Incense and Oils

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Oils

Most of these recipes for perfumes and oils are meant to be diluted in a carrier oil such as almond, jojoba, apricot kernel etc. unless otherwise specified. Test to make sure you are not allergic to oils before applying them liberally.

A few words on the base oils for the blending and mixing of the essentials. Never use mineral oil as it dries the skin. Do not ever use olive oil as it goes rancid with time. Procure light cooling oils such as apricot, almond, safflower, saffron, or grape seed of the polyunsaturated types so they will remain fresh. In the formulae that call for an herbal base those that are yellow or slightly golden are fine. They take the dyes of orange, yellow, red, and green quite well. In the formulae that call for a clear base, use the whitest or clearest oil you can find. They take the blue, purple and violet dyes better than the pale yellow oils. The dyes are the powders of the candle makerís art. Dissolve the dye in a small amount of methanol. Add essential oil solvent to make up about 1/2 to 1/3 the amount of dye you would make. Shake very hard and see that the methanol and solvent have combined. Add to that Wesson or salad oil to fill the bottle for the amount of dye you want to make. Shake very well. It is best to dye the base oil before the essentials are mixed into it. However, sometimes the essentials will cause the dye to change color slightly. Be careful to mix the essentials well with the base before you add a few drops of dye and blend to the shade desired. Do not be too heavy handed with the dyes. Make sure your oils are of a fine clear color, not murky (unless called for). Oil that separates or gives a foul odor should be cast into the nearest sewer.

Aromatic Blending, Recipes & Carrier Oils

Most full body massage oils have about 3-5% of essential oil concentration. Bath oils can have a higher concentration of essential oils, perhaps 5-8%. The two things to keep in mind when deciding on the percentage concentration is "how will the oil be used?" and "what oils am I using?" An overall body oil should have less of a concentration of essential oils than an oil for a specific area, such as the feet. Essential oils that are more powerful, such as Rose or Immortelle can be used in much smaller percentage than say Lavender or Bergamot. Practice and experimentation is the key to creating a good blend that becomes a personal favorite!

Carrier Oils

Essential oils are too strong to be used undiluted. Therefore, a variety of "carrier oils" are used to lower the concentration. A very important consideration in any mixture is the type and quality of the carrier oil. The following oils are our choices based on the individual characters and benefits.

Apricot Kernel oil - As its name suggests, it comes from the seed of the apricot. This pale yellow oil provides alight texture and is rich in vitamins and minerals. It is used as light massage oil and in the treatment of premature, dry, and sensitive skin.

Avocado oil - This is a very rich, dark green oil. It is highly nutritious and penetrates the skin easily. It is usually blended with lighter textured oils to give a more balanced feel. This oil contains essential fatty acids, minerals, protein, vitamin E, and beta-carotene. Excellent for dehydrated and aging skin.

Castor oil - A thick, slightly sticky oil with a fairly strong odor. It has good lubricating properties and is mainly used in the treatment of damaged or brittle hair. In soap making, it adds richness and mildness.

Coconut oil - This light colored oil turns solid at cool room temperatures. It is used in a variety of applications and is especially important in the making of soap. It helps form a hard bar and provides a rich, creamy lather. It is also used quite often commercially to pop popcorn. The fractionated version is extremely light and does not go rancid with age, making it a very versatile carrier oil.

Grapeseed oil - This oil has a very fine texture and a slight greenish hue. Its texture makes it a common massage oil and provides some vitamins and minerals. It is also used as an antioxidant and can prolong the life of other oils if blended. It is usually combined with more nutritious oils when used in beauty treatments.

Jojoba oil - It comes from the seeds of the jojoba plant and is actually quite amazing. Its chemical makeup is closer to that of a liquid wax than that of a typical vegetable oil. It is an antioxidant and does not turn rancid like many others. Jojoba oil is a natural mimic of the oil secreted by the human skin. It lubricates, protects, and is effective in the treatment of premature aging and wrinkling. Also, it is almost identical to valuable oil found in the Sperm whale, which was previously used in the manufacture of cosmetics. This oil is our favorite for use in high-conditioning formulas.

