INTRODUCTON

Factors leading to the discovery of the New World

  1. Revived European interest in trade with the East
  2. Merchantilism
  3. Missions
  4. The Renaissance
  5. Improved technology

-Renewed trade with the East allowed the Middle Class (traders, craftsmen, etc.) to emerge in Europe.

Middle class – merchants and traders; neither very rich nor very poor.

Renaissance (c. 1300) – "rebirth"; the renewal of Greek science, philosophy, and classical literature.

Conquistador – Spanish explorers/conquerors.

Improved navigation of the Renaissance Period

  1. More accurate maps
  2. Improved rudders
  3. Astrolabe
  4. Compass

Other important technology

  1. The moveable-type printing press (Johann Guttenberg)

 

EXPLORERS

Portuguese

  1. Prince Henry the Navigator (mid-1400’s) – founded a school of Navigation that sent out many expeditions
  2. Batholamew Dias (1488) – reached the Cape of Good Hope
  3. Vasco da Gama (1498) – sailed around Africa to India.

Spanish

  1. Christoper Columbus (Italian, 1492) – sailed from Spain to the Bahamas (San Salvador)
  2. Ponce de Leon (1513) – conqueror and governor of Puerto Rico; explored part of North America in search of the "Fountain of Youth"
  3. Vasco de Balboa – discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing the isthmus of Panama.
  4. Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese, 1519) – 3 year voyage around the world; was killed in the Phillipines.
  5. Hernando Cortes (1519-1521) – conquered Aztecs in Mexico City.
  6. Francisco Pizarro (1533) – conquered the Incas of Peru.
  7. Cabeza de Vaca (1528-1536) – explored the SW part of North America in vain for the legendary "Seven Cities of Cibola".
  8. Francisco Coronado (1540) – marched north of Mexico in search of treasure; discovered the Grand Canyon.
  9. Hernando DeSoto (1539-1542) – explored SE part of North America; discovered the Mississippi River.
  10. Juan Cabrillo (Portuguese, 1542) – explored California.
  11. Pedro Menendez (1565) – founded St. Augustine, FL.

Types of Spanish settlements

  1. military (presidio)
  2. missionary
  3. estates

St. Augustine, FL (1565) – the first permanent European settlement in the New World.

Santa Fe, NM (founded 1610) – served as the capitol of the Spanish settlements in North America.

El Camino Real – "The King’s Road"; reached from Chihuahua, MX to Santa Fe.

San Diego – the oldest European settlement in California.

FRENCH

  1. Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian, 1524) – explored the eastern coast of North America.
  2. Jacques Cartier (1534-1535) – discovered the St. Lawrence River.
  3. The Huguenots – protestants who established Charlesfort on the coast of South Carolina and Fort Caroline on the coast of Florida.
  4. Samuel de Champlain (1608) – made first permanent French settlement at Quebec.
  5. Jacques Marquette/Lois Joilet (1673) – explored the central Mississippi River area.
  6. Robert Cavalier de la Salle – claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France, calling it Louisiana.

New France – Canada, the Great Lakes Area, and the Mississippi Valley.

-----------------------------------------------------TEST---------------------------------------------

The English Influence on North America

Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603)

  1. England’s first protestant ruler
  2. Made Scriptures available for all people to hear
  3. Pioneering and aggressive
  4. "Married" to England – the Virgin Queen

 

 

 

England’s Protestant Background

  1. John Wycliffe (1300’s) – attacked false doctrines of the Roman Catholic faith and translated the Bible into English.
  2. William Tyndale (1500’s) – English translation of the Bible
  3. Henry the VIIIth (1530’s) – created the church of England

Major Political Achievements

  1. Magna Carta (1215) –
  2. Parliament (1200’s) – representative government

TERMS

"Sea dogs" – English sailors who plundered the Spanish colonies and fleet (e.g., Sir John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake).

Representative government – an elected body of lawmakers.

Joint stock company – businessmen investing money in the efforts of colonization.

Common store system – storehouse for all goods to be equally distributed.

