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Contents

 

Features

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Foreword

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Getting started

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MyAtari FAQ

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The Atari XL PBI -
Part 2

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Tip of the day

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You dirty rotten cheat!

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The making of an Atari musician

 

 

Reviews

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AtariAge

 

 

News

 

The Atari XL Parallel Bus Interface - Part 2

By Roland Scholz

 

Welcome to part two of three in this series about the parallel bus interface (PBI). Last time we showed what signals the Atari 600/800XL provides on the PCB edge connector at the rear. If you own an Atari 800/130XE, the signals have to be taken from the ROM module plug and the ECI port, since Atari was too stingy to provide the full plug as on the previous generation.

Click here to enlargeThe question is how we can use these signals to build a device that is accepted by the Atari operating system.

Basically Atari's engineers wanted a device that is acknowledged by the computer in a plug-and-play manner. In order to accomplish this during the reset procedure, the bits of the register at $D1FF (NEWPORT) are set to high level in succession. The task of the PBI device is now to map its own ROM at the position of the Math ROM ($D800 - $DFFF). If the Atari finds certain values (that are certainly not contained in the Math ROM) at three different addresses, the OS jumps through a vector (also contained in the PBI ROM) to an initialization routine for this device. This routine is usually located in the PBI ROM, too. What such a routine has to do will be discussed in the next article. The first thing to show here is how we can turn off the Math ROM and turn on our own ROM according to the settings of NEWPORT.

First of all, we have to design a decoder that outputs a logical "one" if the Atari writes a certain value to NEWPORT. Such a decoder is shown below.
 

Image of decoder for Newport

Figure 1: Decoder for Newport ($D1FF)


This decoder outputs a high level at signal NEWPORTw or NEWPORTr if a value is written to or read from this address, respectively. The next step is to save this value in a register or flip-flop, because we need this signal for more than just one clock cycle, since the PBI has to be turned on, as long as we do I/O through it.

TTL series flip-flops of type 74xxx74 are suitable for this. The "xxx" stands for the type of TTL devices and tell you what they are internally. I recommend the HCT series, since they have quite low power consumption, fast switching times and are only little more expensive than ususal LS devices.

For the TTLs directly connected to the CPU bus, we have to take care not to exceed the maximum fan-out of one standard TTL at each PBI pin. One standard TTL load is roughly equal to ten HCT loads. Please now consider the circuit shown in figure 2 that has the flip-flop added. Input D1 of the flip-flop is connected to one bit of the data bus. This could be realized using an 8x2 plug and a jumper that selects the bit you want to connect to the flip-flop. This forms the address of the PBI and since we can choose between eight of them, there can be eight different PBI devices connected the the Atari. The clock input of the flip-flop is connected through a NAND gate to the decoder taken from figure 1 and the clock signal (Phi2) of the Atari. As we know from the first part of this series, the system clock PHI2 drives high level during the second half of the cycle.
 

Image of circuit for mapping PBI ROM

Figure 2: Circuit for mapping PBI ROM to Math ROM


Since the decoder also drives high level if there happens an access to NEWPORT, we gain a trailing edge at the output of the AND gate, when the cycle ends. The flip-flop needs a leading edge to store the bit at input D, so we negate the signal, ending up with a NAND gate. The flip-flop's RES input is connected to the system reset signal, so the device is definitely turned off during power-on or after pressing the reset key. We have a signal named PbiON that tells us wether the device is on or off.

The next task is to switch off the Math ROM and activate our own ROM. To accomplish this, we have to create a decoder that drives both singals MPD\ (math-pack disable) and EXTSEL\ (external select) to low level, if there is an access to the storage area $D800 - $DFFF. In addition, our ROM has to be selected using the ROM's signals OE\ (output enable) and CS\ (chip select). By the way, in the case signal EXTSEL\ is not held low, the internal RAM will be activated instead of the Math ROM, so you can load your driver software there without using a ROM. This should be done for testing purposes only, since this is not compatible with the PBI specification.

Figure 3 depicts such a decoder that is contained in figure 2 as well. It decodes the addresses between $D800 - $DFFF and only shows high level during the second half of PHI2 and if the CPU tries to read data.
 

Image of decoder for read access

Figure 3: Decoder for read access at $D800 - $DFFF


This signal is combined with PbiON throuh a NAND gate again, so we get an active low output if the device is turned on and there is read access to the mentioned addresses. With the described hardware one can build a device that can map its own ROM into the Atari if it is turned on. However, a "real" device should also contain some sort of I/O chips that perform, for instance, serial or parallel I/O. Those chips will need a special address area to access their configuration registers and so on. Such addresses should be mapped to the area just below NEWPORT, like $D1F0 - $D1FE and only if the device is activated. There are too many possibilities to discuss the subject in depth.

However, there is another thing interesting enough to be mentioned: The PBI device can trigger an IRQ interrupt! In order to do this, we have to do the following:

First, the interrupt signal of the PBI device must be "wired-OR" to the IRQ signal of the Atari. Having done this, we must ensure the Atari reads a "1" at NEWPORT from the bit assigned to the device. Then the Atari will jump through a vector in the PBI ROM. What we have to do on the software side will be discussed in the next article.

How can we improve our circuit, so it enables the  Atari to read from NEWPORT? Please consider figure 4. Here again we use a flip-flop to store the interrupt request. Through a tri-state buffer (74126) the output of the flip-flop is connected to the CPU data bus. Here we use the same bit used to activate and address our device. In general, tri-state chips can assume in contrast to usual logic chips three states, LOW, HIGH and ISOLATE, a third state that puts the chip in high-impedance, electrically disconnecting it from the surrounding circuit.
 

Image of circuit for reading IRQ

Figure 4: Circuit for reading IRQ bit at NEWPORT and assigning IRQ signal to IRQ\


Once again we need a decoder that tells us when there is a read from NEWPORT. Please take a look at figure 1 and you will notice the output NEWPORTr that does exactly what we want. Output D of the flip-flip connected to IRQ in figure 4 should be of the open-collector type, actually, but I've never had problems just using a 1Kohm resistor. The signal NEWPORTw is used to reset the flip-flop, since we do not want the device to constantly request interrupts. As the OS activates the device using this line when an interrupt request occurs, the request is surely deleted.

The last thing to say is the aforementioned decoders and logic can be easily built using GAL (generic array logic) chips. These chips contain logic elements (OR/AND gates, inverters) that can be flexibly connected by programming the chips. This programming is done electonically and can be changed or adjusted nearly as many times as you want. In order to show clearly what the logic designs do, I have used discrete gate symbols. The circuits are not optimized or minimized, so they are not recommended for practical use.

I hope this article, in spite of its conciseness, has been reasonably comprehensive and motivates you to develop something useful for the good old Atari. If there are questions or suggestions please write to:

Roland Scholz, roland_scholz@web.de
 

Profile

Photo of Roland Scholz

I am a specialist and internal consultant for IBM-OS/390 application development at Gerling (www.gerling.de), Germany's 4th or 5th largest insurance company, supporting a software versioning system named ENDEVOR. I hold a diploma in informatics and during my studies I did not even know what an IBM mainframe was. But now I really love these ancient computers that IBM calls the best high-performance platform. On Mondays I play soccer with my father-in-law and a couple of other guys and the rest of the week I meet friends, try to develop stuff for the Atari, repair everyone's PCs... That doesn't sound busy, however, there is seldom time for the Atari!

 

Useful link

  • If you missed the Part 1 of this series, you can read it in our May 2001 issue. Visit our Back issues archive today.


MyAtari magazine - Feature #4, July 2001 

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