Olive oil - Extra virgin, cold pressed olive oil is the best quality available. This dark green oil is very commonly used in cooking and soap making. It is rich in minerals, vitamins, and proteins. Olive oil acts as a natural sunscreen and is a very good hair conditioner. It also aids the skin in preventing and repairing scars and stretch marks. A lighter oil is often blended as a base oil.

Sunflower Seed oil - This is a light textured, golden yellow oil. It is high in nutrients, essential fatty acids, and vitamins. It is useful as a multi-purpose massage and beauty treatment carrier. Suitable for all skin types.

Sweet Almond oil - This pale yellow oil contains glyceride, olein, and linoleic acid. It is an excellent skin lubricant and is rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals. This is a very good medium-light general-purpose oil. It is especially nourishing for dry or inflamed conditions.

Wheat Germ oil - This reddish-orange oil is heavy and sticky. It is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals, and especially vitamin E. It stimulates tissue regeneration and therefore can make it very effective for aging skin, wrinkles, scars, and stretch marks. It is often added to other blends since its antioxidant properties can extend the shelf life of more volatile oils.

Measurement Conversion Table

25 drops per ml
30ml per oz
16oz per lb
2.2 lbs per kilo

ALL PURPOSE OIL

2 1/2 oz clear base
1oz Palma cristi (castor oil)
1dr. Heliotrope
1dr. Lotus
1dr. Honeysuckle
1dr. Vetivert, white musk, or Oak moss
color: Natural

These blended oils are very powerful. When you are not sure which oil suits your intent best, you can use this oil. However you need to focus on a specific purpose if you use it in this manner. Use as a scent on a light ring or for candle anointing. It gives a pleasant feeling to a room. Good for consecrating ritual tools, candles, altars and work rooms.

ALTAR OIL

2 1/2oz clear base (sesame/safflower)
1oz palma cristi
1dr. Frankincense
1dr. Myrrh
1dr. Lotus
Color: Yellow
1dr. Rose

Anoint your altar once a week, especially on a Sunday or your holy day. Place in an open dish in a room to heighten spirituality and call in the assistance of positive spirits and to create a holy atmosphere.

Aphrodite Oil

3 parts Musk (plant based)
1 parts Ylang Ylang

Use to anoint yourself, candles etc. Love and Aphrodisiacal effects (of course!).

Attraction oil

3oz. Apricot or Almond oil base
2dr. Allspice oil
2dr. white musk oil
Color: Topaz
1dr. citrus oil (lemon and lime, and orange)
1/2dr. Sweet pea

Place an amber stone in the master bottle and a coriander seed in the dram bottles for sale.

Cerridwen Oil

In a base of Hazelnut oil
1/2 Elder Oil
1/8 dram pine oil
1 snowflake Obsidian Chip
1 hazelnut
Elder flowers

COME AND SEE ME OIL:

(Book quoted: "use with care; seductively intoxicating")
1/4 oz olive oil
5 drops patchouli oil
1 drop cinnamon oil
3 drops rose oil
6 drops sandalwood oil

COMMANDING OIL

Sunflower oil base
scented with Allspice

To get another to do your bidding, rub some on the palms and touch the person to be commanded, looking intently into their eyes and concentrating on your desires. Use in your bathwater to surround your entire body with the royal aura. To cause others to tremble before the words you speak; secure a seventh pentacle of Saturn design, anoint it with the oil around the outer edges, and hold in the right hand when you speak. Sprinkle in the path of others to gain control and get them to comply.

COMPELLING OIL

4oz. clear base
1/2dr Verbena
1/2dr Jasmine
1/2dr Rose
1/2dr lilac
1/2dr Myrrh
Color: sky blue
1/2dr Lavender
1/2dr Violet
1/2dr Honeysuckle

Gain power for yourself. Use this oil to change things so they go in your favor. It will compel others to give in to your desires. To induce someone to pay you money that is owed to you, write the debtor and the amount of money due on a piece of parchment. Place it beneath a purple candle, which you have dressed with compelling oil. Burn for fifteen minutes daily until the debt is repaid.

Consecration Oil

1/2 dram frankincense oil
1/2 dram Myrrh oil
3 drops Cinnamon oil
A bay leaf

Demeter Oil

3 parts Myrrh
2 parts Vetivert
1 parts Oak Moss

Use to anoint yourself, candles etc. for spells involving fertility, money, working with plants or agriculture, etc.

