CHAPTER ONE (based on Biblical history)

The Bible is a reliable source of ancient history

  1. It is the word of God (it carries his authority)
  2. Eyewitnesses
  3. Fulfilled prophecy

Adam (mdx) = man, mankind, dust (hmdx)

Eve (hvH) = mother of all living

Man’s Special Characteristics

  1. Language
  2. Thought
  3. Moral sense (awareness of right and wrong)
  4. Free will (the ability to choose right or wrong)
  5. Society


Genesis – beginning

Mankind – the human race/species

Humanism – putting man in the place of God

Capital punishment – the death penalty (usually for murder)

Retributive justice – punishment that fits the crime

Culture – the way of life of a specific group of people

Babel – (Babylonian) "gateway of the gods"

(Hebrew) "confusion"

Nation – a large group of people who act as a unit

Heilsgeschicte – salvation history

The Common Thread of Providence throughout History

Promise Given Promise Received

Genesis 3:15-------------------------ΰ U --------------------------------ΰ Heaven

B.C. A.D.









CHAPTER TWO - from Babel to Sumer (c. 2300 B.C. – 1700 B.C.)


Dispersion – scattering of people over the earth

Middle East – part of the earth where Africa, Asia, and Europe join

Fertile Crescent – another name for Mesopotamia

Ur – a major city in southern Mesopotamia; home of Abram

Sumer – an ancient culture in Mesopotamia

Tigris – "arrow"; the eastern river of Mesopotamia

Euphrates – "that makes fruitful"; the western river of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia) – land between the rivers

Alluvial plain – a deposit of fresh soil from a river onto a flat area.


Facts about Babel/Babylon

  1. The famous ziggurat in Babylon was named "the navel of heaven and earth"
  2. They worshipped many gods
  3. Babel has a double meaning:
  1. Babylonian – "gateway of the gods"
  2. Hebrew – "confusion"

-The sin of Babel was trying to create their own religion.


Sumerian technology

  1. Irrigation
  2. Wheel
  3. Number system (based on 60)
  4. Astronomy/astrology
  5. Arts (pottery, etc.)
  6. Writing (cuneiform)

Other Sumerian accomplishments

  1. cities
  2. kings
  3. architecture
  4. law

Polytheism – worship of many gods

Monotheism – belief in one God

Lex Rex – the law is king

Bureaucracy – an organized group of people appointed by a ruler to help him govern.

Promulgation – teaching/making known

Intrigue – deceitful practices in politics and diplomacy

HAMMURABI (c. 1800 B.C.)

  1. 42 year reign
  2. United all Mesopotamia under his rule
  3. Appointed representatives throughout his empire (bureaucracy)
  4. Used intrigue (lies and deceit) effectively
  5. Constructed highways
  6. Established postal service
  7. Increased farmable land through improved canals

Hammurabi the Lawgiver

  1. Claimed divine authority
  2. Had laws displayed for people

The Code (law) of Hammurabi

  1. Almost 300 laws
  2. Showed favoritism for social standing




Abram – great/exalted father

Abraham – father of a multitude

Canaan – the land west of the Fertile Crescent on the coast of the Mediterranean.

Baal – the principle idol/deity of Canaan.

Nomads –wandering herdsmen with no permanent settlement.

Covenant – an agreement given down from a superior to an inferior.

Abram’s exit from Sumer is reflected in Genesis 11:25-12:5.


CHAPTER THREE – Down to Egypt (c. 2300 B.C. – 1400 B.C.)


Mizraim – ancient name for Egypt.

Herodotus – Greek historian who wrote about Egypt.

Hieroglyphics – sacred word pictures in ancient Egypt.

Rosetta Stone – an ancient stone with hieroglyphics, Greek, and demotic. It was the key to deciphering the hieroglyphics. Discovered in 1799.

Papyrus – a plant growing along the Nile which had many uses.

Cataracts – river rapids.

Pantheism – the belief that all creation/matter is god.

