LATVIA


See also CITY OF RIGA LATVIAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH LATVIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH 1871 - 1945 ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY IN LATVIA 1871 - 1945

RUSSIAN LATVIA 1871 - 1918

In 1721, by the Treaty of Nystad, Sweden formally ceded Livonia (Vidzeme) - which was already occupied by Russian troops since 1710 - to Russia. In 1795, at the third partition of Poland, the Duchy of Courland - until then a fief of Poland - was also annexed to Russia.(1) Both territories formed separate Russian governments (gubernya), which from 1819 to 1876, from 1905 to 1909 (2), in 1914 - 1915 and in 1917 were both subordinated to one overall Baltic administration. (1) The Duchy of Courland incorporated the Latvian regions Kurzeme and Zemgale. A fourth Latvian region, Latgale, was annexed to Russia after the first partition of Poland in 1772. It became part of the Russian gubernya of Vitebsk in 1802. After they had become part of the Russian Empire both Courland and Livonia - or rather their German nobility - continued at first to enjoy a large degree of autonomy in administrative and judicial matters. It was only in 1889 that they were fully integrated into the Empire (abolition of local German courts, introduction of the Russian language, etc.) (2) The reestablishement of a superior common authority in 1905 was a the result of major revolutionary agitation in both governments in 1905 - 1906 Chairman of the Federated Committee of Riga (overall leader of all revolutionary committees set up in Livonia) 1905 - 1906 Andrejs Petrevics 1883 - 1939 Chairman of the United Committee of Liepāja (overall leader of all revolutionary committees set up in Courland) 1905 - 1906 Jānis Luters 1883 - 1938 Chronology 1917 - march : after the end of the Russian monarchy, the Russian Provisional Government toke control of Livonia only, Courland already being under German rule since 1915. Its authority was however contested by Latvian Nationalists and by Soviets which were set up in different places and later united into the United Latvian Workers, Soldiers and Landless Peasants Soviet. - april : the northern counties of Livonia inhabited by Estonians (Tartu, Võru, Viljandi, Pärnu and Saaremaa) were transferred to the new autonomous province of Estonia. - july : autonomy granted to Livonia and formally also to Courland. - sep. : Riga was occupied by the Germans - dec : after the "Octoberrevolution" the pro-Soviet 12th Army seized power in Livonia and an Autonomous Latvian Soviet Government - which also covered Latgale - was established soon afterwards. __________________________________________________________________________________

RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATORS

COURLAND Governors (subordinated to the Governors General of the Baltic Governments until 1876, and in 1905 - 1909 and to the Special Plenipotentiaries in 1914 - 1915) 1868 - 1885 Paul Fromhold Ignatius Freiherr von Lilienfeld 1829 - 1903 1885 Aleksandr Alekseyevich Manyos* 1885 - 1888 Konstantin Ivanovich Pashchenko 1830 - 1900 1888 - 1891 Dimitriy Sergeyevich Sipyagin 1853 - 1902 1891 - 1905 Dimitriy Dimitriyevich Sverbeyev 1842 - 1919 1905 - 1906 Gen. Woldemar (Wladimir Aleksandrovich) von Böckmann 1848 - 1923 1905 - 1910 Leonid Mikhailovich Knyazev 1850 - 1919 1910 Knyaz Nikolay Dmitriyevich Kropotkin* 1910 - 1915 Sergey Dimitriyevich Nabokov 1866 - 1940 1915 - 1916 ... Tatishchev (in exile at Tartu) 1916 Peter (Pëtr Vasilyevich) Graf Hendrikov (in exile at Tartu) 1916 - 1917 ... Strakhov (in exile at Tartu) Provincial Commissioner (Representative of the Russian Provisional Government - subordinated to the Commissioner for the Civil Administration of the Baltic governments) 1917 Janis Cakste (in exile in Tartu) 1859 - 1927 LIVONIA Governors (subordinated to the Governors General of the Baltic Governments until 1876, and in 1905 - 1909 and to the Special Plenipotentiaries in 1914 - 1915) 1868 - 1871 Friedrich (Fedor Stanislavich) Woldemar Freiherr von Lysander 1816 - 1893 1871 - 1872 Julius Gustav Freiherr von Cube* 1815 - 1888 1872 - 1874 Michael Baron von Wrangell 1836 - 1899 1874 - 1882 Alexander Karl Abraham Freiherr von Üxküll-Güldenbandt 1840 - 1912 1882 - 1883 Hermann von Tobiessen* 1883 - 1885 Ivan Yegorovich von Shevich 1885 Hermann von Tobiessen* (2x) 1885 - 1895 Mikhail Sergeyevich Zinovyev 1... - 1895 1895 - 1896 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin* 1896 - 1900 Vladimir Dimitriyevich Surovtsev 1... - 1900 1900 - 1901 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin* (2x) 1901 - 1905 Mikhail Alekseyevich Pashkov 1905 P. P. Neklyudov* 1905 Yakov Dmitriyevich Bologovskoy* 1905 - 1914 Nikolay Aleksandrovich Zvegintsev 1914 - 1916 Arkadiy Ippolitovich Kelepovskiy 1916 Sergey Sergeyevich Podolinskiy* 1916 - 1917 N. N. Lavrinovskiy 1917 Sergey Alekseyevich Schidlovskiy Provincial Commissioners (Representative of the Russian Provisional Government - subordinated to the Commissioner for the Civil Administration of the Baltic governments) 1917 Andrejs Krastkalnš 1868 - 1939 1917 Andrejs Priedkalnš 1873 - 1923 Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the 12th Army 1917 Jurijs Carinš 1887 - 1922 Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the United Latvian Workers, Soldiers and Landless Peasants Soviet (3) Apvienotās Latvijas Strādnieku, Karievju un Bezzemnieku Deputātu Pamodes Izpildkomitejas Priekšedetāji 1917 Oto Kārklinš 1884 - 1942 1917 - 1918 Fricis Rozinš ("Azis", "Roberts", etc.) driven out by the Germans 1870 - 1919 (3) The new administration - also known as the Iskolat Republic - was not recognized by the Latvian nationalists who established their own underground administration working for an independent Latvian state. Chairman of the Latvian National Council Latvietu Nacionālās Padomes Priekšedetajs 1917 - 1918 Voldemārs Zāmuels 1872 - 1948 __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF THE PROVINCIAL AUTONOMOUS ADMINISTRATIONS

COURLAND Chairman of the Board of the Provisional Land Council of Courland 1917 Kārlis Pauluks (in exile in Tartu) 1870 - LIVONIA Chairmen of the Board of the Land Council of Livonia 1917 Vilis Skubinš 1876 - 1917 Oto Kārklinš s.a.

LATVIA UNDER GERMAN OCCUPATION

In 1918 the Germans, who had already conquered Courland in 1915 and the city of Riga in 1917, also occupied Livonia. (4) (4) Russia formally transferred Courland and the region of Riga to German supreme authority by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. At the same time it also recognized the "temporary" German occupation of Livonia and of Latgale. Some months later, by the additional Treaty of Berlin, Livonia and part of Latgale (the town of Krustpils) were also transferred to German supreme authority, the future fate of all these territories having to be determinated later. __________________________________________________________________________________

GERMAN MILITARY ADMINISTRATORS

Three German military administrations (Etappenverwaltungen) - Courland, Riga and Livonia - were set up as German advance progressed. Their military administrators were subordinated to the Commanders of the 8th Army in 1915 (only Courland) and to the Oberost 1915 - 1918. (see here for more on this subject) COURLAND (KURLAND) Head of the Administration Verwaltungschef 1915 - 1918 Alfred Freiherr von Gossler 1867 - 1946 RIGA Heads of the Administration Verwaltungschefs 1917 - 1918 Col. Karl W.B. von Alten 1852 - 1918 Col. Arnold von Engelbrechten 1870 - LIVONIA (LIVLAND) Head of the Administration Verwaltungschef 1918 Gen. Albert Wilhelm Heinrich Prinz von Hohenzollern-Preussen 1862 - 1929 __________________________________________________________________________________

BALTIC GERMAN ADMINISTRATORS

In 1918 two councils - the first for Livonia, Estonia, Riga and Ösel and the other for Courland - were established by the Baltic Germans with the approval of the German military administration. They mainly had advisory functions. COURLAND Chairman of the Land Council of Courland 1918 Alexander Immanuel Freiherr von Rahden-Maihof 1859 - 1920 LIVONIA, ESTONIA, RIGA AND ÖSEL Chairman of the Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel 1918 Adolph Konstantin Jakob Freiherr Pilar von Pilchau-Audern 1885 - 1958 Just before the end of the war both territories - now formally divided into the cantons of Courland, Lettgallia, North Livonia, Riga and South Livonia - became part of the independent federal Baltic State