Indentured servant – a person who sells himself into servitude for a limited time in exchange for passage to a new land.

Free enterprise – an open system where businesses are free to operate with little controls.

Capitalism – an economic system where people own the materials for production.

Precedent – an example to be followed in the future.

Burgesses – a delegate in the Virginia colony to the House of Burgesses.

English Explorers

  1. John Cabot (Italian, 1497) – claimed the coast of North America for England.
  2. Martin Frobisher (1576) – looked for the fabled "Northwest Passage".
  3. Sir Francis Drake (1577) – first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe.

English Settlements

  1. Sir Humphrey Gilbert (1578, 1583) twice failed to establish a colony in North America.
  2. Roanoke – commissioned by Sir Walter Raleigh
  1. (1585) sent expedition that was soon abandoned by the settlers
  2. (1587) expedition led by John White
    1. landed successfully
    2. Virginia Dare – first English person born on North American soil
    3. White went to England for supplies, found England at war with Spain
    4. Returned to colony in 1591 to find it abandoned
    5. Only clue "Croatoan" carved into tree.
    6. Virginia – chartered 1606 by King James
  1. The Plymouth Company – settled northern Virginia
  2. The London Company – settled southern Virginia
    1. Jamestown (1607) 100 men and boys
  1. House of Burgesses (1619)
  2. Virginia becomes a royal colony (1624)
  3. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)

TERMS

Dissenters – people who did not conform to the Church of England.

Puritans – wanted to purify the Church of England from Roman Catholic influence.

Separatists – people who wanted to separate from the official church and make their own.

Ideology – a belief system that leads to specific behaviors/actions.

Examples of the Protestant Ideology

  1. Hard work.
  2. Cleanliness.
  3. Education.

The Puritans of Scrooby, England

  1. 1609 left for Leyden, Holland.
  2. They lived in Holland for 11 years.
  3. Concern for their children led them to leave Holland.
  4. The threat of religious persecution also influenced them.
  5. 1620 left England for Virginia in the Mayflower.
  6. The Mayflower had many "Strangers".
  7. Blown off course, they wound up in Cape Cod Harbour.
  8. December 21, 1620, they went ashore at Plymouth Rock.
  9. Mayflower Compact.

The Plymouth Colony

  1. Were friendly with the Indians (Samoset, Squanto).
  2. Signed a longstanding peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoag.
  3. Fall 1621, celebrated first Thanksgiving.
  4. Unsuccessful common-store system.
  5. Practiced religious liberty.

--------------------------------------------------TEST--------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

New Colonies

 

Massachusetts Bay

  1. 1629, chartered by King Charles 1.
  2. Became a self-governing colony.
  3. Contained many successful Puritan businessmen.
  4. Education was a high priority.
  5. Established Harvard College.
  6. Had a tightly controlled society.
  7. Boston, Salem . . .

Evangelizing the Indians

  1. John Eliot "Apostle to the Indians" (1604-1690)
  1. learned Algonquin language
  2. preached and translated Bible
  1. Thomas Mayhew
  1. worked in Martha’s Vinyard, MD.

The Puritan Work Ethic

  1. Man is called to work
  2. All work is noble.
  3. A Christian works best when he is diligent and faithful.

Connecticut

  1. Thomas Hooker—among others—moved from Massachusetts to Connecticut.
  2. Hooker and co. found Hartford, Conn. (1636).
  3. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
  4. King Charles II issued charter making Connecticut a colony in 1662.

Rhode Island

  1. Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts in 1635.
  2. Williams settled in Rhode Island and founded Providence in 1636.
  3. Friendly to Indians and practiced greater freedom in religion.
  4. First Baptist Church established in RI.

Roger Williams and the Puritans of Massachusetts

  1. Believed puritans should completely break with Anglican church.
  2. Believed civil and religious affairs should be kept separate.
  3. Criticized the puritans for taking Indian land.

 

 

 

 

 

New Hampshire and Maine

  1. 1622 Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges settled in northern New England.
  2. Mason took New Hampshire.
  3. Gorges took Maine.
  4. Their efforts were unsuccessful.
  5. New Hampshire was chartered as a colony in 1679.
  6. Maine remained part of Massachusetts until 1820.

