CHAPTER ONE (based on Biblical history)
The Bible is a reliable source of ancient history
Adam (mdx) = man, mankind, dust (hmdx)
Eve (hvH) = mother of all living
Mans Special Characteristics
Mankind the human race/species
Humanism putting man in the place of God
Capital punishment the death penalty (usually for murder)
Retributive justice punishment that fits the crime
Culture the way of life of a specific group of people
Babel (Babylonian) "gateway of the gods"
Nation a large group of people who act as a unit
Heilsgeschicte salvation history
The Common Thread of Providence throughout History
Promise Given Promise Received
Genesis 3:15-------------------------ΰ U --------------------------------ΰ Heaven
CHAPTER TWO - from Babel to Sumer (c. 2300 B.C. 1700 B.C.)
Dispersion scattering of people over the earth
Middle East part of the earth where Africa, Asia, and Europe join
Fertile Crescent another name for Mesopotamia
Ur a major city in southern Mesopotamia; home of Abram
Sumer an ancient culture in Mesopotamia
Tigris "arrow"; the eastern river of Mesopotamia
Euphrates "that makes fruitful"; the western river of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia) land between the rivers
Alluvial plain a deposit of fresh soil from a river onto a flat area.
Facts about Babel/Babylon
-The sin of Babel was trying to create their own religion.
Other Sumerian accomplishments
Polytheism worship of many gods
Monotheism belief in one God
Lex Rex the law is king
Bureaucracy an organized group of people appointed by a ruler to help him govern.
Promulgation teaching/making known
Intrigue deceitful practices in politics and diplomacy
HAMMURABI (c. 1800 B.C.)
Hammurabi the Lawgiver
The Code (law) of Hammurabi
Abram great/exalted father
Abraham father of a multitude
Canaan the land west of the Fertile Crescent on the coast of the Mediterranean.
Baal the principle idol/deity of Canaan.
Nomads wandering herdsmen with no permanent settlement.
Covenant an agreement given down from a superior to an inferior.
Abrams exit from Sumer is reflected in Genesis 11:25-12:5.
CHAPTER THREE Down to Egypt (c. 2300 B.C. 1400 B.C.)
Mizraim ancient name for Egypt.
Herodotus Greek historian who wrote about Egypt.
Hieroglyphics sacred word pictures in ancient Egypt.
Rosetta Stone an ancient stone with hieroglyphics, Greek, and demotic. It was the key to deciphering the hieroglyphics. Discovered in 1799.
Papyrus a plant growing along the Nile which had many uses.
Cataracts river rapids.
Pantheism the belief that all creation/matter is god.
Lower Egypt the northern section of Egypt
Upper Egypt the southern portion of Egypt.
Nomes a subdivision of Egypt.
Hyksos foreign semitic invaders who ruled Egypt for a while.
Vizier the chief assistant/administrator to a ruler.
Tribute payment to another country who exercises control.
Four Important Facts about Ancient Egypt
The Nile River
Uses of Papyrus
The Old Kingdom
The New Kingdom
Building Projects of the Pharoahs
Themes from Exodus
Exodus 2:2 "fine" = tov (bOt) "good" same word as in Genesis 1.
2:3 "basket" = tevah (hbt) "ark, boat" same word as in Noah.
Not only do tov and tevah sound alike but they also draw on parallels in the book of Genesis. In each word God is either acting in creation or salvation. Both words, applied to Moses, imply that God is both creating and saving through Moses.
Moses (hsm) = "drawn out" and has Egyptian roots (e.g., Thutmoses, Ahmose).
Ironies in Moses Life
THE TEN PLAGUES ON EGYPT
Purposes of the Plagues
3 Indicators that the Plagues are an attack on Polytheism/Pantheism
Reasons God would kill the firstborn
CHAPTER 4 Israel in Its Land (c. 1500-400 B.C.) Exodus- Nehemiah
Theocracy ruled by God.
Morality the basic rules of right and wrong.