REPUBLIC OF LATVIA

REPUBLIC OF LATVIA 1918 - 1940

In 1918, after the German defeat, the Latvian nationalists came to power and proclaimed the independent Republic of Latvia. (5) In 1940, invoquing a treaty of military cooperation which had been imposed to the country the year before, troops of the USSR occupied Latvia. At the same time a Soviet Commissar was appointed to supervise the reorganization of Latvia according to Soviet model and to install a pro-USSR "People's Government". (6) (5) At the same time Soviet troops however invaded the country, in this way initiating a new troubled period of wars which would last until 1920. See here for more details on this period (6) Before the People's Government was formed, the national Latvian government transferred all its power to Latvian diplomatic representatives abroad. Acting State Presidents Valsts Prezidenta Vietas Izpilditāji 1940 - 1943 none 1943 - 1945 Pauls Kalninš 1872 - 1945 Head of the Latvian Diplomatic Service Latvijas Diplomātu Kolegijas Vadītājs (acted as informal Prime Minister) 1940 - 1963 Reinhold Kārlis Zarinš, Latvian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the UK since 1933 1879 - 1963 Deputy Head of the Latvian Diplomatic Service Latvijas Diplomātu Kolegijas Vadītājs Vietnieks (acted as informal Minister of Foreign Affairs) 1940 - 1948 Alfreds Bīlmanis, Latvian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the U.S. since 1935 1887 - 1948 __________________________________________________________________________________

HEADS OF STATE

Chairman of the Latvian People's Council Latvijas Tautas Padomes Priekšedetājs 1918 - 1920 Jānis Cakste s.a. Chairman of the Constitutional Assembly Satversmes Sapulces Prezidents 1920 - 1922 Jānis Cakste s.a. State Presidents Valsts Presidenti 1922 Frīdrihs Vesmanis* 1875 - 1942 1922 - 1925 Jānis Cakste s.a. 1925 Pauls Kalninš* s.a. 1925 - 1927 Jānis Cakste (2x) 1927 Pauls Kalninš* (2x) 1927 - 1930 Gustavs Zemgals 1871 - 1939 1930 Pauls Kalninš* (3x) 1930 - 1936 Alberts Kviesis 1881 - 1944 1936 - 1940 Kārlis Ulmanis (7) 1877 - 1942 (7) Unformally styled Vadonis (Leader) since 1934 __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