Lower Egypt – the northern section of Egypt

Upper Egypt – the southern portion of Egypt.

Nomes – a subdivision of Egypt.

Hyksos – foreign semitic invaders who ruled Egypt for a while.

Vizier – the chief assistant/administrator to a ruler.

Tribute – payment to another country who exercises control.


Four Important Facts about Ancient Egypt

  1. Though of themselves as one people.
  2. Ruled a vast empire (once reaching the Euphrates).
  3. Played an important role in the Old Testament.
  4. Climate suitable for preservation of relics.

The Nile River

  1. The longest river in the world.
  2. Flows from South to North.
  3. Makes land fertile for farming.
  4. The deltal region is the most fertile.

Uses of Papyrus

  1. Boats
  2. Baskets
  3. Boxes
  4. Mats
  5. Sandals
  6. Furniture
  7. Paper

Egyptian Pantheism

  1. Worshipped animals, nature, pharoah
  2. Strong belief in the afterlife


The Old Kingdom

inner turmoil

Middle Kingdom

Hyksos invasion

The New Kingdom

Building Projects of the Pharoahs

  1. Irrigation and flood control
  2. Royal tombs
  1. mastabas
  2. pyramids
  3. mortuary temples
  1. Temples








Themes from Exodus

  1. God’s absolute sovereignty over nature.
  2. God’s purposes cannot be thwarted by man.
  3. History has meaning and purpose.
  4. God is the redeemer from injustice and oppression.
  5. Sets a pattern for God’s intervention in history.
  6. Establishes the Jewish religious calendar.
  7. History becomes religious and ethical.


Exodus 2:2 – "fine" = tov (bOt) "good" same word as in Genesis 1.

2:3 – "basket" = tevah (hbt) "ark, boat" same word as in Noah.

Not only do tov and tevah sound alike but they also draw on parallels in the book of Genesis. In each word God is either acting in creation or salvation. Both words, applied to Moses, imply that God is both creating and saving through Moses.

Moses (hsm) = "drawn out" and has Egyptian roots (e.g., Thutmoses, Ahmose).

Ironies in Moses’ Life

  1. Moses was "thrown" into the Nile as Pharoah had ordered but was saved by Pharoah’s own daughter.
  2. Moses would be nursed by his own mother in Pharoah’s palace.
  3. Pharoah would be overthrown by someone raised as his own son.

Moses’ Character

  1. Identified himself with his Hebrew heritage – Ex. 2:11, Heb. 11:24-26
  2. Couldn’t stand to see the weak exploited - Ex. 2:12-13.
  3. Somewhat impetuous.


Purposes of the Plagues

  1. To show God’s power to his people
  2. To execute judgement on the Egyptians
  3. To execute judgement on the gods of Egypt
  1. to prove that they are under his power
  2. to prove that they are impotent
  1. To show that he is all powerful

3 Indicators that the Plagues are an attack on Polytheism/Pantheism

  1. The inability of the court magicians to duplicate them (3-10)
  2. God’s (transcendent) ability to manipulate nature for his purposes
  3. Israel’s protection from the plagues


Reasons God would kill the firstborn

  1. Israel is his firstborn (Exodus 4:22-23)
  2. A form of retributive justice
  3. To demonstrate his power of the Pharoah


CHAPTER 4 – Israel in Its Land (c. 1500-400 B.C.) Exodus- Nehemiah



Theocracy – ruled by God.

Morality – the basic rules of right and wrong.

Decalogue – the Ten Commandments

Levarite Duty – the producing of an heir for a dead man by his nearest relative.


Three Miracles of Deliverance

  1. The fog/cloud that came between the Israelites and Egyptians.
  2. Dividing of the water.
  3. Closing the water.

Reasons for the "Retreat" to Sinai

  1. Total dependence on God for survival.
  2. Solitude.
  3. Giving of the Law.

Two Main Themes (Motifs) of the Law

  1. Monotheism
  2. Covenant

Laws 1-4 are religious in scope and deal with man’s relationship to God.