Decalogue the Ten Commandments
Levarite Duty the producing of an heir for a dead man by his nearest relative.
THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT
Three Miracles of Deliverance
Reasons for the "Retreat" to Sinai
Two Main Themes (Motifs) of the Law
Laws 1-4 are religious in scope and deal with mans relationship to God.
Laws 5-10 are social in scope and deal with mans relationship to man.
Characteristics of the Law
Facts about the Tabernacle
Major themes of Numbers
4 Themes of Joshua
3 Transitions in Joshua
Joshua the Man
JUDGES emphasizes Gods faithfulness to his covenant with peace and prosperity but punishes faithlessness with oppression by other nations.
The period of the Judges is often called the "Dark Ages" of Israel.
Themes of Judges
The Cycle of History in Judges
THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
Old Testament New Testament
1. Comes upon (outside) 1. Comes within
2. Temporary 2. Permanent
3. Specific job 3. Produces spiritual fruit
The Work of a Judge was CIVIL, MILITARY, and RELIGIOUS.
4 Themes of Ruth
I & II SAMUEL themes similar as Judges and Ruth.
Samuel the Man
I & II Samuel
I & II Kings + I & II Chronicles
Exile and Return
-------------------------------------open note Quiz-------------------------------------------------
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CHAPTER 5 Assyria, Babylon, and Persia (c. 800 300 B.C.)
Deport to relocate mass groups of people.
Chaldeans the neo-Babylonians
Levant the land of Israel and its surrounding area.
Theological relating to God
The Book of Daniel
Daniel (the man)
7th Grade World History
Assignment: short biographical sketch
Subject: an ancient Greek thinker, warrior, politician, etc.
NOTE: doing only what is required is average work and will receive and average grade. Use this opportunity to impress the teacher with your ingenuity. Also, you may want to use this opportunity to do extra credit by making a poster board display and/or writing additional pages on your person.
My person to write a biography on is: _________________________________
Teacher approval: ____________________-
CHAPTER SIX Greece: A Drama in Two Acts (c. 800 B.C. 300 B.C.)
Civilization the condition of a people who have an advanced knowledge of art, science, and culture and who build cities.
Empire a group of countries ruled by one ruler or government.
Minoa the earlies Greek civilization.
Crete island home of the Minoans off the coast of Greece.
Knossos the capital of the Minoan civilization.
Mycenae the earliest of Greek civilization on the mainland; name of capital city.
Dorians invaders from the north of Greece.
Acropolis a hilltop fortress.
Aristocracy "rule by the best"; refers to nobility and wealth.
Monarchy rule by one.
Oligarchy rule by an elite group.
Tyranny oppressive rule by one person.
Philosopher lover of wisdom.
Anthropomorphism describing non-human beings in human terms.
Phalanx an effective fighting formation for soldiers.
The Progression of Ruling Bodies in Greece
Monarchy F Aristocracy F Oligarchy F Democracy
Parts of a Greek City
Elements of Greek Culture
Sparta (pp. 76-78)
Athens and Democracy (pp. 77-78)
Representative democracy type of government where the people elect a few to represent them in the government.
Direct democracy the people directly make the decisions of government.
Philosopher lover of wisdom.
Important Greek Philosophers
Alexander the Great
CHAPTER SEVEN Rome Before Christ (c. 800 B.C. Birth of Christ)
People Groups in Ancient Italy
Magna Graecia Sicily and southern Italy colonized by the Greeks.
Forum an early meeting place for Roman citizens.
Romulus & Remus legendary twin brothers who founded Rome.
Pantheon the most famous temple in ancient Rome dedicated to all the gods.
Republic a form of government where eligible citizens elect representatives.
Plebians (plebs) common citizens of Rome.
Patricians privileged citizens of Rome; aristocracy.
Assembly the body of representatives in Roman government.
Senate the most powerful body of the Roman assembly.
Concilium plebis the official plebian assembly.
Tribunes representatives for the plebians.