Social AffairsForeign AffairsDefenceHome AffairsJusticeFinance
Prime Ministers Minister President Ministru Presidenti 1918 - 1921 Kārlis Ulmanis, briefly in exile on a British warship in apr - jun 1919 s.a. 1921 - 1923 Zigfrīds Anna Meierovics 1887 - 1925 1923 Jānis Pauluks 1865 - 1937 1923 - 1924 Zigfrīds Anna Meierovics (2x) 1924 Voldemārs Zamuels s.a. 1924 - 1925 Hugo Celminš 1877 - 1925 - 1926 Kārlis Ulmanis (2x) 1926 Arturs Alberings 1876 - 1934 1926 - 1928 Margers Skujenieks 1886 - 1941 1928 Peteris Juraševskis 1872 - 1945 1928 - 1931 Hugo Celminš (2x) 1931 Kārlis Ulmanis (3x) 1931 - 1933 Margers Skujenieks (2x) 1933 - 1934 Ādolfs Blodnieks 1889 - 1962 1934 - 1940 Kārlis Ulmanis (4x) Minister of Social Affairs Sabiedrisko Lietu Ministrs Despite its name this ministry actually was a political ministry (of propaganda) that suprervised all cultural activities (newspapers, radio, printing etc) and was also in charge of the Home Guard and the Labor Unions. 1937 - 1940 Alfrēds Jēkabs Bērznš 1899 - 1977 Ministers of Foreign Affairs Ārlietu Ministri 1918 - 1924 Zigfrīds Anna Meierovics s.a. 1924 Kārlis Ludvigs Seja 1885 - 1962 1924 - 1925 Zigfrids Anna Meierovics (2x) 1925 Hugo Celminš s.a. 1925 - 1926 Hermanis Albats 1879 - 1942 1926 Kārlis Ulmanis s.a. 1926 - 1928 Felikss Cielens 1888 - 1964 1928 - 1930 Antons Balodis 1881 - 1942 1930 - 1931 Hugo Celminš (2x) 1931 Kārlis Ulmanis (2x) 1931 - 1933 Reinhold Kārlis Zarinš s.a. 1933 - 1934 Voldemārs Salnais 1886 - 1948 1934 - 1936 Kārlis Ulmanis (3x) 1936 - 1940 Vilhelms N. Munters 1898 - 1967 Ministers of Defence Ministers of Protection (Public Security) Apsardzības Ministri 1918 LtCol. Roberts Dambītis 1881 - 1959 1918 - 1919 Jānis Zālītis 1874 - 1919 1919 Gen. Dāvids Sīmonsons 1859 - 1933 1919 - 1920 Kārlis Ulmanis s.a. 1920 Eriks-Mārtinš Feldmanis 1884 - 1945 1920 - 1921 Jānis Goldmanis 1875 - 1955 1921 - 1922 Gustavs Zemgals s.a. Ministers of War Kara Ministri 1922 - 1923 Gustavs Zemgals s.a. 1923 - 1924 Jānis Ducenš 1888 - 1925 1924 Col. Fricis Birkenšteins 1888 - 1941 1924 Julijs Arājs 1884 - 1967 1924 - 1925 Gen. Rudolfs Bangerskis 1878 - 1958 1925 - 1926 Jānis Goldmanis s.a. 1926 Gen. Edvards Kalninš 1875 - 1964 1926-1928 Gen. Rudolfs Bangerskis (2x) 1928 Gen. Edvards Kalninš (2x) 1928 - 1929 Antons Ozols 1878 - 1956 1929 Col. Edvards-Kārlis Laiminš 1882 - 1982 1929 - 1931 Gen. Mārtiņš Vācietis 1872 - 1945 1931 Col. Edvards-Kārlis Laiminš (2x) 1931 - 1940 Gen. Jānis Balodis 1881 - 1965 1940 Gen. Krišjānis Berkis 1884 - 1942 Ministers of Home Affairs Iekšlietu Ministri 1918 - 1919 Mikelis Valters 1874 - 1968 1919 Alfreds Birznieks 1889 - 1942 1919 - 1921 Arveds Bergs 1875 - 1941 1921 - 1923 Alberts Kviesis s.a. 1923 Peteris Bergis 1882 - 1942 1923 - 1924 Alfreds Birznieks (2x) 1924 - 1926 Col. Edvards-Kārlis Laiminš s.a. 1926 - 1928 Margers Skujenieks s.a. 1928 - 1931 Col. Edvards-Kārlis Laiminš (2x) 1931 Ansis Petrevics 1882 - 1941 1931 - 1932 Margers Skujenieks (2x) 1932 - 1933 Jānis Kaulinš 1889 - 1942 1933 - 1934 Gotfrīds Mīlbergs 1887 - 1942 1934 - 1939 Vilis Gulbis 1890 - 1941 1939 - 1940 Kornelijs Veidnieks 1899 - 1942 Ministers of Justice Tieslietu Ministri 1918 - 1919 Peteris Juraševskis s.a. 1919 Edvîns Magnuss 1919 - 1920 Kārlis Paumuks 1920 - 1921 Rudolfs Benuss 1884 - 1921 - 1924 Vilis Holtsmanis 1924 Voldemārs Zāmuels s.a. 1924 Julijs Arâjs s.a. 1925 Peteris Juraševskis (2x) 1926 Ansis Petrevics s.a. 1926 - 1927 Erasts Bitte 1927 Jurijs Paberzs 1891 - 1961 1928 Edvîns Magnuss (2x) 1928 - 1929 Baldvins Baron von Disterlohe 1869 - 1937 1929 Bernhards Berents 1929 - 1931 Jurijs Paberzs (2x) 1931 - 1933 Atis Tenikš 1931 - 1934 Antons Ozols s.a. 1934 - 1940 Hermanis Apsîtis 1893 - Ministers of Finance Finansu Ministri 1918 - 1919 Kārlis Purikš 1919 - 1920 Roberts Erhards 1920 - 1921 Kārlis Purikš (2x) 1921 - 1922 Ringolds Kalnings 1873 - 1922 - 1923 Alfreds Riekstikš 1923 Ansis Bušnevics 1923 - 1924 Hermanis Punga 1877 - 1924 Ringlods Kalnings (2x) 1924 - 1926 Jānis Blumbergs 1886 - 1926 Arturs Alberings s.a. 1926 - 1928 Valdemārs Bastjānis 1928 Peteris Juraševskis s.a. 1928 Roberts Liepikš 1928 - 1931 Ansis Petrevics s.a. 1931 Jānis Annuss 1887 - 1931 - 1932 Gustavs Zemgals s.a. 1932 - 1933 Margers Skujenieks s.a. 1933 - 1934 Jānis Annuss (2x) 1934 Evalds Rimbenieks 1889 - 1934 Vilis Gulbis 1890 - 1934 - 1938 Ludvigs Ctis 1938 - 1939 Alfreds Arturs Aleksandrs Valdmanis 1908 - 1970 1939 - 1940 Jānis Kaminskis __________________________________________________________________________________

