EGYPTOLOGY FORUM

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Demotic Grammar online - Gramática Demótica en línea          (20 de Noviembre de 2000)

We have just learnt that there is a Demotic Grammar online that can be accessed and read in the link we are giving below. It´s in pdf files so you would need to have the Acrobat Reader installed in your computer.

Nos hemos enterado recientemente que se ha puesto una Gramática Demótica en línea que puede ser leída en el vínculo que damos más abajo. Como está en archivos pdf tendrán que tener el Acrobat Reader instalado en su computadora.

 

CLICK HERE - PRESIONE AQUÍ

 

Moderator - El Moderador

 

 

 

Nouveau site concernant l'étude de projet dans l'architecture funéraire égyptienne de l'Ancien Empire          (27 November 2000)

J’ai l’honneur de Vous communiquer l’ouverture de mon Web site sur l’étude de l’architecture funéraire royale égyptienne de l’Ancien Empire:

ARCHITECTURE FUNERAIRE ROYALE EGYPTIENNE

Sont agréables des opinions et des suggestions. Merci beaucoup et mes salutations très distinguées.

Prof. Arch. Pietro Testa         nofer@libero.it

 

 

Tutankhamen           (7 December 2000)

Please can you answer a question for me? I am very new to the study of Egyptology, and have received various answers to the question " How old was Tutankhamen when he became pharaoh, and how old was he when he died? " . I have read books that have said he became pharaoh at 1 year old, some say he was 7 or 8 years old, and some say he was 10 years old. The same books say he died when he was either 14, 15, 18 or 19 years old! This has confused me greatly and I would appreciate it if you could tell me the correct answers. Thank you!!

Daniel Walker          danzoe@ntlworld.com

NOTE FROM THE MODERATOR - As you probably know, age determination of long dead people is not easy and is never precise, there is some uncertainty, what is given is the approximate age, according to historical sources, most scholars agree that he became a Pharaoh at around 9 and died at 18 or 19 years of age, give or take one or two years. This is what you could safely say until more precise determinations can be made.

 

La moneda en Egipto           (5 de Enero de 2001)

He leído que la economía se hizo monetaria en Egipto en la Baja Época cuando los Faraones tenían que pagar a sus mercenarios griegos de esa forma, ya que el sistema egipcio en toda su historia fue no-monetario y basado en el trueque. Los mercenarios exigían moneda pues no podían disponer de las mercaderías que les serían entregadas si aceptaran el antiguo sistema y los Faraones la obtenían de las ciudades griegas que permitieron se instalaran en el Delta con propósitos comerciales (Naukratis, Daphne). Pero también me consta por otras lecturas que la economía monetaria llegó a los egipcios nativos recién en la época de los Ptolomeos. Sería interesante recibir información de quienes estén actualizados en el tema ya sea aquí, en este Foro, o privadamente a mi dirección de email. Gracias.

Sergio          sergolus@yahoo.com

 

 

Comentario a su artículo: "Los charlatanes y la egiptología"          (21 de Enero de 2001)

Queridos amigos, (espero)

Me dirijo a ustedes desde mi inmensa ignorancia y con un gesto de sorpresa al leer detenidamente el artículo publicado en egiptomania.com. En parte es posible que esté de acuerdo con el fondo de la idea que intentan transmitir en el citado artículo, pero sólo en parte... Es cierto que a este, como a otros asuntos misteriosos que rodean a nuestra demasiado informada civilización, le rodean a veces entornos, digamos fantásticos, que transmiten una realidad ya por sí espectacular e incomprensible, llegando a distraer al lector profano o poco animado a investigar por su cuenta. Pero debo advertirles, sin ánimo de que esta misiva sea una crítica destructiva, que nadie está en posesión de la verdad absoluta, y que el día a día de la ciencia desvela novedades que hasta ayer parecían poco menos que sacadas de los textos mas fantasiosos que los que podamos recurrir. Como ya digo, no es mi ánimo criticar, sino aprender, y en ese estilo me gustaría que me diesen su opinón sobre determinados asuntos que me resultaron muy curiosos en un reciente viaje y que aún no he tenido respuesta por parte de la rama heterodoxa de la investigación. Si es este el lugar para dichas consultas, les agradecería que me lo indicasen para, en sucesivos contactos, iniciar lo que seguramente será una muy fructífera relación.