Diana Oil

In a 1 dram of Sweet almond base oil
1/2 Dram Dragon's Blood Oil
1/2 Dram Vervain oil
3 rose petals
1 small quartz

DOUBLE XX (Hexing oil)

3oz base
Color: Black
3dr Lemon
Plus all other odds and ends from spent bottles of blended formulae.

Confuses enemies. Wear behind your knees, ankles and inside your elbows. Use at business meetings with unethical people, it will turn the situation in your favor.

DOMINATION OIL

3oz clear base
4dr Cinnamon
2dr Allspice
Color: Red
2dr Vanilla

Anoint your body with this oil to make others do as you wish. You will have the ability to dominate a situation with power and confidence.

Easy life oil

3 oz. base
color: purplish-blue
1 oz. blue sonata

EXODUS OIL

2oz Safflower base
1oz Patchouli
1dr Myrrh
Color: natural
1dr Narcissus
Keep devil's shoestring root in master bottle

Anoint a white candle and burn to receive help from the holy spirit. To Make someone go away; Anoint a doll representing the person you want out of your life with the oil. Write the person's name on a white piece of paper; also write the following: "We both go to our higher good separately, in different directions, thru divine power." on a Sunday, wrap the doll in the paper. Every Sunday thereafter, take the doll out and anoint it once again. Continue until your nemesis finds fit to get out of your life.

FAST LUCK OIL

3 1/2oz safflower base
2dr Cinnamon
2dr Verbena
Color: Golden Yellow
Keep mustard seeds in master bottle

Use this oil and luck will come to you in a hurry. Mix it with water for a floor wash to bring business success. It will attract customers and clients. For love, anoint a red mojo bag filled with equal parts of rose, lavender, and Orrisroot. Carry near your body daily and place by your bedside at night. To gain fast luck in gambling, anoint your palms and a Botswana agate and carry when you play. For mighty forces to come to your aid when your luck seems to be fleeing, lay a buckeye between two candles. A green to the left and a white to the right. Anoint the candles and buckeye with the oil. Light the candles and let them burn out completely. Then place the buckeye in a red flannel bag along with a seal of magick, which is designed to bring magical assistance to one's wishes, desires, needs, or requests. Carry the bag with you at all times, anointing it every seventh day with the fast luck oil. It is said to bring material wealth into the environment of the wearer.

FIRE LUST OIL:

1/4 oz olive oil
35 drops orange oil
15 drops citronella oil
20 drops carnation oil
10 drops rose geranium oil

Full Moon Oil #1

3 parts Rose
1 part Jasmine
1 part Sandalwood

Anoint the body prior to Esbats to attune with lunar energies.

Full Moon Oil #2

3 parts Sandalwood
2 parts Lemon
1 part Rose

Another like the above.

Full Moon Oil

1 1/2 drams Sandalwood oil
1 dram Lemon oil
1/2 dram Rose oil

Mix well and bottle.

(Another) Full Moon Oil

13 drops of sandalwood essential oil
9 drops of vanilla essential oil or extract
3 drops of jasmine essential oil
1 drop of rose essential oil

Mix prior to a full moon. Charge in a clear container or vial in the light of the full moon. Use to annoint candles or yourself for full moon rituals or just when you feel like you need the moon's energy.

Goddess oil

Lemon oil
Jasmine oil
Camphor oil
A small moonstone
Sea salt

Guardian Oil:

1/2 ounce olive oil
5 drops pennyroyal oil
15 drops lemon oil
10 drops rosewood oil
10 drops clove oil
flower: rose
15 drops patchouli oil
gems: carnelian, citrine

Happiness oil

7 drops basil oil
5 drops orange oil
1 drop patchouli oil
3 drops rose oil
1 drop rosemary oil
A Citrine stone

Healing Oil

In 1/2 oz of base oil (jojoba, almond, grapeseed, etc.)
5 drops Lavender oil
5 drops Camphor oil
5 drops Eucalyptus oil
5 drops Orange oil
3 drops Rosemary oil
2 drops Pine oil
4 drops Sandalwood oil

Heart healing oil

Jasmine oil
Ylang Ylang oil
Dragon's blood resin oil
1 rose quartz chip
1 Malachite chip