Law of the Twelve Tables a law requiring Roman laws to be displayed in the Forum.
Latin League Romes defensive alliance against the Etruscans.
Pax Romana 200 year period of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
Census a counting of the number of people in a country.
Stoics philosophers who practiced extreme self-control.
Epicureans philosophers who practiced moderation.
Skeptics people who doubt the supernatural.
Synagogues community meeting places for Jewish worship.
Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of the Old Testament.
Policies of the Roman Empire
POMPEY AND JULIUS CAESAR
ANTONY VERSUS OCTAVIAN
44 31 B.C. Antony ruled the eastern half of the Roman Empire, Octavian ruled the western half
31 B.C. Octavian defeated Antonys army at Actium
Octavian and Cleopatra commit suicide
7th Grade World History
Instructions: use as many sources possible to provide information about a Christian martyr from the beginning of the Church until about A.D. 500. Bonus points are going to be awarded on the basis of going beyond the basic assignment.
Martyrs Name: _____________________________
Birth.:__________ Place of Birth: ______________________________
Death: _________ Place of Death: _____________________________
Method of death: ____________________________________________
Your Name: ____________________________
CHAPTER 8 Rome After Christ (A.D. 100 500)
The Claudian Emperors (A.D. 14 68)
The Flavian Emperors (A.D. 69 96)
The Good Emperors (A.D. 96 180)
1. Commodus (A.D. 180 193)
2. Septimius Severus (A.D. 193 211) severe persecution of Christians
3. Maximius Thrax (A.D. 235 238)
4. Valerian (A.D. 253 - 260) attacked Christian leaders
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT
The Germanic Tribes
The Fall of Rome
Two Important Facts about the Fall of the Roman Empire
CHAPTER 10 Islam versus Christendom (A.D. 600-1300)
Bedouins Arabian nomads.
Mohammed founder of Islam.
Mecca birthplace of Mohammed; Islams most holy city.
Kaaba the building which houses the Black Stone in Mecca.
The Black Stone a meteroite that muslims consider holy.
Allah the God of Islam.
The Hegira Mohammeds flight from Mecca.
Medina Mohammeds base after leaving Mecca.
Jihad a holy war in the Muslim faith.
Islam the official name of Mohammeds religion.
Muslim a person who practices Islam.
Koran/Quran the holy book of Islam.
Caliphs Mohammeds successors; leaders of the Muslims.
Crusades holy wars in Christianity.
Pilgrimage a religious journey; usually to a holy site.
CHAPTER 11 From Empire to Feudalism (A.D. 500-1000)
Franks the free; a Germanic tribe that settled in what is now France/Germany.
Mayors of the Palace stewerds who ruled in place of the Merovingian kings.
Lombards a Germanic tribe that occupied northern Italy.
Magyars eastern invaders who settled in Hungary.
Moors Muslims from north Africa.
Norsemen/Vikings the Germanic tribes of Scandinavia.
Scandinavia the lands of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.
Feudalism a way of life based on the ownership and use of land.
Fief a piece of land loaned to someone in exchange for a percentage of the harvest.
Lord the one who owned the land.
Vassal the servant who borrows land from a lord.
Knights medieval soldiers who wore heavy armor.
Chivalry the code of high moral behavior for knights and nobles.
Page a boy who begins training to be a knight.
Squire a knight trainee that assists a knight with his things.
Coat of arms a group of emblems and figures which identify a knights family.
Heraldry the study of coats of arms, etc.
Joust a horseback sport where knights try to unhorse the other.
Tournament a mock battle for training and entertainment.
Falconry training of birds for hunting.
Manor an estate belonging to a noble.
Serf- a sharecropper associated with a manor.
Demesne lands belonging directly to the lord of a manor.
CHAPTER 12 An Age of Darkness (A.D. 500-1000)
Monasticism withdrawing from society and living a life of solitude.
Monasteries religious communities isolated from the rest of society.
Friars priests who live like monks but live in society.
Celibacy the practice of not marrying.