New England Confederation

  1. Formed May 1643 in Boston.
  2. Provided for mutual defense against the Dutch, the French, and unfriendly Indians.
  3. Put down King Philip’s War (1675-1676).
  4. Promoted puritan orthodoxy and mission work among Indians.

New York (originally New Netherland)

  1. Settled by Henry Hudson (1609).
  2. Fort Orange (1614/1624) settled near what is now Albany.
  3. Patroon System.

Reasons the English Took Over New Netherland

  1. Stood between English colonies.
  2. The Dutch had a prosperous trade with the Indians.
  3. Fine harbor at New Amsterdam (New York City).
  4. John Cabot had explored before Henry Hudson.

Maryland

  1. Charles I granted it to George Calvert (1632).
  2. George died, his son Cecilius received the charter.
  3. Settled by Leonard Calvert, first governor.
  4. Roman Catholic colony.
  5. Proprietary colony.

The Carolinas

  1. Grant to 8 noblemen by Charles II (1663).
  2. Charles Town (Charleston) established in by 1680.
  3. Divided into North and South Carolina in 1712.

New Jersey

  1. Lord John Berkeley.
  2. Many Baptists, Scottish Covenanters, Quakers.

Pennsylvania

  1. Founded as a haven of religious freedom: Society of Friends (Quakers).
  2. Charles II granted in 1681.
  3. Very successful.

Delaware

  1. Granted by the Duke of York so Pennsylvania would have access to the ocean.
  2. 1704 on Delaware had its own legislature.

Georgia

  1. Last colony to be settled (1732) – James Oglethorpe.
  2. Intended as a benevolent undertaking.

-------------------------------------------------TEST-----------------------------------------------

Life in Colonial America (1607 – 1775)

Types of Settlers (in order of prominence)

  1. English
  2. Scots-Irish
  3. German
  4. French
  5. Dutch
  6. Welsh
  7. Swiss
  8. Swedish

Important Cities

  1. Philadelphia
  2. Boston
  3. New York
  4. Charles Town

Religious Diversity

  1. Anglican
  2. Presbyterian
  3. Baptist
  4. Catholics
  5. Huguenots
  6. Mennonites
  7. Dutch Reformed
  8. Quakers
  9. Amish
  10. Moravians
  11. Jews
  12. Congregational

 

 

 

 

Labor and Industry in the Colonies

  1. Agriculture (grains, cotton, tobacco, indigo)
  2. Lumber
  3. Shipbuilding
  4. Fishing/whaling
  5. Fur trading
  6. Ironworks
  7. Textiles
  8. Blacksmiths
  9. Leather workers
  10. Millers
  11. Commerce (import/export)

TERMS

Mercantilism – an economic system that seeks to increase the royal treasury.

Free enterprise – an economic system that allows much freedom for owning a business.

Dame school – home schools usually run by a widow or single lady.

Hornbook – paddle-shaped book with paper attached.

Old-field schools – schools held in a field no longer useful for farming.

Bicameral – a legislative body with two divisions.

Pioneer – someone who adventures into unknown territory.

Daniel Boone (1734-1820)

  1. One of the first pioneers
  2. Explored Kentucky
  1. Cumberland gap
  2. Wilderness Road
  3. Boonesborough

Colonial Schools

  1. New England
  1. home, dame schools
  2. horn books, New England Primer
  1. The Middle Colonies
  1. home schools, church schools
  2. Latin Grammar Schools, private academies
  3. Philadelphia Academy
  1. The Southern Colonies
  1. old-field schools
  1. General
  1. apprenticeships

 

 

 

 

8th Grade U.S. History Project

 

Assignment: Biographical paper.

Subject: an Enlightenment thinker whose work contributed to the American Revolution (e.g., Paine, Jefferson, Madison, Rousseau, Locke, Burke, Adam Smith, etc.).