Laws 5-10 are social in scope and deal with man’s relationship to man.

Characteristics of the Law

  1. Contents are representative (not exhaustive)
  2. Recognizes no social classes
  3. Human life is more sacred than property

Facts about the Tabernacle

  1. Israel was to have only one place of worship.
  2. It was not confined to a particular location.
  3. It occupies a large part of the Law.





Major themes of Numbers

  1. The consequences of disobeying God (12 spies, etc.).
  2. The need to trust God for every need.
  3. Holiness (Tabernacle, Nazirite, etc.).


4 Themes of Joshua

  1. God’s covenant faithfulness.
  2. The importance of the written word.
  3. Human effort is useless without God’s direction.
  4. God’s holiness and judgement on sin.

3 Transitions in Joshua

  1. From Moses to Joshua.
  2. From Law to History.
  3. From wandering to settlement.

Joshua the Man

  1. One of the two faithful spies.
  2. Distinguished military leader (Exodus. 17:8-13; 33:11).
  3. Courageous.
  4. Obedient.
  5. Spirit-filled (Numbers 27:18).

JUDGES – emphasizes God’s faithfulness to his covenant with peace and prosperity but punishes faithlessness with oppression by other nations.

The period of the Judges is often called the "Dark Ages" of Israel.

Themes of Judges

  1. Failure through compromise.
  2. The consequences of rebelling against God.
  3. God’s unceasing commitment to his covenant promise.

The Cycle of History in Judges

  1. Sin
  2. Servitude
  3. Supplication
  4. Salvation


Old Testament New Testament

1. Comes upon (outside) 1. Comes within

2. Temporary 2. Permanent

3. Specific job 3. Produces spiritual fruit

The Work of a Judge was CIVIL, MILITARY, and RELIGIOUS.


4 Themes of Ruth

  1. An example of faith and love in a time of apostacy.
  2. To illustrate the concept of the kinsman-redeemer.
  3. To show grace to the Gentiles.
  4. To trace the ancestry of David.

I & II SAMUEL – themes similar as Judges and Ruth.

Samuel the Man

  1. Worked to correct religious malpractice.
  2. Maintained Israel’s national morale.
  3. Promoted Israel’s faithfulness to God.
  4. Established the monarchy in Israel.

I & II Samuel

  1. Marks the transition from Theocracy to monarchy.
  2. Displays the importance of the prophetic office.
  3. Shows that God’s holiness is not compromised by man’s sinfulness.
  4. David exemplifies the godly king.

I & II Kings + I & II Chronicles

  1. From Solomon to the Babylonian exile.
  2. The split of Israel into the Northern Kingdom and Southern Kingdom.
  3. Emphasizes the importance of prophets.
  4. Fall of Northern Kingdom (Israel) in 722 B.C. by the Assyrians.
  5. Fall of Southern Kingdom (Judah) in 586 B.C. by the Babylonians.

Exile and Return

  1. II Kings, II Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther.
  2. The best of the Southern Kingdom carried off to Babylon.
  3. Babylon conquered by Persia.
  4. After 70 years the Persians allow the exiles to rebuild Jerusalem.

-------------------------------------open note Quiz-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------unit one TEST--------------------------------------------------









CHAPTER 5 – Assyria, Babylon, and Persia (c. 800 – 300 B.C.)


Deport – to relocate mass groups of people.

Neo – new

Chaldeans – the neo-Babylonians

Levant – the land of Israel and its surrounding area.

Theological – relating to God


  1. Founded by Shem’s son Assur.
  2. Capitol city later moved to Nineveh.
  3. Hated and feared.
  4. Used by God to punish Israel – Isaiah 10:5-6.
  5. Deported the Northern Kingdom of Israel (722 B.C.).
  6. Isaiah, Jonah, and Nahum prophesied to/against them.