Asceticism a highly disciplined lifestyle where a person denies themselves many luxuries.
Chastity not having sexual relations.
Eucharist the Lords Supper.
Transubstantiation the Roman Catholic belief that the elements of the Lords Supper become the actual flesh and blood of Christ.
Indulgences buying a persons way out of Purgatory according to Roman Catholics.
Ex Cathedra Roman Catholic belief that what the Pope says from his throne has the authority of Scripture.
Penance acts of repentance that Roman Catholics believe merit salvation.
Purgatory the Roman Catholic teaching of a place after death where sins are punished in order to "purge" them from a person to make them fit for Heaven.
Vulgate the translation of the Old and New Testaments into Latin by Jerome (c. 405).
Heretic church members who disagreed with any official church opinion.
Three Basic Types of Translation
-In the Middle Ages authority moved from the Scriptures to the Church officials.
-In contrast to this excess were the monks, etc.
Outstanding Christians of the Middle Ages
Other Notable Christians
Non-Roman Catholic Religious Groups
Humanism putting man in place of God.
Humanity the human race; people.
Humanitarianism doing things to improve the quality of life for people.
Humanities history, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, philosophy, etc.
Middle Class merchants and artisans; neither rich nor poor.
Introduction to the Modern Age
Three General Periods of History
-read pp. 197-199
-assign Check Up on p. 199
CHAPTER 13 The Protestant Reformation (A.D. 1400-1600)
-pp. 202 206a review of Wycliffe, Huss
-pp. 208 214 read about Martin Luther and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Simony the buying of church offices.
Diet an official gathering of church and government leaders.
Papal bull official declaration of the pope.
Key Points of Martin Luthers Teaching
CHAPTER 14 Post-Reformation Europe (A.D. 1500-1700)
-Read pp. 221-224
EUROPE IN THE 17TH CENTURY SUMMARY
CHAPTER 15 The English Nation (55 B.C. - A.D. 1689)
Celts the earliest confirmed inhabitants of England.
Druids the religious leaders of the Celts.
Britons the mixture of Celtic and Roman peoples on the British Isles.
Anglo-Saxons name for the Germanic peoples who invaded Britain in the 5th Century A.D.
Normans invaders from France who settled England in A.D. 1066.
Witan the Anglo-Saxon assembly of nobles.
The Great Council assembly of vassals set up by William the Conqueror.
Common law laws that applied to all people regardless of social standing.
Magna Carta "great charter"; a document which established the rights of the English people.
Habeas corpus the right to a court hearing to determine of a person has been justly arrested.
Due process (of law) guarantee that the law has been properly executed.
Constitution a document which defines the rule of law in a country.
Constitutional government a government defined and ruled by a constitution.
Representative government government where the common people have a voice in government.
Parliament the representative body in English government.
Bi-cameral a representative body composed of two equal parts.
Tudor absolutism the absolute, unlimited rule by the Tudor monarchs.
Roundheads soldiers who fought against the kings forces in the English Civil War.
Cavaliers soldiers loyal to the king in the English Civil War.
Divine right the idea that a king is in power because God wills it.
Government by consent the idea that the only legitimate rulers rule by the will of the people.
Outline of English History (c. 55 B.C. A.D. 1485)
55 54 B.C. Julius Caesar conquers the Celts in Britain
A.D. 449 Anglo-Saxons invade Britain and give England its name and language.
664 Romanism becomes the official religion
835 870 The Danes conquer Britain
1337 1453 The Hundred Years War between England and France
1455 1485 The Wars of the Roses
1558 1603 The reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
1642 1646 The English Civil War.
CHAPTER 18 France in the Modern Age (c. 1500 - 1850)
Absolutism the absolute rule by one person.
Divine right of kings the teaching that all kings were appointed by God and rule by his authority.
Bureaucracy highly complex governmental structure.
Bourgeoisie French for Middle Class.
Social Structure in Pre-Revolution France
- By 1789 the Third Estate included 98% of the population.
Stages of the French Revolution