Instructions

  1. Pick your subject (i.e., person).
  2. Select a minimum of 4 sources (one journal required – a journal is a professional periodical like "First Things").
  3. The paper should be a minimum of 3 handwritten pages or about 3 pages typed double-spaced.
  4. The paper will follow this layout:
  1. Background information (date of birth, country of origin, social class, etc.)
  2. Contribution (theories, ideas, writings, etc.)
  3. History (how has his/her ideas been proven or disproved by history?)
  4. Opinion (what do you think about it?)
  1. Due November 8.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation for Independence (1730-1766)

TERMS

Half-way covenant – church membership granted to unsaved people.

The Great Awakening – a revival movement in colonial America.

The Methodist Revival – the English version of the Great Awakening.

Voices of the Great Awakening

  1. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
  1. son of a congregationalist minister
  2. entered Yale at 13
  3. emphasized the holiness of God, sinfulness of man, necessity of salvation
  4. preached America’s most famous sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
  1. George Whitefield 1714-1770)
  1. Greatest impact on America during the Great Awakening
  2. Made seven trips to America
  3. Preached against slavery, preached to Indians, started orphanages

Results of the Great Awakening

  1. Thousands of sinners were converted
  2. Believers were revived
  3. New churches founded
  4. Spread humanitarian efforts
  5. Stimulated education
  6. Encouraged religious freedom
  7. Encouraged political freedom
  8. Unified the American people

The French and Indian War

Causes of the French and Indian War

  1. Rivalry over territory
  2. Rivalry over fur trade with the Indians
  3. Rivalry over fishing rights

French and English Conflicts (1689-1763)

  1. King William’s War (1689-1697)
  2. Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)
  3. King George’s War (1744-1748)
  4. French and Indian War (1754-1763)

Read about the French and Indian War (pp.73-77)

 

 

 

Differences Between the Colonists and the British Soldiers

  1. Motivation
  2. Standard of living

King George III

  1. Tried to reduce Parliamentary powers
  2. Two fundamental errors
  1. took his frustrations with Parliament out on the colonies
  2. appointed tax happy Prime Ministers

Colonial Grievances (George Grenville)

  1. Proclamation of 1763 – cancelled all land grants by previous kings and Parliament.
  2. New Taxes
  3. Violated Rights
  1. Stamp Act (1765) – stamps must be purchased for all legal documents.
    1. Violators could be tried without a jury.
  1. Quartering Act (1765) – colonists required to provide quarters and other supplies to British soldiers.

Stamp Act Congress (1765)

  1. No taxation without representation
  2. Restore royal charters with representative powers
  3. Restore land grants to the original colonies.

British defenders of Colonial rights – William Pitt the Elder, Edmund Burke.

1766

  1. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.
  2. Parliament ratified the Declaratory Act.

 

--------------------------------------------------Quiz 5-------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Home of the Brave 1767-1793

Pitt , Townshend, and North

  1. William Pitt the Elder (1767) – favored less restrictions and more liberty for the colonies.
  2. Charles Townshend – felt the colonies should pay their "fair share". Suspended local legislatures.
  1. Townshend Acts (taxes on colonial imports from Britain)
  2. Writs of Assistance – allowed British officials to inspect American ships and buildings for smuggled goods
  1. Lord North – urged Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts.

Tensions Heat Up in Boston

  1. The Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770
  2. The Boston Tea Party – December 16, 1773
  3. The "Intolerable Acts"
  1. a new Quartering Act
  2. Boston Port Bill

The Quebec Act – canceled the American colonies’ claims to western lands and extended Quebec south to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. It recognized Roman Catholicism as the official religion.

Colonial Actions

  1. Committees of Correspondence (1772) – 21 men who kept the colonies and the world informed of America’s problems with England. – p. 87
  2. The First Continental Congress (September 5, 1774) – p. 90
  3. Patrick Henry’s Speech (March 28, 1775) – p. 90
  4. The Second Continental Congress (May 10, 1775) – p. 93
  5. The Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)

British Countermoves

  1. Hiring of the Hessians – mercenaries from Prussia
  2. The Prohibitory Act (December 1775)
  3. - January 1776 – Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.