LATVIAN MINORITIES

In 1919 the Latvian government promulgated the "Law on the Structure of Minority Nationalities Schools" that allowed the national minorities to establish their own school systems. Accordingly several Minority Nationalities School Sections were established within the Ministry of Education : the German, Jewish and Russian in 1920, the Belorussian and Polish some time later (8) This system of autonomy lasted until 1934, when a new People's Education Law limited the use of minority languages in schools. Still minority schools continued to exist until 1940 (German schools were abolished in 1939, when German-Balts left Latvia), but without any autonomy. (8) The sections were under the supervision of the Minority Nationalities School Department of the Ministry until 1924. Therafter they became Minority Nationalities Education Authorities, under the direct authority of the Minister. Although called "School Autonomy", the autonomy was actually extended to other cultural activities of the minoriries and the school authorities also were concerned with minority theatres, newspapers, sports associations, etc. Ministers of Education Izglītības Ministri (for the period 1920 - 1934) 1918 - 1920 Kārlis Kasparsons 1865 - 1962 1920 - 1921 Juris Plāķis 1869 - 1942 1921 Longins Ausējs 1885 - 1941 1921 - 1923 Aleksandrs Dauge 1868 - 1937 1923 Pauls Gailītis 1869 - 1943 1923 Stanislavs Jaudzems 1890 - 1944 1923 - 1924 Hugo Celminš 1877 - 1941 1924 Kārlis Straubergs 1890 - 1962 1924 - 1925 Ernests Felsbergs 1866 - 1928 1925 Arvīds Kalninš 1894 - 1981 1925 - 1926 Edmunds Ziemelis 1880 - 1970 1926 - 1928 Jānis Rainis 1865 - 1929 1928 Augusts Tentelis 1876 - 1942 1928 - 1931 Edmunds Ziemelis (2x) 1931 - 1933 Atis Keninš 1874 - 1961 1933 - 1934 Vilis Gulbis 1890 - 1941 1934 Kārlis Beldavs 1868 - 1936 1934 - 1935 Ludvigs Adamovics 1884 - 1942 Heads (Prieksnieki) of the German School Section - German Education Authority (1924) 1920 - 1929 Karl Keller 1868 - 1939 1929 - 193. Wolfgang Wachsmuth 1876 - 1964 Heads (Prieksnieki) of the Polish School Section - Polish Education Authority (1924) 1921 Jozef Raczewski 18.. - 1921 1921 - 1922 none 1922 - 1934 Antoni Talat-Kielpsz Referent of Polish affairs in the Ministry of Education 1934 - 1940 Roman Ciesulewicz (information on the other sections/authorities is welcome) __________________________________________________________________________________

SOVIET ADMINISTRATORS / PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT IN 1940