High altar oil

2 oz. base
2 dr. frankincense
1 dr. rose
1 dr. wisteria
color: bright orange or yellow gold
1/2 dr. lilac

This to be used as a sacred anointing

HIGH JOHN THE CONQUEROR OIL

3oz clear base
3dr White musk
2dr Bayberry
2dr Sandalwood
1/2dr Verbena
Color: Musky brown
1/2dr Patchouli
Keep a Jalep root in master bottle

A very powerful oil. This oil makes you unstoppable and enables you to accomplish anything. Anoint a high john root and carry with you always. It is a strong good luck oil, very effective when gambling. Rub your palms with the oil before engaging in games of chance. To obtain money, love, and health, perform the following ritual for seven consecutive nights, beginning on a Sunday. Anoint a green candle with high john the conqueror oil and burn it completely.

Isis Oil

5 drops Camphor Oil
7 Drops Hyacinth Oil
7 Drops Rose oil
9 Drops Myrrh Oil
1 Myrrh nugget

Jinx removing oil

4 oz. clear base
4 dr. lilac
2 dr. narcissus
2 dr. bergamotte
1 dr. wisteria
color: Aqua blue
1 dr. lemon
Vervain herb in master bottle

Kyphi

5 oz. palm Christi
2 oz. blue sonata
1/2 oz. myrrh
color: natural
1/2 dr. vanilla

Louisiana VanVan oil

(Use to anoint candles, doorways. amulets for extra power)
1/4 c extra virgin olive oil
1 oz lemon grass
Pinch of salt.

Place in a jar, cover and steep in dark place for 3 weeks. Shake the jar daily, and visualize power pouring into the oil. Strain out the herb; add more herbs and repeat till the oil is strongly scented of the herb. When it is to your liking, strain out the herb, bottle and store in dark place

Love oil

3 oz. apricot oil base
8 dr. jasmine
2 dr. tuberose
color: red
2 dr. narcissus
1 dr. fish oil

Love Oil

Add to 1/4 of base oil
7 drops Rose oil
4 Drops Jasmine oil
4 Drops Patchouli oil
7 Drops Dragon's Blood resin oil
3 Rose quartz chips or a small rose quartz
1 Pink rose bud

Lucky dog oil

3 oz. herbal base
1 dr carnation
1/2 dr. Allspice
color: brown
A trillium (low john) root in master bottle

Lugh Oil:

1/4 ounce apricot oil
9 drops rose geranium oil
9 drops lime oil
9 drops lavender oil
9 drops rose oil
flowers: Sunflowers, marigolds
6 drops sandalwood oil
gems: citrine, carnelian
6 drops dragon's blood oil

Magic Massage Oil

Mix: 6 drops of rose essential oil 4 drops of jasmine essential oil 4 drops of bergamot essential oil 8 drops of sandalwood essential oil blended in 50cc of a massage oil base (I would use sweet almond oil). Begin by massaging yourself until the aroma, warmed by your body, gets to him. Then start to massage him. Let him massage you. Soon the magic mixture will have the two of you singing love's old sweet song.

Magnet oil

2 oz. each Apricot and sesame as a base
1 dr. cinnamon
1 dr. rose
2 dr. rose geranium colors: dark red
A lodestone in master bottle

Magnet Oil

(For anointing candles, amulets, and so forth.)
1/4 c extra virgin olive oil
1 lodestone (or magnet if you cannot find a lodestone)

Begin on the New moon. Place both in a small covered jar, and place in a windowsill. Once a day shake the jar... first day clockwise, next day counterclockwise - repeat. When the moon is new again, remove from the windowsill, remove the stone and store in a dark place.