    ------------------------------------------------(Quiz 6)-------------------------------------------------

    Three Principles of the Declaration of Independence – p. 95

    1. respect for human life and private property

    2. equality before the law

    3. responsible liberty

     

     

     

    Help From European Friends – p. 97

    1. Marquis de Lafayette (France)

    2. Baron von Steuben (Prussia)

  4. Baron de Kalb (Germany) *
  5. Kosciusko and Pulaski * (Poland)

TERMS

Loyalists/tories – people who remained loyal to the king of England and opposed the war for independence.

-Timeline p. 99

-Read pp. 99-108

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8th Grade U.S. History Project #2

 

Assignment: presidential biography

 

Instructions

  1. Pick a president
  2. Select a minimum of 4 sources (journal not required, but smiled upon)
  3. a. 10 points will be subtracted per source not used

  4. The paper must be typed and all margins and spacings should follow the rules as follow:
  5. -All margins should be 1" except the top margin on the first page. The top margin on the first page should be 1 ½ ".

    -The paper should be double spaced (not 1 ½, or 3)

    -The paper should be written in your own words, not plagiarized!

    -Spelling counts off 1 point per misspelled word.

  6. Due February 18.

 

 

 

Your Name _______________________________________________

President: ________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Seven: Land of the Free 1783-1800

 

TERMS

Ratify – to approve

Amendment – additions

Federalists – politicians who wanted a federal system of government

Anti-Federalists – politicians who opposed the Constitution

Democratic-Republicans – those who opposed the strong federal government.

Inauguration – formal ceremony of placing a person in office

Cabinet – advisors to the president

Gold standard – backing currency up with gold.

Loose construction – idea that the Constitution could be interpreted freely by the government.

Strict construction – idea that the Constitution should be followed closely.

Executive – the branch of the government that signs bills into laws

Legislative – the branch of the government that makes laws

Judicial – the branch of the government that administers and judges the laws

Changes brought about by independence

  1. New land opportunities
  2. Greater social equality
  3. Drastic changes in governing the colonies

THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION – November 1777

"The Articles [of Confederation] established a . . . union in which the central government is subject to the state governments" (p. 112).

Weakness of the Articles

  1. Too difficult to arrive at a majority for approving and amending
  2. No executive or judicial branches for the central government
  3. Congress lacked the power to tax, etc.

-Shay’s Rebellion exposed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  1. Provided for the establishment of states north and west of the Ohio river
  2. Freedom of religion
  3. Trial by jury
  4. Public education
  5. Prohibited slavery

 

Go to next page

 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

  1. Convened May 1787 in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
  2. Originally called to amend the Articles of Confederation
  3. Key figures: James Madison, George Washington, Ben Franklin

The Question of Representation

  1. The Virginia Plan – called for representation based on population
  2. The New Jersey Plan – called for equal representation in Congress
  3. The Connecticut Compromise (a.k.a. The Great Compromise) – allowed for a bicameral Congress made up of Senate and House of Representatives.
  4. The Three-fifths Compromise – settled the issue of how to count slaves for representation and taxation
  5. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise (p. 116)

The Federalist Papers – a series of articles written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting the new Constitution.

The Process of Election

  1. House of Representative – elected by the people
  2. Senators – elected by the state legislatures
  3. President – electors chosen by state legislatures

 

The Bill of Rights (1791) – The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution

President George Washington

  1. Inaugurated April 30, 1789.
  2. Capital was in New York
  3. Requested Bible
  4. Added, "So help me, God"

 

The Northwest Territory, Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Missouri Compromise

 

The Northwest Territory – summarize pp. 160-161

-assign Check Up on p. 161

The Louisiana Purchase – read/summarize pp. 162-169

-assign Check Up on p. 168

The War of 1812 – read pp. 169-174a

 

 

TERMS

Neutrality – status of not choosing sides in a war.

Impressment – the kidnapping of American sailors by the British navy.

War Hawks – the southern and western congressmen who called for the ward of 1812.