The Neo-Babylonians

  1. Conquered the Assyrians.
  2. Controlled Mesopotamia and the Levant.
  3. Destroyed Jerusalem and deported many Israelites.
  4. Babylon was the center – hanging gardens.
  5. Became arrogant and blasphemous towards God.

The Book of Daniel

  1. Gives a theological view of history.
  2. Similar in style with the book of Revelation.
  3. Points to the coming of Christ.
  4. Stresses the sovereignty of God.

Daniel (the man)

  1. Known for his godliness and prayer life.
  2. Known for his integrity.
  3. Rose to power like Joseph (dream interpretations).
  4. Used by Babylonians and Persians.


  1. Rose quickly to power.
  2. Greatly feared (as far away as Greece).
  3. Conquered Babylon and took over the empire.
  4. Used by God – II Chronicles 36:23.
  5. Allowed Jews to return to Israel.






7th Grade World History


Assignment: short biographical sketch

Subject: an ancient Greek thinker, warrior, politician, etc.


  1. Choose an historical person from ancient Greece.
  2. Use a minimum of 3 sources (encyclopedia, internet, etc.).
  3. Write a minimum of ½ to one full page about this person in your own words.
  4. Include your sources (printed or photocopied) with your paper.
  5. Due November 5th.

NOTE: doing only what is required is average work and will receive and average grade. Use this opportunity to impress the teacher with your ingenuity. Also, you may want to use this opportunity to do extra credit by making a poster board display and/or writing additional pages on your person.


Name _______________________________________


My person to write a biography on is: _________________________________


Teacher approval: ____________________-






















CHAPTER SIX – Greece: A Drama in Two Acts (c. 800 B.C. – 300 B.C.)


Civilization – the condition of a people who have an advanced knowledge of art, science, and culture and who build cities.

Empire – a group of countries ruled by one ruler or government.

Minoa – the earlies Greek civilization.

Crete – island home of the Minoans off the coast of Greece.

Knossos – the capital of the Minoan civilization.

Mycenae – the earliest of Greek civilization on the mainland; name of capital city.

Dorians – invaders from the north of Greece.

Acropolis – a hilltop fortress.

Agora – marketplace.

Polis – city.

Aristocracy – "rule by the best"; refers to nobility and wealth.

Monarchy – rule by one.

Oligarchy – rule by an elite group.

Tyranny – oppressive rule by one person.

Philosopher – lover of wisdom.

Anthropomorphism – describing non-human beings in human terms.

Phalanx – an effective fighting formation for soldiers.

Greek Civilizations

  1. Minoan (1600 – 1400 B.C.) – located on the island now called Crete. Capital was Knossos. Disappeared suddenly.
  2. Mycanaeans (1600 – 1200 B.C.) – located on the Greek mainland. Capital was Mycenae. Involved in the Trojan War. Invaded by the Dorians.
  3. City States – Athens and Sparta were the most notable.

The Progression of Ruling Bodies in Greece

Monarchy F Aristocracy F Oligarchy F Democracy

Parts of a Greek City

  1. Acropolis
  2. Agora
  3. Gymnasium
  4. Amphitheater
  5. Temples

Elements of Greek Culture

  1. Common gods
  2. Olympics (1st 776 B.C.)
  3. Art, sculpture, architecture
  4. Philosophy, politics




Sparta (pp. 76-78)

  1. Oligarchy
  2. Only the small ruling class could be soldiers
  3. The middle class conducted industry/commerce
  4. Helots were the poor
  5. Reluctant to go to war
  6. Formed the Peloponnesian League

Athens and Democracy (pp. 77-78)

  1. Solon introduced democratic principles
  2. Free adult males had a voice in government
  3. Pericles (461 – 429 B.C.) – direct democracy
  4. Formed the Delian League, became an empire

Greek Wars

  1. The Greco-Persian Wars (pp. 73-74)
  2. The Peloponnesian War (pp. 79-80)
  1. Lasted from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C.
  2. Brief peace in 421 B.C.
  3. Sparta formed alliance with Persia
  4. Defeat of the Athenian navy – 405 B.C.
  5. Athens surrenders – 404 B.C.
  6. Sparta’s control over Greece quickly crumbled.