Chema Regalado           chemargb@wanadoo.es

 

NOTA DEL MODERADOR - Respetamos su opinión, lo que la página que Ud. menciona intenta transmitir no es que nadie posea la verdad absoluta, lejos de ello, sino que hay métodos que en el pasado y hasta hoy, han servido para adquirir una enorme cantidad de conocimientos sobre la antigua civilización egipcia y otros métodos (especulativos, místicos, intuitivos, etc.) que hasta ahora no han agregado NADA a lo que sabemos de ese tema y han confundido a mucha gente por lo que los consideramos nocivos y desaconsejables. Pero es nuestra opinión, que expresamos y que Ud. puede aceptar o rechazar como mejor le parezca. Será un gusto para nosotros intentar responder a sus preguntas. Hasta pronto.

 

 

Dear Colleagues,                 11 February 2001

Below I introduce my study on the Egyptian heb-sed. The copy below is a gift to the library of your Institute/Faculty.

Best regards,

Aymen Ibrahem

 

ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT

AYMEN MOHAMED IBRAHEM

ECLIPSES AND ROYAL JUBILEES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

PART I

THE UNTRADITIONAL JUBILEES OF THE NEW KINGDOM AND LATER PERIODS

 

ABSTRACT

The sed festival or royal jubilee was traditionally celebrated in Year 30 of a pharaoh's reign. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, sometimes the royal jubilees were untraditionaly celebrated much earlier than regnal Year 30. For example, Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BC) celebrated her jubilee in Year 15, King Akhenaten (1356-1338 BC) in Year 4. The author shows that solar eclipses are plausible explanations of those enigmatic untraditional dates. In Part I of this series the author considers the jubilees of the New Kingdom, i.e., those of Queen Hatshepsut, King Akhenaten, King Osorkon II, King Psamtik II. In Part II the author introduces his solutions to the untraditional jubilees of King Mentuhotep IV (Middle Kingdom), King Niuserre, and King Djoser (Old Kingdom).

SUMMARY

THE ROYAL JUBILEE

The ancient Egyptian calendar included many feasts such as the new year's day, the new moon, beginnings of the seasons, religious feasts such as those of Hathor and Bastet, and royal festivals such as the coronation and the heb-sed or the royal jubilee (1).

The celebration of the heb-sed (the sed-festival, or royal jubilee) is an ancient tradition, dating to pre-dynastic times, and remained popular through Egyptian history (2). It was a public ritual of recreation intended to vivify the aging king and renew the public confidence in his reign (3).

The ceremonies of the royal jubilee included a reenactment of the coronation, where the king was reanointed first with the white crown of Upper Egypt and then with the red crown of Lower Egypt, and a ceremonial run where the king, carrying traditional emblems, was required to race four times around a specially prepared arena in order to reveal his physical fitness to kingship (4).

TRADITIONAL JUBILEES

Traditionally, a king was to celebrate his first jubilee in Year 30 of his reign, and thereafter as frequently as he desired (5). For example, the great King Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC) who reigned for 54 years, celebrated his first jubilee in Year 30, and then in Year 34 and Year 37 (6).

King Ramesses the Great (1279-1213 BC) had plenty of time to celebrate 14 jubilees in his lengthy reign of 67 years (7).

UNTRADITIONAL JUBILEES

In Pharaonic history, there are several instances in which a pharaoh celebrated a royal jubilee, unusually, earlier than Year 30. Notable examples are: Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BC) celebrated her jubilee in Year 15 (8). The jubilee of King Akhenaten (1356-1338 BC) came too much early in Year 4 (9). Both King Akhenaten and Queen Hatshepsut were young at the times of their jubilees, its curious they needed to prove their physical fitness. King Osorkon II (874-850 BC) celebrated his jubilee in Year 22, despite the terrible circumstances of that period (10). King Mentuhotep IV (1997-1991 BC) of Dynasty XI (Middle Kingdom) (11), and King Psamtik II (595-589 BC) of the XXVI Dynasty (Saitic Period) (12) celebrated jubilees in their short reigns of 6 years. Although King Niuserre (2453-2422 BC) of Dynasty V reigned for about 30 years, I doubt the jubilee was traditional and I do believe it was related to a solar eclipse.

Earlier attempts to explain those untraditional early jubilees include:

1. The kings may have reckoned their celebrations from some dates in the reigns of their predecessors (13).

2. They celebrated some other 30th anniversary, e.g., the king became 30 years old (14)!

However, I find that solar eclipses were evidently behind those curious jubilees.