Magus Oil:

This is a good general Priest oil for use in ritual.
1/4 ounce almond oil
10 drops frankincense oil
3 drops vetiver oil
10 drops sandalwood oil
12 drops lemon oil
flower: frankincense resin
7 drops orange oil
gem: malachite

Money drawing oil

2 oz. of a clear herbal base
3 dr. bayberry
1/2 dr. Vetivert
A dash of white musk
color: green
There should be gold leaf flakes in master bottle

NYMPH AND SATYR OIL:

(Book quoted: "be sure you want to attract men")
1/2 oz olive oil
25 drops rose oil
11 drops anise oil
13 drops violet oil
15 drops jasmine oil
15 drops Ylang Ylang oil
12 drops narcissus oil

Oil for the Rites of Isis

7 drops oil of rose
2 Drops oil of Camphor
2 drops tincture of myrrh
3 drops oil of blue hyacinth

Blend the oils of rose, camphor, and blue hyacinth during the waxing moon. Bottle and keep till the Moon wanes. Add the Myrrh

Passion Oil

9 Drops Patchouli oil
5 Drops Ylang-Ylang Oil
1 Garnet Chip
1 red rose bud

PEACE OIL

3 Drops of each in 1/2 oz. of base oil
Lavender oil
Rose oil
Orange oil
Basil oil

Personal Power Oil

1 Dram Dragon's blood oil
1/2 Dram Frankincense oil
1 small quartz crystal
3 Frankincense tears
A bit of Ginger root
Some vervain
7 red carnation petals

PMS Relief

5 parts Geranium
3 parts Clary Sage
2 parts Ylang Ylang

Positive Energy Oil

1/8 dram Dragon's Blood oil
1/8 dram Sandalwood oil
7 drops frankincense oil
A bit of Saffron

Prosperity oil

7 DROPS Cinnamon oil
3 DROPS Wintergreen oil
Cinnamon stick
Malachite Chip
Fool's Gold or Gold glitter

Protection oil

5 Drops Clove oil
4 Drops Patchouli oil
5 drops Frankincense oil
A bit of Hyssop
1 star anise

Protection Oil:

This is a good oil to select for your candle of protection when you are concerned with physical, as opposed to psychic attack. It can also be used to anoint yourself before you leave on a journey or undertake a potentially hazardous situation.

1/2 ounce olive oil
6 drops rose geranium oil
15 drops lemon oil
4 drops citronella oil
8 drops lavender oil
flower: lavender
drops cajupet oil (did not specify how many)
gem: clear quartz

Protection from Psychic Attack Oil

Bergamot Oil
Dragon's blood oil
Rue oil
Frankincense oil
Piece of High John root

Reversible oil

(Youíll have to guess the proportions)
Lemon oil (main ingredient)
Rosemary oil (minor ingredient)
Spikenard oil (minor)
Rose oil (minor)
Peppermint oil (trace amount)

Specifically intended as a reply to magickal attack. This blended oil is not intended to protect against the attack, but to return its impact to the sender.

Rosemary and verbena sabbat oil

3 oz. clear base
2 dr. verbena
1 dr. rosemary
color: yellow
Rosemary herb in master bottle

Sensual Blend

5 parts Jasmine
3 parts YlangYlang
1 part Clary Sage

For sore joints and muscles:

Boil 1 tablespoon cayenne powder for 10 minutes in a pint of apple cider vinegar. Rub the strained solution on inflamed joints.

You massage into the area of pain or use a castor oil hot pack. To make a hot castor oil pack, place castor oil in a pan and heat but do not boil it. Dip a piece of cheesecloth or other white cotton material into the oil until the cloth is saturated. Apply the cloth to the affected area and cover it with a piece of plastic that is larger in size than the cotton cloth. Place a heating pad over the plastic and use it to keep the pack warm. Keep the pack in place for one-half to two hours

Spell Breaker oil

3 oz. herbal base
1 dr. bergamotte
1 dr. wisteria
2 dr. lilac
1 dr. frankincense
color: red
1 dash white musk

Strength of Being Oil

This oil not only smells wonderful, (according to yasmine); but it helps strengthen the will to be oneself. Wear it when you need to stand up for yourself, or when you feel like you are losing sight of your own goals and ethics.