Representative democracy – type of government where the people elect a few to represent them in the government.

Direct democracy – the people directly make the decisions of government.

Philosopher – lover of wisdom.

Important Greek Philosophers

  1. Xenophanes
  2. Thales
  3. Socrates
  4. Plato
  5. Aristotle

Phillip II

  1. Became king of Macedonia in 359 B.C.
  2. Conquered most of Greece by 338 B.C.
  3. Murdered in 336 B.C.

Alexander the Great

  1. Became king at age 20 (336 B.C.)
  2. Conqured from the Danube to the border of India
  3. Studied under Aristotle.
  4. Spread Greek culture.
  5. Died before he turned 33.

CHAPTER SEVEN – Rome Before Christ (c. 800 B.C. – Birth of Christ)

People Groups in Ancient Italy

  1. Gauls
  2. Greeks
  3. Etruscans
  4. Latins

Geographical Points

  1. Alps Mountains
  2. Po River
  3. Apennine Mountains
  4. Tiber River


Magna Graecia – Sicily and southern Italy colonized by the Greeks.

Forum – an early meeting place for Roman citizens.

Romulus & Remus – legendary twin brothers who founded Rome.

Pantheon –the most famous temple in ancient Rome dedicated to all the gods.

Republic – a form of government where eligible citizens elect representatives.

Plebians (plebs) – common citizens of Rome.

Patricians – privileged citizens of Rome; aristocracy.

Assembly – the body of representatives in Roman government.

Senate – the most powerful body of the Roman assembly.

Concilium plebis – the official plebian assembly.

Tribunes – representatives for the plebians.

Law of the Twelve Tables – a law requiring Roman laws to be displayed in the Forum.

Latin League – Rome’s defensive alliance against the Etruscans.

Pax Romana – 200 year period of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire.

Census – a counting of the number of people in a country.

Stoics – philosophers who practiced extreme self-control.

Epicureans – philosophers who practiced moderation.

Skeptics – people who doubt the supernatural.

Synagogues – community meeting places for Jewish worship.

Septuagint (LXX) – Greek translation of the Old Testament.

Policies of the Roman Empire

  1. Allowed native governments to handle local matters
  2. Allowed local customs to continue
  3. Didn’t change local religions

Roman Rivals

  1. Carthage
  2. Macedonia
  3. Syria
  4. Pergamum

Military Victories

  1. Greeks in Southern Italy (by 270 B.C.)
  1. King Pyrrhus of Epirus
  1. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  1. First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) - pp. 92-93
  2. Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.) – p. 93
  3. Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.) – p. 93
  1. Macedonia (215-197 B.C.)
  1. First Macedonian War (c. 215 B.C.)
  2. Second Macedonian War (201-197 B.C.)
  1. Syria (192-189 B.C.)
  1. Antiochus III
  1. Pergamum



  1. Elected consul in 70 B.C.
  2. Successful campaigns in the Middle East

Julius Caesar

  1. Elected consul at age 38 (59 B.C)
  2. Two five year terms as governor of Gaul
  3. Spread Roman culture throughout Europe
  4. Returned to Rome and set himself up as emperor
  5. Was a progressive leader
  6. Was murdered by members of the senate


44 – 31 B.C. Antony ruled the eastern half of the Roman Empire, Octavian ruled the western half

31 B.C. Octavian defeated Antony’s army at Actium

Octavian and Cleopatra commit suicide


  1. Conquered Egypt after defeating Antony
  2. Returned to Rome as the sole Emperor
  3. Restored limited powers to the Senate
  4. Reign marks the beginning of the Pax Romana (30 B.C. – A.D. 180)
  5. Extended and strengthened the empire
  6. Progressive leader (census, roads, etc.)