ECLIPSES AND JUBILEE FESTIVALS

A total solar eclipse is a most spectacular celestial phenomenon in which the totally Sun disappears and day abruptly turns to night for a few minutes. The stars even appear. Apparently, an eclipse represents the death of a Sun and the rebirth of another. The seems as if she recreated herself. The author has shown a hymn to Re (the Sun) to be an ancient Egyptian solar eclipse record (Please review: Aymen Ibrahem, Egyptian Cosmology Part VII, Karnak the Horizon of Heaven', the archives of Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the Eclipse Viewing Network, 2000). It makes everything clear:

Thou risest in heaven's horizon [totality], and thy disk is adored when it resteth upon the mountain [the New Moon] to give life unto the world.

Thou risest, thou risest, and thou comest forth from the god Nun. Thou dost RENEW thy YOUTH [reborn after totality], and thou dost set thyself in the place where thou wast yesterday [totality was brief, the Sun has not moved much in the sky]. O thou divine child, who didst CREATE thyself, I am unable [to describe] thee.

The words in capital letters help to explain the following ideas:

1. The ancient Egyptians believed that through a solar eclipse the Sun (their "King of Gods") recreates her youth, i.e., a solar eclipse was a jubilee of the Sun.

2. Inspired by solar eclipses, the ancient Egyptians believed the Sun, the creator of the universe in the cosmogonies of Heliopolis and Hermopolis to have created herself and have been born through a solar eclipse.

Also, the author has shown that in the Egyptian cosmogonies the Sun was born in a solar eclipse (Aymen Ibrahem, Egyptian Cosmology Part I, The Hermoplotitan Cosmogony, www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt1.htm, 2000, and Aymen Ibrahem, Egyptian Cosmology Part II, The Heliopolitan Cosmogony, www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt5.htm, 2000.).

It is now quite reasonable to speculate that the royal jubilee rituals were inspired by solar eclipses and the untraditional jubilees were urged by some historic solar eclipses! It is unlikely that the solar eclipses that were visible in ancient Egypt were not followed by special religious festivals, the erection of temples, shrines, or obelisks. The table below demonstrates this clearly, it lists some untraditional jubilees and the possibly related solar eclipses:

Pharaoh Reign Jubilee Year Solar Eclipse

Hatshepsut 1479-1458 BC Year 15 08/23/1464 BC

Akhenaten 1356-1349 BC Year 4 08/15/1352 BC

Osorkon II 874-850 BC Year 22 10/16/ 853 BC

Psamtik II 595-589 BC Undefined 12/23/ 596 BC

The dates of the eclipses are Julian and were found using an eclipse computation software.

King Akhenaten

In his studies 'The Philosopher Pharaoh and the Total Solar Eclipse', and 'An Astronomical Approach to the Puzzle of Co-regency', (www.infis.org/aymenibr.htm) the author showed that the city of Akhetaten was built according to the totality path of the total solar eclipse of 08/15/1352 BC, and that year was Akhenaten's Year 4 in co-regency with his father Pharaoh Amenhotep III. These facts makes it clear that the jubilee was for the Sun, not the young pharaoh.

Queen Hatshepsut

In an earlier study (Aymen M Ibrahem, Obelisks and Eclipses in Ancient Egypt, The Power Stations of Queen Hatshepsut, Eclipse archives, 2000) I have shown that Queen Hatshepsut erected her hefty obelisks coated much with electrum at Karnak to light the Two Lands (Upper and Lower Egypt) when it gets dark through a solar eclipse. The pyramidions of the obelisks form an artificial Sun on their highly reflective surfaces when the eclipsed Sun starts to shine after totality. Thus, Queen Hatshepsut surpassed the recent space projects that aim to illuminate the polar cities through their long, dark winter by placing large mirrors in orbit around the Earth.

On the base of the standing obelisk of Queen Hashepsut at Karnak, there is a text of thirty-two lines which the described both the heavenly (the solar eclipse of 08/23/-1463) and the earthly events that accompanied the erection of the obelisks.

In Year 15, Queen Hatshepsut celebrated a jubilee with her young co-regent Pharaoh Thutmose III. The jubilee was depicted on scenes on her obelisks at Karnak (15). Earlier explanations of the unusual date include:

1. The possibility that it was her 30th birth day anniversary (16).

2. The 30th year in rule, claiming that she was the immediate successor of her father Pharaoh Thutmose I (1504-1492 BC) (17).

