Marine Corps rather than be drafted into the Army.  Unknown to either the Marine Corps or Albert Campbell the war would end in about six weeks. 


Mr. Campbell surfaces next in the records of the 1920 census.  He is shown living in Los Angeles as a boarder with Mr. and Mrs. William Finke.  The census reports that Campbell is 54 years old, when in fact he would have been 44.  Next, the census reports that Campbell is a naturalized Scottish immigrant when all previous documentation indicates his native birth in Pennsylvania and his Irish ancestry.[22]  Why would Campbell misrepresent his age and ancestry?  Was it merely carelessness on the part of the census taker in transcribing the data?  Did his landlord furnish incorrect information if Campbell was not present to answer for himself?  In an era when changing one's identity was rather easy, why did he not change his name, too?  His correspondence with the Marine Corps and his registration in the 1918 selective service registration indicate that he was not hiding from authorities.


The census records do show that he previously lived in Pennsylvania and that he was working as a “pistol maker.”[23] 


Albert Ralph Campbell died in Los Angeles, California on December 4, 1925.  His cause of death was listed as “angina pectoris.”  The information on the death certificate does confirm this to be the same Albert Campbell listed on the 1920 census report. The name of the person providing the information for the death certificate was his landlord William Finke. Mr. Campbell was buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Gardens, Glendale, California.  Interestingly, the date of birth listed on the death certificate is April 8, 1865 perpetuating the ten-year discrepancy in his age first noted in the 1920 census report.[24]


In addition to the information in the Marine Corps records pertaining to his date of birth, Mr. Campbell and his family were enumerated on the 1880 Federal Census.  At that time the family lived in Jones Township, Elk County, Pennsylvania and his age was listed as three years, which would substantiate his true date of birth as being 1876 or 1877.[25]


The Medal of Honor was instituted by President Abraham Lincoln in December 1861.  Since the Civil War, thousands of men and women from Lycoming County, Pennsylvania have served in the military.  During those decades Mr. Campbell is the only known individual from the county to be honored with this award.  For 78 years Mr. Campbell lay in an unmarked grave and for over 100 years Williamsport, Pennsylvania, his hometown, has never publicly recognized the heroism he displayed during the Boxer Rebellion[26].  Thanks to donations from the Korean War Veterans of Lycoming County and Leroy O. Buck Post 7863, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Duboistown, Pennsylvania, Private Campbell's gravesite is now marked with a government-provided marker[27].


In addition to the Medal of Honor Mr. Campbell was awarded the Spanish-American War Medal, the Philippine Campaign Medal, the West Indies Campaign Medal, and the China Relief Expedition Medal.


Despite his desertion there is little doubt as to the courage of Albert Ralph Campbell.  As an enlisted Marine he served in the Marine Corps in an exciting and adventurous era.  It was a time when America was expanding its horizons and becoming a world power.  For a young man growing up in a Pennsylvania lumber town his Marine Corps service gave him the opportunity to see much of the world.  His combat experiences spanned Cuba, the Philippines and China and he obviously performed his duties well. 




A special acknowledgment is owed to Richard White of Florida for his superlative research efforts.  Without being asked Mr. White provided much of the original census and genealogical information on Albert Ralph Campbell.  His insight into the reading of genealogical records was helpful.


Bob Couttie, author of ''Hang The Dogs:  The True Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre,'' provided initial information on the Sohoton raids.


The efforts of the National Archives and Records Administration should not be overlooked.  In response to my requests, Mark C. Mollan and Trevor K. Plante of the Old Military and Civil Records, Textual Archives Services Division, were especially helpful in locating records Private Campbell’s military records and official Navy reports. 


Ms. Arden Williams, Archives Technician, NARA, Southeast Region, was helpful in locating Mr. Campbell’s World War I draft record with minimal information to go on.  I am grateful that our government can provide such superlative service to the general public.


Mr. McMunn continues to seek information about the life and military experiences of Albert Ralph Campbell.  Contact Michael McMunn at if you have any information about Mr. Campbell.



[1] The Williamsport (Pennsylvania) Grit, February 11, 1906, p. 6.

[2] Boyd’s Directory, 1896, Williamsport, Pa.

[3] Personnel jacket, U.S. Marine Corps Enlistment Record, Private Albert Ralph Campbell, dated October 6, 1897; Service Records of Enlisted Men 1867-1904, Record Group 127; National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.

[4] Personnel jacket, Descriptive List, United States Marine Corps, Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[5] Report of the Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, September 29, 1900.

[6] Twelfth Census of the United States, Military and Naval Population; Marine Barracks, Cavite, Philippine Islands, 1 June 1900.

[7] Sumrall, Al.  “The Colt Model 1895 Automatic Machine Gun,” The Spanish-American War Centennial Website.