Soviet Emissary charged with the supervision of the reorganization of the Latvian State 1940 Andrey Yanuarevich Vyshinskiy 1883 - 1954 Commander of the Soviet troops in Latvia 1940 Gen. Fedor Isidorovich Kuznetsov 1898 - 1961 Acting State President Valsts Prezidenta Vietas Izpilditājs 1940 Augusts Kirhenšteins 1872 - 1963 Prime Minister Ministru Prezidents 1940 Augusts Kirhenšteins s.a. Minister of Social Affairs Sabiedrisko Lietu Ministrs 1940 Pēteris Blaus 1900 - 1971 Minister of Foreign Affairs Ārlietu Ministrs 1940 Augusts Kirhenšteins s.a. Minister of War Kara Ministrs 1940 Gen. Roberts Dambītis s.a. Minister of Home Affairs Iekšlietu Ministrs 1940 Vilis Lācis 1904 - 1966 Minister of Justice Tieslietu Ministrs 1940 Jurijs Raberzs 1891 - 1961 Minister of Finance Finansu Ministrs 1940 Kārlis Karlsons
In 1940 Latvia was reorganized as a Soviet Socialist Republic

REPUBLIC OF LATVIA 1945

In 1945 as German power collapsed a Provisional Government assumed power in Liepāja and on May 7 restored the Independent Republic of Latvia.

HEAD OF STATE

Chairman of the Latvian People's Council Latvijas Tautas Padomes Priekšedetājs 1945 Janis Andersons 1902 - 1969

MINISTERS

Prime Minister - Minister of War Ministru Prezidents - Kara Ministrs 1945 Col. Roberts Osis 1900 - 1973 Minister of Foreign Affairs Ārlietu Ministrs 1945 Arnolds Skrebers 1897 - 1979 Minister of Home Affairs Iekšlietu Ministrs 1945 Rodolfs Rocin 1907 - Minister of Justice Tieslietu Ministrs 1945 Teodors Zvejnieks 1884 - Minister of Finance Finansu Ministrs 1945 Aleksandrs Bulle 1892 - On May 8 Soviet troops toke Liepāja and restored the Latvian SSR (9) (9) The restoration of the Soviet regime toke place under the tight supervision of a special Latvian Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of the USSR Chairman 1944 - 194. Nikolay Nikolayevich Shatalin 1904 - 1984 Latvian resistance to this new incorporation into the USSR lasted until the 1950's

LATVIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic became a member of the USSR immediately after its foundation in 1940. From 1941 to 1944 it was under German occupation. __________________________________________________________________________________ (during the first weeks the People's Government continued in office)

HEAD OF STATE

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Augstakās Padomes Prezdija Priekšedetājs 1940 - 1952 Augusts Kirhenšteins s.a. __________________________________________________________________________________

MINISTERS

(Formally styled People's Commissars until 1946 - (1)) Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Tautas Komisāru Padomes Prieksedetājs 1940 - 1946 Vilis Lacis s.a. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Ārlietu Tautas Komisārs 1944 - 1946 Peteris Valeskalns, continued as Minister until 1950 1899 - 1987 People's Commissar for Home Affairs Iekšlietu Tautas Komisārs 1940 - 19.. A. Novik (?) People's Commissar for Justice Tieslietu Tautas Komisārs 1940 - 19.. Andrejs Jablonskis People's Commissar for Finance Finansu Tautas Komisārs 1940 - 1946 Arnolds Tabaks, continued as Minister until 1949 (1) At the incorporation into the USSR the Latvian Ministry of War was abolished and what remained of the Latvian army was integrated into the Soviet Army as part of the Baltic Military District, commanded by Gen. Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Loktionov (1893 - 1941), Soviet Deputy Minister of Defence __________________________________________________________________________________

PARTY LEADERS

First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Latvian Communist Party 1940 - 1959 Janis Kalnberzinš 1893 - 1986 Second Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Latvian Communist Party [Unlike the first secretary who normally was a Latvian (or had at least some link with the country) the second secretary normally was of Russian origin. He was often also the real leader of the Party] 1940 Zanis Spure 1901 - 1943 1940 - 1944 ... 1944 - 1949 Ivan Kononovich Lebedev 1907 - 1972 __________________________________________________________________________________