3. The Queen may even claimed a co-regency with Thutmose I that began 30 years earlier (18).

Again it seems most likely that the jubilee was for the heavenly pharaoh, the Sun, not the Queen.

The 10th Jubilee of King Ramesses II

King Ramesses II celebrated his 10th jubilee in 1223 BC (19). Egypt actually enjoyed a total solar eclipse in that year (Aymen Ibrahem, The Wonders of the Sun, www.jas.org.jo/article.html, 2000). Most probably the celebration was for the eclipse!

Osorkon II

As we saw earlier, King Osorkon II (Dynasty XXII, Libyan Period), celebrated a jubilee in Year 22 (c. 853 BC), despite the troubling circumstances, that included the wae against Assyria (20). Solar eclipses seem to prove a plausible explanation as seen in table (1).

Psamtik II

Psamtik II, the third king of Dynasty XXVI (664-525 BC), the Saitic Period, erected a huge obelisk in Heliopolis, which is now in Monte Citorio, Rome, Italy (21). The obelisk is of red granite, its current height is 21.75 meters, and may originally have been taller (22). On each side of the pyramidion is a winged scarab holding the Sun disk, with the king represented as a recumbent sphinx on the shaft below (23). A large part of the text had been damaged, and only the standardized list of the king's name remains:

"The Golden Horus, 'beautifying the Two Lands', beloved of Atum, Lord of Heliopolis; the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Neferibre, beloved of Re-Horakhty; the son of his own body, who seizes the White Crown and who unites the Double Crown, Psamtik, beloved of the Souls of Heliopolis. On the First [Jubilee]."

(Source: Labib Habachi, The Obelisks of Egypt, Skyscrapers of the Past, p. 125, The American University in Cairo Press, 1988.)

The text mentions a celebration, but I doubt that it was a royal jubilee, since the king ruled for only 6 years. I rather find it was, more likely, for the partial solar eclipse of 596 BC, in which the Sun set eclipsed.

RESULTS

The ancient Egyptians envisaged solar eclipses as a re-birth and a recreation of their "King of Gods", the Sun.

Certain ancient solar eclipses clearly seem to have urged the untraditional early jubilees of Queen Hatshepsut, King Akhenaten, the 10th jubilee of King Ramesses II, King Osorkon II, King Psamtik II.

The obelisk of King Psamtik II was probably given as offerings to the solar gods in response to the solar eclipse of 12/23/596 BC.

THE CHRONOLOGY USED IN THIS STUDY

The author has constructed eclipse-based New Kingdom chronology (Aymen Ibrahem, The Dream that Has Come True, Part I, an Eclipse-Based New Kingdom Chronology) in which Year 9 of King Amenhotep I is 1517 BC, Year 15 of Queen Hatshepsut is 1464 BC, Year 4 of King Akhenaten was 1352/1351 BC, Year 9 of King Seti I was 1286 BC. The author has shown that the solar eclipse recorded in Year 10 of King Mursilis II was that of 06/24/-1311 (Aymen Ibrahem, The Dream that Has Come True, Part II, An Eclipse-Based Hittite Chronology). This enabled the author to construct absolute chronologies of Assyria, Babylonia and Hanilgabat. Also, the author has studied the solar eclipses visible in the period 2680-2440 BC and their possible influence on the Egyptian monuments. This shows that the advent of Dynasty IV was in 2625 BC, with a margin of error of only a few years. All the author's chronologies are nicely consistent with the chronology of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Aymen M Ibrahem

Copy Rights: Aymen Ibrahem, 2001.

Email: aymen_ibrahem@hotmail.com (primary)

aymoib@frcu.eun.eg (secondary)

 

FURTHER READINGS

1. Aymen M Ibrahem, The Wonders of the Sun: www.jas.org.jo/article.html, 2000.

2. Aymen M Ibrahem, 'The Philosopher Pharaoh and the Total Solar Eclipse', www.infis.org/, 2000.

3. Aymen M Ibrahem, The Power Stations of Queen Hatshepsut, The archives of 'Eclipse, The Eclipse Viewing Network, 2000.

4. Aymen M Ibrahem, Egyptian Cosmology, Part I, The Hermopolitan Cosmogony, www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt1.htm, 2000.

