General Aim of the Lesson
This lesson continues an examination of concepts and
processes related to working with the threeway music notation that is
intended to accompany songs and music throughout both music courses.
In this second series of exercises and activities students are
introduced to the separate but basically similar ways that each of the
three notation systems, solfege, staff and Hindi notation present
rhythm and metre. Again it is important for students to recognise
commonalities but at the same time be aware that both Solfege and Hindi
notation arrange rhythm by showing how each 'beat' of the music is
organised. Solfege (tonic solfa) uses lines, 'colons' and full stop
symbols to organise the beats while Hindi separates groups of beats
with vertical lines and links smaller rhythms with 'phrasing'
marks. In Western staff notation a variety of symbols represent
different beat and rhythm patterns.
Specific Behavioural Objectives
As a result of studying this unit students should
demonstrate
the knowledge and understanding that (cognitive and
metacognitive)
 Beats move in sequential patters in music.
 Music, no matter what its origin, may share common
rhythm systems.
 Both solfege, which is a notation with its Pacific
roots in Methodist and related hymn traditions  and reputedly
originating centuries ago from contact between European and classical
Indian traditions, and Hindi SAGRAMA notation follow similar patterns
of arranging rhythm and beats.
 Western staff notation is based on a different
structure but is able to represent the same rhythms as both Solfege and
Hindi notation
 In the music courses whenever it is possible music
will be notated or written in all three systems at once.
the ability to (pyschomotor)
 Read musical rhythms in all three notations.
 The ability to recognise and interpret rhythm
symbols in any one of the three systems
 The capacity to clap or play a simple rhythmic line
in any of the three systems
 in their attitudes, (affective)
 Preparedness to work towards competence in practical
application of the three notations in musical settings.
Work Requirements
Students should undertake the following tasks
 Read and perform exercises and music notated in all
three systems
 Recognise related symbols in any of the three systems
Teaching Aids and resource materials:
 Blackboard copy of rhythms notated in all three
systems AND
 Photocopies distributed to each student: These will
display the rhythm symbols and processes of all three systems and
exercises and examples.
Lesson Steps
Focus Question
How do we use rhythm in our lives?
Stimulus
Look at this music where the rhythm symbols for
solfege, staff notation and Hindi have been written together.
 What tells us that the beats have been arranged in
regular patterns of TWO?
 How are the main beats ('one', and 'two') shown as
separate in tonic solfa?
 Can you describe the symbol in staff notation that
represents beats 'one' and 'two'?
 How is each measure (or 'bar' ) of two beats
separated in Hindi notation?
Now look at the second measure or bar of two beats.
 What do you notice about the symbols for the rhythm
of the second group of beats (beats 'three'and 'four')?
 How is each separated from the next in solfege?
 Can you describe the symbols used to show these new
'half' beats?
 Notice that the first two symbols are separate and
the second two have been joined at the top. These are two different
ways of writing exactly the same half beats!
 How are the 'half' beats linked or joined in pairs
in Hindi notation? What new symbol is used?
Now look at the third pair of beats.
 Which symbol shows the longer beat?
 Which shows the shorter 'half' beat?
 Can you guess what fraction of the measure or bar
(group of two main beats) the longer symbol represents?
In the last or fourth measure or bar there is only one
main symbol for pitch.
 How many beats do you think it represents in all
three notations?
 What tells you this?
 How do both solfege and Hindi notation show the long
second part of the beat?
When we sing the symbol in the last measure or bar we
hold it for two beats before we stop singing.
GROUP TASK
Now clap the rhythm together.
Next sing the scale/saptak together.
Stimulus
Look at the second piece of music:
Compare it with the first.
 What do you notice about both that is the same?
 What do you notice about each that is different?
 How many measures or bars are there this time?
 How many beats are there?
 Are there more or less main beats that in the first
example?
 What tells you this?
GROUP TASK
Clap this example through, making the FIRST beat of
each measure or bar STRONGER than the other TWO.
Next sing this example through, making the FIRST beat of each measure
or bar STRONGER than the other TWO.
Stimulus
Look at this third piece of music:
Compare it with the first and second examples
 What do you notice about all three that appears to
be the same?
 What do you notice about each that is different?
 How many measures or bars are there this time?
 How many beats are there?
 Are there more or less main beats that in the first
example?
 What tells you this?
 Are there more or less main beats that in the second
example?
 What tells you this?
 What new symbol has appeared in the solfege line?
 What is its task or function?
GROUP TASK
Clap this example through, making the FIRST beat of
each measure or bar STRONGER than the other TWO.
Next sing this example through, making the FIRST beat of each measure
or bar STRONGER than the other TWO.
As an experiment you might divide the class into three groups and have
each perform one of each example at the same time as the other groups.
Exercise
Add the missing rhythm symbols for the solfege and
Hindi notation lines of this music example. You may work in pairs to
complete this exercise. Use the examples to correct it.
How are the beats grouped?
 In patterns of two beats, three beats or four beats?
Correct this at the beginning of the staff notation
Reflection
Teacher and students talk around the following
questions:
 What are the common features of rhythm notation
across solfege, staff notation and Hindi notation?
 What is different from one to the next?
 Which if any is easier to read? Why?
 Which if any is more difficult than the other two?
Why?
Lesson conclusion and evaluation
Assessment Point
 Read and interpret rhythm symbols and the
organisation of rhythm in each of the three music notation systems
 Match missing notation symbol when other symbols are
present.
 Assessment Criteria
 Demonstrated competence in reading and interpreting
rhythm symbols and their organisation in each of the three music
notation systems
 Demonstrated competence in matching missing notation
symbol when other symbols are present.
Evaluation
The teacher thinks about the following:
 Did the students generally enjoy the unit?
 Did they achieve the learning outcomes?
 Were the activities appropriate to this particular
group?
 Do I need to incorporate more language activities to
help students understand and talk about what they are doing?
Forward Planning
 Where do I go from here?
 How do I build on to what they have learned here?