* 4 ounce almond oil
* 4 drops frankincense oil
* 9 drops Siberian fir oil
* 4 drops cedar oil
* 5 drops cypress oil
* 4 drops lavender oil
* 9 drops ginger oil
* 1 drop carnation oil
* 1 drop lemon oil
* 5 drops jasmine oil
* 9 drops lotus oil
* 6 drops camphor oil
* gem amethyst
* flower: lavender

Success oil (crown of success)

3 oz. sunflower oil as a base
1 dr. verbena
1dr. sandalwood
1 dr. sweetpea
color: gold
1 dr. vetivert

Uncrossing oil

4 oz. clear base
2 dr. wisteria
2 dr. lilac
1 dr. verbena
1 dr. rose geranium
color: violet
Keep an Amethyst in master bottle

Witch Blood anointing oil

¬* oz. Wormwood
¬* oz. Valerian root
¬* oz. Vervain herb
¬* oz. Madder root
¬* oz. English mandrake (white bryony) root
1 pt. Olive oil
9 drops oakmoss oil
7 drops elder oil
10 drops pine oil
5 drops mayweed or chamomile oil
a pinch of sugar or sweet sap
a pinch of rock salt

This formula was given to use by Chris Bray of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. He suggests that if it is for use solely by a High Priest one should leave out the vervain, or if used solely y a High Priestess one should leave out the oakmoss oil. So for a specifically male-god ritual, you may prefer it without vervain. But as it is difficult to make in small quantities, most people will find the complete recipe perfectly satisfactory for general use.

As Chris's method of preparation is rather complex, we give it here in his own words:
"On the day of the Full Moon, bruise and break the valerian root, madder root and English mandrake root into small pieces. Add to a large mixing bowl or pestle and mortar. Mix in the wormwood and vervain. Add a palmful or two of the olive oil and beat into a mushy consistency (recite charm at this stage if you wish). Pour the mush into an ovenproof dish. Fit a lid and put in the oven for 15-30 minutes on a very low, gentle heat. Remove from oven and allow to cool. Stir the mush (recite again) and scrape into a wide-necked glass jar (preserve jar, jam jar or the like). Stopper and leave on a warm south-facing windowsill (so that the mixture can soak up the sunlight and the moonlight) for about a fortnight. Shake well each morning and evening (recite charm if you wish). When you see the New Moon appear, shake the mixture and strain through muslin into a clean jar. Add the rest of the oils listed and the pinch of sugar and salt. Stopper and agitate vigorously. Replace the jar on the windowsill and agitate vigorously morning and evening until the Moon reaches the First Quarter phase. Leave on the windowsill (untouched in order to allow the mixture to precipitate) until the night of the next Full Moon. Decant the clearest liquor off the precipitation and into the amphora/bottle you will use for ritual purposes."

Ancient Wisdom- with Solomon Seal root to encourage in intuitive wisdom.
Attraction- with Cinnamon bark to draw good spirits, love and luck.
Clear Mind- with Lemon Verbena to clear the mind for the insight and problem solving.
Fire of Passion- with Patchouli leaf to potently increase desire and passion.
Garden of Delight- with Jasmine blossoms to strengthen the sexual chakra.
Good Luck- with Squill root to increase good fortune.
Healing- with Peppermint to amplify the vibrational qualities of healing.
Inspiration- with Clove to promote positive thoughts forms.
Lodestone- with Lodestone chips to enhance magnetism in any situation.
Love Drawing- with Red Rose petals to draw love and affection.
Meditation- with Myrrh to heighten and enhance the meditative state.
Money Drawing- with Frankincense to attract material gain
Peace- with Cardamon pods to promote peaceful conditions.
Prosperity- with Allspice to promote abundance in all areas.
Protection- with Rue leaves to develop immunity to negative vibrations.
Psychic Power - with Mugwort to focus psychic energy and gain visions.
Purification- with Vetivert for spiritual cleansing and purification.
Spirit Guide- with Acacia flower to aid in spirit guide communication.
Success- with Orris root to strengthen endeavors and overcome obstacles.