5. Aymen M Ibrahem, Egyptian Cosmology, Part II, The Heliopolitan Cosmogony, The archives of 'Eclipse, The Eclipse Viewing Network, 2000.

And, more studies by Aymen M Ibrahem are available at:

1. www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt2.htm.

2. www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt3.htm.

3. www.eclipse-chasers.com/egypt4.htm.

4. The archives of 'Eclipse', the Eclipse Viewing Network.

5. Astronomy Digest, July 2000 issue.

6. The electronic Newsletter of Dr. E. Flescher, KCStarguy@aol.com.

REFERENCES

1. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p.91, University of Oxford Press, 1991.

2. Ibid., p. 238.

3. Joyce Tyldesely, Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh, p. 111, Penguin Group, 1996.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Joyce Tyldesely, Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh, p. 111, Penguin Group, 1996.

7. Labib Habachi, The Obelisks of Egypt Skyscrapers of the Past, p. 92, The American University in Cairo Press, 1988.

8. Joyce Tyldesely, Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh, p. 110, Penguin Group, 1996.

9. Ibid.

10. N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, English translation, p. 325, Blackwell Publishers, 1994.

11. Ahmed Fakhry, Pharaonic Egypt, p. 215, The Anglo-Egyptian Publishers, 1995.

12. Labib Habachi, The Obelisks of Egypt Skyscrapers of the Past, p. 128, The American University in Cairo Press, 1988.

13. Ibid.

14. Joyce Tyldesely, Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh, p. 110, Penguin Group, 1996.

15. Labib Habachi, The Obelisks of Egypt Skyscrapers of the Past, p. 60, The American University in Cairo Press, 1988.

16. Joyce Tyldesely, Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh, p. 110, Penguin Group, 1996.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. K. A. Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant, The Life and Times of Ramesses II, Arabic translation, p. 344, The Egyptian General Book Organization, 1997.

20. N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, English translation, p. 325, Blackwell Publishers, 1994.

21. Labib Habachi, The Obelisks of Egypt Skyscrapers of the Past, p. 125, The American University in Cairo Press, 1988.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

 

 

Hello          (3 March 2001)

My name is Miranda Adelsberg and I am a student researching the first dynasty of the egyptian reign and I have been having problems locating these two specific pharaohs and I was wondering if you would be able to help me! The two pharoahs I am missing are Iti and Kaa. Please if any of you can help me with any information you might have on them, it is very urgent and for my GCSE coursework.

Yours faithfully,

Miranda         choka54@yahoo.co.uk

 

 

NOTE FROM THE MODERATOR- I´m glad to be able to help you. Iti according to the king lists would be the second king of the First Dynasty, right after Menes, and Kaa the last king of this Dynasty. If we accept Narmer as Menes or the first king, then Aha would be Iti, there is no question about Ka´a. You´ll find much information on them if you go to any good university library and consult any of the following books which are readily available almost everywhere:

- W. Emery, "Archaic Egypt"

- A. Gardiner, "Egypt of the Pharaohs"

- T. Wilkinson, "Early Dynastic Egypt"

Good luck in your studies.

 

 

Su artículo "Los Charlatanes y la Egiptología"          (8 de Marzo de 2001)

Estimado profesor Castillos:

Soy un interesado en estos temas, y temo que he quedado algo indignado por el tono de su artículo, a la vez que profundamente admirado de su página web y sus trabajos. Quisiera colaborar y enseñarle algunas de mis investigaciones: Actualmente trabajo con un programa que facilita la NASA, para el reconocimiento de la superficie de Marte. Existen muchas evidencias de la existencia de pirámides en Marte, como comprobará en los dos ejemplos que le mando, fotos originales de la NASA, obtenidas de su página oficial. Hay muchas y con cosas mas raras que lo que va a ver. Aún estoy aprendiendo a manejar el programa, pero puedo aportar evidencias aún mejores. Mi posición es que el lenguaje egipcio se usa en mas planetas que en la Tierra. Como verá, mi posición difiere radicalmente del artículo. Petrie, sabía muy bien lo que hacía. Se tomó la molestia de medir con una precisión deslumbrante cada parte de la pirámide, y luego empezó a hacer números.... Aún estamos esperando algunos que se aclare cómo coño (con perdón) se construyó la pirámide de Keops.... ¿¿¿con cuerdas y poleas??? Le remito a piramidologia.com, donde encontrará artículos de interés. Los libros de Duval, algo tendrán de cierto, ¿no cree? Verá, yo creo, amparado en mi derecho de opinión, que las pirámides las construyeron los Sirios, lea algo sobre los dogones, y considere cómo y por qué sabían que sirio era un sistema estelar doble, y que su período era de 50 años.... ¿cómo lo sabían? Es para mí obvio que el interés por Egipto y su cultura tiene algo mas que ver que la fascinación por un pueblo que realizó semejantes proezas.