[8] L.W.T. Waller Report to Louis Kempf, Rear Admiral, U.S.N., Second in Command, United States Naval Force, Asiatic Station, dated July 6, 1900;

[9] Personnel jacket, Descriptive List, United States Marine Corps, Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[10] Personnel jacket, Descriptive List, United States Marine Corps, Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[11] Report of L.W.T. Waller, Major, U.S. Marine Corps, November 12, 1901.  Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1902.  Volume IX.  Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army and Department Commanders.  pp. 440-441.

[12] Report of L.W.T. Waller, Major, U.S. Marine Corps, November 23, 1901.  Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1902.  Volume IX.  Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army and Department Commanders.  pp. 441-443.

[13] Personnel jacket, acknowledgement signed by Pvt. Albert R. Campbell, dated March 24, 1902, Cavite, P.I.; Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[14] Personnel jacket, U.S. Marine Corps Enlistment Record, Private Albert Ralph Campbell, dated June 25, 1904; Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[15] Personnel jacket, Conduct Record of Albert Ralph Campbell, Private, U.S.M.C., Marine Barracks, Mare Island, California from June 29, 1904 to December 20, 1904; Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[16] Bartlett, Merrill L., Lieutenant Colonel, USMC (Ret).  “Politically Incorrect but Militarily Correct.”  Naval History February 2004: 38-39.

[17] Personnel jacket, letter from Attorney J. Everett Brown to Headquarters, Marine Corps, dated September 23, 1918; Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[18] World War I Selective Service Registration Card, Albert Ralph Campbell, Serial Number 4003, Local Board for Division No. 16, City of Los Angeles, California; NARA - Southeast Region.  On the draft registration card Campbell listed his date of birth as April 8, 1877.  This differs from information in earlier records showing his date of birth as April 8, 1875.

[19] Second Report of the Provost Marshal General to the Secretary of War on the Operations of the Selective Service System to December 20, 1918, Washington, D.C., 1919, p. 3.

[20] Campbell had served under Colonel (then Captain) David D. Porter in Samar.

[21] Personnel jacket, letter from Colonel David D. Porter, Assistant Adjutant & Inspector, U.S. Marine Corps to Attorney J. Everett Brown, dated September 23, 1918; Private Albert Ralph Campbell; Service Records, RG 127; NAB, Washington, D.C.

[22] Campbell has indicated that he was “Native Born” on his September 12, 1918 Selective Service Registration Card.

[23] Fourteenth Census of the United States, Los Angeles Township, Los Angeles County, California, January 1920.

[24] Death Certificate, Albert Ralph Campbell, County of Los Angeles, dated December 7, 1925.

[25] 1880 Federal Census, Jones Township, Elk County, Pennsylvania, p. 3.

26 In yet another slight to Albert Campbell, The Williamsport (Pa.) Sun-Gazette, in a July 18, 1962 editorial marking the 100th anniversary of the Medal of Honor, the editor praises two Civil War Medal of Honor recipients who happened to only be related to Lycoming County residents.  He failed completely to note the achievement of Albert Campbell who was truly a former resident of the city.

27 Letter from Forest Lawn Memorial Park dated November 3, 2004.



Other Resources


Alexander, Joseph H., Col USMC (Ret.).  The Battle History of the U.S. Marines:  A Fellowship of Valor.  HarperPerennial, 1999.


Fleming, Peter.  The Siege at Peking: The Boxer Rebellion.  Dorset Press:  New York, 1959.


Guy, John.  Role of the United States Marine during the Relief of Peking:  The Boxer Rebellion – 1900.


Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate on Affairs in the Philippine Islands.  3 vols. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1902. DS692.1U3


Keene, R.R.  That “Splendid Little War” in the Pacific.  Leatherneck.  Quantico:  Jul 1998.  Vol. 81, Iss. 7; pg.38, 5 pgs.


Keene., R. R.  Where Even Monkeys Fall from Trees.  Leatherneck.  Quantico:  January 2002. Vol. 85, Iss 1: p. 40, 8 pgs.


Kelly, David E.  The Marines Fight in Cuba.  Marine Corps Gazette.  Quantico:  Jun 1998.  Vol. 82, Iss. 6; pg 62, 8 pgs.


Mettraux, Guénaël.  US Courts-Martial and the Armed Conflict in the Philippines (1899-1902): Their Contribution to National Case Law on War Crimes.  Journal of International Criminal Justice 1 (2003), 135-150.


Miller, J. Michael.  Marines in the Boxer Rebellion.  Leatherneck.  Quantico:  June 2000. Vol. 83, Iss 6: p. 48, 7 pgs.


Miller, J. Michael.  Rescue the Legations – Boxer Rebellion.  Leatherneck.  Quantico:  July 2000. Vol. 83, Iss 7: p. 40, 8 pgs.


Nalty, Bernard C.  The United States Marines in the War with Spain.  Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., Revised 1967.


Thacker, Joel D.  Stand, Gentlemen, He Served on Samar.  The Marine Corps University Library, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., U.S.M.C. Historical Divison, March 1945.


The Congressional Medal of Honor:  The Names, The Deeds.  Sharp & Dunnigan Publications,  Forest Ranch, CA, 1984.