Creoles – people from Louisiana with a mixture of French and Spanish ancestry.

Treaty of Ghent – the treaty which ended the War of 1812.

British Attacks in the War of 1812 Met By

1. British soldiers marched south from Canada Captain Oliver Hazard Perry

(July 19, 1812) General William Henry Harrison

2. Washington, D.C./Fort McHenry (no names given)

(August 24, 1814)

3. New Orleans Andrew Jackson

(January 8, 1815)

-assign Check Up p. 174 #’s 7-12

The Missouri Compromise – read p. 176

 

QUIZ – in lieu of a quiz, students will write a one page opinion paper expressing what the United States could have done to end slavery instead of coming up with the Missouri Compromise.

 

 

The Jacksonian Era (1825-1842) – The Debate over States’ Rights

TERMS

Tariff – a tax on imported goods.

Nullification doctrine – the belief that a state has the right to declare a federal law null.

Secession – when a state leaves the union.

Caucus – a closed meeting of party leaders.

Spoils system – the awarding of political office to one’s friends.

Abolitionists – people who opposed and wanted to "abolish" slavery.

Facts about Jackson

  1. Democrat
  2. Strict constructionist
  3. Opposed the National Bank
  4. Believed in the Gold Standard
  5. Believed the Union should be preserved over individual states’ rights

 

 

Other Key Figures

  1. John C. Calhoun – former Senator; Vice President under J.Q. Adams and Jackson.
  2. Henry Clay – senator from Kentucky; author of the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
  3. Daniel Webster - Massachusettes Senator who spoke out against secession.
  4. William Lloyd Garrison – abolitionist newspaper publisher.
  5. Frederick Douglass – former slave; abolitionist newspaper publisher.
  6. Nat Turner – leader of a slave revolt.

 

Civil War and Reconstruction (1861-1877)

TERMS

Popular sovereignty – that each state and territory should make their own decision about the slavery issue.

Fugitive Slave Law – stated that runaway slaves in free states must be returned to their masters.

Underground Railroad – a series of "secret routes" for slaves to escape to the North.

Bleeding Kansas – nickname after violent fighting erupted over the slavery issue.

The Slavery Issue – A Decade of Controversy

  1. The Compromise of 1850
  2. The Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
  3. Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Stowe (1851)
  4. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  5. The Dred Scott Decision (1857)
  6. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
  7. John Brown’s Raid (1859)

THE CIVIL WAR YEAR BY YEAR

  1. Lincoln becomes president
  2. South Carolina secedes from the Union

  3. Jefferson Davis becomes president of the Confederacy
  4. Battle at Fort Sumter - April

    Battle at Bull Run – July

  5. Grant’s army captures Forts Henry and Donelson, McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign – February
  6. Monitor battles the Merrimac - March

    Battle of Shiloh, New Orleans falls – April

    Seven Day’s Battle – June

    Second Battle of Bull Run – August

    Battle of Antietam – September

    Battle of Fredericksburg – December

    THE CIVIL WAR YEAR BY YEAR – continued

     

  7. Emancipation Proclamation - January
  8. Battle of Chancellorsville – May

    Gettysburg, Vicksburg – July

    Battle of Chickamauga – September

    Gettysburg Address, Battle of Chattanooga – November

  9. Grant becomes commander of Union Army – March
  10. Grant seizes Petersburg and Richmond – August

    Fall of Atlanta – September

    Sherman’s march to the sea – November

  11. Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia – April

RECONSTRUCTION

TERMS

Freedmen – former slaves.

Black codes – laws passed in southern states which restricted black civil rights.

Carpetbaggers – northern politicians who came south to make their fortune after the Civil War.

Scalawags – southerners who assisted the carpetbaggers.

Acts and Amendments of the Reconstruction Period

  1. The 13th Amendment – outlawed slavery.
  2. The 14th Amendment – made former slaves citizens of the U.S. and gave voting rights.
  3. Reconstruction Act of 1867 – divided the South into military districts and called for the Southern states to ratify the 13th and 14th Amendments.

 

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