7th Grade World History

Project #3

Instructions: use as many sources possible to provide information about a Christian martyr from the beginning of the Church until about A.D. 500. Bonus points are going to be awarded on the basis of going beyond the basic assignment.


Martyr’s Name: _____________________________

Birth.:__________ Place of Birth: ______________________________

Death: _________ Place of Death: _____________________________

Method of death: ____________________________________________


Other Information:

















Your Name: ____________________________

CHAPTER 8 – Rome After Christ (A.D. 100 – 500)

The Claudian Emperors (A.D. 14 – 68)

  1. Tiberius (A.D. 14-37) – ruled during the ministry of Christ
  2. Caligula (A.D. 37 - 41)
  3. Claudius (A.D. 41 – 54) – expelled Jews from Rome
  4. Nero (A.D. 54 – 68) - persecuted Christians

The Flavian Emperors (A.D. 69 – 96)

  1. Vespasian (A.D. 69 – 79) – son Titus conquered Jerusalem in A.D. 70
  2. Titus (A.D. 79 – 81) – Mt. Vesuvius erupts
  3. Domitian (A.D. 81 – 96) – exiled apostle John to Patmos

The Good Emperors (A.D. 96 – 180)

  1. Trajan (A.D. 98 – 117) – pushed boundaries of the empire to its greatest extent
  2. Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161 – 180) – one of the few Philosophers of Rome

Other Emperors

1. Commodus (A.D. 180 – 193)

2. Septimius Severus (A.D. 193 – 211) – severe persecution of Christians

3. Maximius Thrax (A.D. 235 – 238)

4. Valerian (A.D. 253 - 260) – attacked Christian leaders

  1. Diocletian (circa A.D. 284 - 305) – most severe persecution of Christians (A.D. 303)


  1. Became emperor of a united Roman Empire in A.D. 324
  2. Had his famous vision of the cr in A.D. 312
  3. First Christian emperor
  4. Edict of Milan in A.D. 313
  5. Move his capital to Byzantium/Constantinople

The Germanic Tribes

  1. Ostrogoths
  2. Visigoths
  3. Vandals
  4. Franks
  5. Angles
  6. Saxons

The Fall of Rome

  1. In A.D. 372 the Huns ravaged eastern Europe
  2. The Visigoths sought permission to settle within the Roman borders
  3. Mistreatment led the Visigoths to attack Rome

Two Important Facts about the Fall of the Roman Empire

  1. It marks the end of ancient times
  2. It marks the beginning of a new era in history

CHAPTER 10 – Islam versus Christendom (A.D. 600-1300)



Bedouins – Arabian nomads.

Mohammed – founder of Islam.

Mecca – birthplace of Mohammed; Islam’s most holy city.

Kaaba – the building which houses the Black Stone in Mecca.

The Black Stone – a meteroite that muslims consider holy.

Allah – the God of Islam.

The Hegira – Mohammed’s flight from Mecca.

Medina – Mohammed’s base after leaving Mecca.

Jihad – a holy war in the Muslim faith.

Islam – the official name of Mohammed’s religion.

Muslim – a person who practices Islam.

Koran/Quran – the holy book of Islam.

Caliphs – Mohammed’s successors; leaders of the Muslims.

Crusades – holy wars in Christianity.

Pilgrimage – a religious journey; usually to a holy site.


The Crusades

  1. The Peasant’s Crusade – 15 to 20 thousand peasants who went to fight the Turks.
  2. The First Crusade (1096-1099) – recaptured Asia Minor and Palestine.
  3. The Second Crusade (1147-1149) – nothing accomplished.
  4. The Third Crusade (1189-1182) – The Crusade of Kings. Little accomplished.
  5. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) – attacked and robbed Constantinople.
  6. The Children’s Crusade (1212) – ended in slavery for many children.


CHAPTER 11 – From Empire to Feudalism (A.D. 500-1000)


Franks – the free; a Germanic tribe that settled in what is now France/Germany.