ADMINISTRATORS OF GERMAN OCCUPIED LATVIA 1941 - 1945

In 1941 Latvia was occupied by German troops and after a brief period of military rule - dependent of the Commanders of the Army Group North (in the occupied USSR) - a German civilian administration was established and Latvia was organized as a General Kommissariat which became part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland. In 1945, as Soviet advance progressed, German rule was reduced to Courland, - a military pocket - the so-called Festung Kurland - that resisted until the end of the war. GERMAN ADMINISTRATORS General Commissar Generaalkommissar (subordinated to the Reichskommissar Ostland) 1941 - 1945 Otto Heinrich Drechsler 1895 - 1945 W. von Borcke* SS and Police Leader SS und Polizeiführer (SSPF) (responsible for internal security and war against the resistance - directly subordinated to the H.S.S.P.F. of Ostland, not to the Generalkommissar) 1941 - 1944 SS-Oberführer Walther Schröder 1902 - 1973 Commanders of the Army Group Kurland Befehlshaber der Heeresgruppe Kurland 1945 Gen. Lothar Rendulic 1887 - 1971 1945 Gen. Heinrich Gottfried Freiherr von Vietinghoff "Vietinghoff-Scheel" 1887 - 1952 1945 Gen. Lothar Rendulic (2x) 1945 Gen. Carl Hilpert 1888 - 1946 Plenipotentiary of the Reich 1945 Gen. Hermann Heinrich Behrend 1898 - 1987 LATVIAN ADMINISTRATORS An indigenous Latvian administration was established immediately after the conquest by the local German administrators. (2) It was formally recognized by the German central authorities in 1942, but it never had much real power, most tasks being performed by the Generalkommissariat. In 1945 as German rule collapsed, Latvia was - formally at least - granted autonomy. (2) At the approach of the Germans in 1941, the Latvians revolted against the Soviet regime and established two separate administrations in the liberated territories before the arrival of the Germans, in this way hoping to receive some form of recognition by the invaders. Chairman of the Latvian Organisation Central Committee Latvijas Organizācijas Centrālās Komitejas Priekšedetājs 1941 Capt. Ernests Kreišmanis 1890 - 1965 Chairman of the Provisional Latvian Administrative Council 1941 Bernhards Einbergs 1893 - Both were however disbanded by the Germans. First Directors General Zemes Pašpārvaldes Pirmie Generāldirektori 1941 Alfreds Valdmanis 1908 - 1978 1941 - 1945 InfGen. Oskars Dankers (suspended 1944) 1884 - Directors General of Home Affairs Iekšlietu Generāldirektori 1941 Alfreds Valdmanis s.a. 1941 - 1944 InfGen. Oskars Dankers s.a. 1944 - 1945 Mārtiņš Prīmanis 1878 - 1950 Directors General of Justice Tieslietu Generāldirektori 1941 Teodors Zvejnieks 1884 - 1941 ... 1941 - 1943 Alfreds Valdmanis s.a. 1943 - 1944 Alberts Kviesis s.a. 1944 - 1945 Teodors Zvejnieks (2x) Directors General of Finance Finansu Generāldirektori 1941 Jānis Skujevics 1892 - 1941 Evalds Andersons 1941 - 1944 Jānis Skujevics (2x) 1944 - 1945 Jānis Miezis 1884 - 1950 President of the Latvian National Committee Latvijas Nacionālās Komitejas prezidents 1945 Rudolfs Bangerskis s.a. Secretary General of War Kara Generālsekretārs 1945 Arturs Michael Silgailis 1895 - 1997 Secretary General of Home Affairs Iekšlietu Generālsekretārs 1945 Rudolfs Kocinš 1907 - Secretary General of Justice Tieslietu Generālsekretārs 1945 Teodors Zvejnieks s.a. Secretary General of Finance Finansu Generālsekretārs 1945 Jānis Miezis s.a. LEADERS OF THE RESISTANCE The resistance against German occupation was divided between : - the Communist Resistance - consisting mainly of straggling party-members and soldiers - and organized into Otryadi (Partizan Units) subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partizan Otryadi in Moscow. Commander of the Latvian Partizan Otryadi (before 1943 the Partizans operating in Latvia had been subordinated to the Belarussian and Russian Command) 1943 - 1944 Arturs Sprogis 1904 - 1980 - In 1943 the different National Latvian resistance movements united into the National Latvian Central Council Chairmen of the Latvian Central Council Latvijas Centralas Padomes Priekšedetāji 1943 - 1944 Konstantins Cakste 1901 - 1945 1944 Bruno Haralds Kalninš* 1899 - 1990 1944 - 1945 Verners Tepfers, in exile since 1944 1893 - 1958
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