Un saludo afectuoso:

Juan Carlos, San Sebastián, España        brent@euskalnet.net

 

Estimado señor: Lamento que lo haya molestado nuestra página web y le agradezco sus conceptos sobre las demás. Respeto a quienes como Ud. creen en pirámides en Marte y otros pueblos, no los egipcios, construyendo las famosas pirámides de Guiza, etc. pues existe la libre expresión y cualquiera puede creer lo que le plazca, pero debo por simple honestidad intelectual denunciar ese tipo de creencias como especulaciones sin fundamento histórico o arqueológico alguno para que quienes se interesen por estos temas investiguen cuidadosamente antes de embarcarse en viajes de rumbo incierto.

Atentamente:

J. J. Castillos

 

 

Presentación          (11 de Abril de 2001)

Querido colega: Desearía incorporarme a su interesante foro internacional. Soy una egiptóloga de Barcelona -España-, profesora de Egiptología en el Master que se imparte en la UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona) y directora de una excavación en Sudán. Participé en el Congreso Internacional de Egiptología que se realizó en El Cairo el pasado año 2000 con una ponencia sobre mi investigación en la necrópolis de Qurnet Muraï -Tebas O-. Por ello, espero ser aceptada en su foro para poder aportar dicho material de investigación. Por otro lado, y en el mismo sentido, dispongo de un archivo fotográfico acerca de las tumbas que componen la necrópolis mencionada, material inédito y de gran valor tanto histórico como iconográfico. Gracias por su amabilidad y en espera de sus noticias, le saluda cordialmente:

Francesca Berenguer (Barcelona - España)           xescaberenguer@terra.es

 

Será un placer contar con su participación. El Foro es para poner mensajes relativamente breves y buscar el intercambio de opiniones con otros, para publicar trabajos suyos tenemos las páginas de Artículos de Egiptología para trabajos académicos o la de Ensayos de Egiptología. Espero sus mensajes y/o materiales. Hasta pronto y bienvenida.

Atentamente:

EL MODERADOR

 

 

Información          (4 de Mayo de 2001)

Hola me llamo Gonçal Merlos y soy estudiante de batxillerato. Estoy haciendo un trabajo de investigación sobre la comparación de dos faraones, Ramsés II y Amenofis IV, en el aspecto político, social, militar, religioso, artístico,... les ruego si me podrían dar información de todo esto o si me podrían dar títulos de algunos libros que trataran de eso. Gracias por su atención. Adiós.

 

Le confieso que me sorprende que haya elegido esos dos reyes, algo así como si hubiera comparado Napoleón con Enrique VIII de Inglaterra, creo que una comparación más interesante (y compatible) hubiera sido entre Tutmosis III y Ramsés II, por ejemplo. Le sugiero leer un muy buen libro, A.Gardiner, "Egypt of the Pharaohs" para empezar y si consulta la "Historia del Antiguo Egipto" de Trigger, O´Connor, Lloyd y Kemp, la bibliografía allí contenida lo guiará. Atentos saludos:

EL MODERADOR

 

 

CALL FOR PAPERS          (22 May 2001)

 

MINISTRY OF CULTURE - SUPREME COUNCIL OF ANTIQUITIES - EGYPTIAN MUSEUM

Dear Sir/Madame: The Egyptian Museum was inaugurated on the 15th November 1902, and in a few months it will be one hundred years old. To celebrate this important event, the Director and the curators of the Egyptian Museum invite you to write an article on Museums, Artifacts, or Collections. The articles will be published in: The Centennial Anniversary Volume/s. If you would like to collaborate, please fill out an Application Form and sent it to the following address: The Centennial Anniversary of the Egyptian Museum Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt (tel/fax: 202-579-4596) Dr. Mamdouh Eldamaty, Director General Egyptian Museum. Please write your Application Form on computer. Name - Address - Work address - E-mail/Fax number - Title of the article - Abstract (not more than 50 words). Please note the deadline: 31 July 2001.

 

 

 

 

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