Mayors of the Palace – stewerds who ruled in place of the Merovingian kings.

Lombards – a Germanic tribe that occupied northern Italy.

Magyars – eastern invaders who settled in Hungary.

Moors – Muslims from north Africa.

Norsemen/Vikings – the Germanic tribes of Scandinavia.

Scandinavia – the lands of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.

Feudalism – a way of life based on the ownership and use of land.

Fief – a piece of land loaned to someone in exchange for a percentage of the harvest.

Lord – the one who owned the land.

Vassal – the servant who borrows land from a lord.

Knights – medieval soldiers who wore heavy armor.

Chivalry – the code of high moral behavior for knights and nobles.

Page – a boy who begins training to be a knight.

Squire – a knight trainee that assists a knight with his things.

Coat of arms – a group of emblems and figures which identify a knight’s family.

Heraldry – the study of coats of arms, etc.

Joust – a horseback sport where knights try to unhorse the other.

Tournament – a mock battle for training and entertainment.

Falconry – training of birds for hunting.

Manor – an estate belonging to a noble.

Serf- a sharecropper associated with a manor.

Demesne – lands belonging directly to the lord of a manor.


CHAPTER 12 – An Age of Darkness (A.D. 500-1000)

Monasticism – withdrawing from society and living a life of solitude.

Monasteries – religious communities isolated from the rest of society.

Friars – priests who live like monks but live in society.

Celibacy – the practice of not marrying.

Asceticism – a highly disciplined lifestyle where a person denies themselves many luxuries.

Chastity – not having sexual relations.

Eucharist – the Lord’s Supper.

Transubstantiation – the Roman Catholic belief that the elements of the Lord’s Supper become the actual flesh and blood of Christ.

Indulgences – buying a person’s way out of Purgatory according to Roman Catholics.

Ex Cathedra – Roman Catholic belief that what the Pope says from his throne has the authority of Scripture.

Penance – acts of repentance that Roman Catholics believe merit salvation.

Purgatory – the Roman Catholic teaching of a place after death where sins are punished in order to "purge" them from a person to make them fit for Heaven.

Vulgate – the translation of the Old and New Testaments into Latin by Jerome (c. 405).

Heretic – church members who disagreed with any official church opinion.

Three Basic Types of Translation

  1. Paraphrase – a one person translation (e.g., The Living Bible).
  2. Literal – a word for word translation (e.g., The New American Standard).
  3. Free Reading – biblical ideas preserved faithfully in a smoothed-out text (NIV).

-In the Middle Ages authority moved from the Scriptures to the Church officials.

-In contrast to this excess were the monks, etc.

Outstanding Christians of the Middle Ages

  1. Benedict (c. 480 – 543) founder of the Benedictine order of monks.
  2. St. Francis of Assisi (c. 1181) – founder of the Franciscan order; his followers were friars.
  3. John Wycliffe (c. 1329 – 1384) – Oxford professor who translated the Bible into English.
  4. John Huss (c. 1374 – 1415) – Bohemian professor who agreed with Wycliffe, burned at the stake.
  5. Augustine (c. 354 - 430)
  6. Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) – the greatest of the scholastics.
  7. William of Ockham (c. 1290 – 1349) – philosopher

Other Notable Christians

  1. Dante (1265 – 1321) – wrote the Divine Comedy.
  2. Chaucer (1340 – 1400) – wrote the Canterbury Tales.

Non-Roman Catholic Religious Groups

  1. Montanists
  2. Novatians
  3. Donatists
  4. Anabaptists
  5. Waldensians
  6. Albigensians


Humanism – putting man in place of God.

Humanity – the human race; people.

Humanitarianism – doing things to improve the quality of life for people.

Humanities – history, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, philosophy, etc.

Middle Class – merchants and artisans; neither rich nor poor.

Renaissance – rebirth.


Introduction to the Modern Age

Three General Periods of History

  1. Ancient History (c. 4000 B.C. – A.D. 500)
  2. Middle Ages (A.D. 500 – 1500)
  3. Modern Age (A.D. 1500 – present)

-read pp. 197-199

-assign Check Up on p. 199


CHAPTER 13 – The Protestant Reformation (A.D. 1400-1600)

-pp. 202 – 206a review of Wycliffe, Huss

-pp. 208 – 214 read about Martin Luther and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation


Simony – the buying of church offices.

Diet – an official gathering of church and government leaders.

Papal bull – official declaration of the pope.

Key Points of Martin Luther’s Teaching

  1. Justification by faith.
  2. The priesthood of all believers.
  3. The authority of the Bible as God’s word.
  4. The right of Christians to read God’s word for themselves.

CHAPTER 14 – Post-Reformation Europe (A.D. 1500-1700)


-Read pp. 221-224
















CHAPTER 15 – The English Nation (55 B.C. - A.D. 1689)


Celts – the earliest confirmed inhabitants of England.

Druids – the religious leaders of the Celts.

Britons – the mixture of Celtic and Roman peoples on the British Isles.

Anglo-Saxons – name for the Germanic peoples who invaded Britain in the 5th Century A.D.

Normans – invaders from France who settled England in A.D. 1066.

Witan – the Anglo-Saxon assembly of nobles.

The Great Council – assembly of vassals set up by William the Conqueror.

Common law – laws that applied to all people regardless of social standing.

Magna Carta – "great charter"; a document which established the rights of the English people.

Habeas corpus – the right to a court hearing to determine of a person has been justly arrested.

Due process (of law) – guarantee that the law has been properly executed.

Constitution – a document which defines the rule of law in a country.

Constitutional government – a government defined and ruled by a constitution.

Representative government – government where the common people have a voice in government.

Parliament – the representative body in English government.

Bi-cameral – a representative body composed of two equal parts.

Tudor absolutism the absolute, unlimited rule by the Tudor monarchs.

Roundheads – soldiers who fought against the kings forces in the English Civil War.

Cavaliers – soldiers loyal to the king in the English Civil War.

Divine right – the idea that a king is in power because God wills it.

Government by consent – the idea that the only legitimate rulers rule by the will of the people.

Outline of English History (c. 55 B.C. – A.D. 1485)

55 – 54 B.C. Julius Caesar conquers the Celts in Britain

A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxons invade Britain and give England its name and language.

664 Romanism becomes the official religion

835 – 870 The Danes conquer Britain

    1. Alfred the Great conquers the Danes
    1. Canute the Dane rules England, Denmark, Norway
    1. The Norman Conquest (William the Conqueror)
    1. The Domesday Book
    1. The Magna Carta is signed at Runnymede by John I.
    1. Simone de Montfort calls the first meeting of Parliament.
    1. Edward I’s Model Parliament established.
    1. Birth of John Wycliffe.

1337 – 1453 The Hundred Year’s War between England and France

1455 – 1485 The Wars of the Roses

    1. Battle of Bosworth Field makes Henry VII first Tudor king of England

1558 – 1603 The reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

1642 – 1646 The English Civil War.

    1. The Restoration of the monarchy.


CHAPTER 18 – France in the Modern Age (c. 1500 - 1850)


Absolutism – the absolute rule by one person.

Divine right of kings – the teaching that all kings were appointed by God and rule by his authority.

Bureaucracy – highly complex governmental structure.

Bourgeoisie – French for Middle Class.

Social Structure in Pre-Revolution France

  1. The First Estate – the clergy
  2. The Second Estate – the nobility
  3. The Third Estate – the rest of France

- By 1789 the Third Estate included 98% of the population.






Stages of the French Revolution

  1. First Stage – when the aristocracy forced Louis XVI to summon the Estates-General
  2. Second Stage – when the Third Estate proclaimed themselves the "National Assembly"
  1. the Oath of the Tennis Court
  1. Third Stage – when the majority opposed the king
  1. the storming of the Bastille