ACACIA: Possessing high spiritual vibrations, this oil is worn to aid meditation and to develop psychic powers. Some also use it to anoint their altars, censers, and candles.
ALLSPICE: Very vitalizing. Gives added determination and energy, excellent for convalescents. Anoint daily.
ALMOND: Almond oil, the symbol of wakefulness to the Egyptians, is used in prosperity rituals (anointing candles, money, etc.) and also added to money incenses.
ANISE: A boon to clairvoyance, it is often added to a ritual bath preceding any attempt at divination. It is also worn during divinatory rituals.
APPLE BLOSSOM: Wear to promote happiness and success. Anoint candles during love rituals. Add to bath to aid relaxation.
BASIL: The scent of basil causes sympathy between two people so wear to avoid major clashes. It creates harmony of all kinds. Prostitutes used to wear it in Spain to attract business.
BAYBERRY: Anoint green candles for prosperity in the home. Brings "luck to your home and gold to your pocket." A magnetic oil to be worn by men.
BENZOIN: This oil brings peace of mind. It is used in purification ceremonies. A drop or two smoldering on a charcoal block will effectively clear the area with billowing clouds of smoke.
BERGAMOT: (not the mint kind!) soothes the nerves, gives relaxing sleep. Used in protective rituals and also in drawing prosperity. Wear on the palm of each hand.
CAMPHOR: (Cinnamomum camphora) Used as a congestion clearing inhalant and muscle liniment. Wear to strengthen psychic powers. Also anoint yourself when you have decided to break off with a lover, or when they have done so with you and you find it hard to let go.
CARNATION: This is an oil of power. It is used as an energy restorer after exertion, as an aid to healing, and in consecration ceremonies. Should be worn when extra energy for a ritual is desired. CINNAMON: A high-vibration oil, used for personal protection. It is also a sexual stimulant in the female. Added to any incense, it increases its powers. Mixed with powdered sandalwood, it makes an incense suitable for all religious or spiritual magic. God for meditation, illumination, and so on.
CINQUEFOIL: Protective strengthens the five senses. Also "five lucks"- love, money, health, power and wisdom, so is often used to anoint amulet and charmbags.
CLOVE: An aphrodisiac, worn to attract lovers. Inhaled, the oil helps the memory and eyesight.
CORIANDER: A love oil used to anoint candles.
CUMIN SEED: Brings peace and harmony to the home. Anoint all doorways once a week just before sunrise when the household is asleep ad all is quiet.
CYCLAMEN: Worn to ease childbirth by the expectant mother. Also used in love and marriage spells.
CYPRESS: An oil of blessing, consecration and protection. It is a symbol of the Earth-element, as well as of death. When attending a funeral of a friend or loved one, wear this oil so that you will be uplifted by the meaning of death as the doorway to but another life. It also effectively screens out the negative vibrations of the mourners. Wear on Samhain to become aware and remember those who have passed on.
EUCALYPTUS: (Eucalyptus globulus) Used for rubbing on sore muscles, as an inhalant, and chest rub for colds. Decongestant, antibiotic, antiseptic and antiviral. Used as a topical antiseptic on sores and fungal infections such as ringworm. A healing oil, very useful in recuperation after long illnesses. Cures colds with daily application to the throat, forehead and wrists, and by adding it to healing baths. Also used for purifications.
FRANKINCENSE: One of the most sacred of all oils, used to anoint magical tools, the altar, etc. A strong purifier used in exorcisms, purification rituals, and blessings.
GARDENIA: Wear to attract love. A powerful feminine magnetic oil. Protective.
GINGER: A tropical aphrodisiac. Induces passion.
HELIOTROPE: High spiritual vibrations, drenched with the energies of the Sun. Aids in clairvoyance.
HONEYSUCKLE: An oil of the mind, it promotes quick thinking and is often used as a memory aid by dabbing on the temples. Also used in prosperity rituals.
HYACINTH: stops nightmares. Brings peace of mind to the mentally disturbed. A very relaxing oil.
HYSSOP: Increases finances, and is added to the bath to create a purifying atmosphere. An excellent oil to wear during all types of magical rituals.
JASMINE: helps increase psychic dreams, lifts depression, quiets the nerves; is calming. Symbol of the Moon, and of the mysteries of the night. Jasmine oil is used to attract love. The scent helps one relax, sleep, and also facilitates childbirth. It is sometimes used for meditation and general anointing purposes. This is a purely spiritual oil.
LAVENDER: relaxing deep sleep. Used in healing and purifying rituals, and also to arouse sexual desire in men. Prostitutes wore it extensively to advertise their trade and to attract customers.
LEMON GRASS: An aid to the psychic powers. Wear on the forehead. Spiritualists and mediums use it, for it helps make contact with spirits.
LILAC: recalling past lives. Induces Far Memory, the act of recalling past lives. It is also useful in inducing clairvoyant powers in general. Brings peace and harmony.
LOTUS: The sacred oil of the ancient Egyptians, lotus oil has a high spiritual vibration and is suitable for blessing, anointing, meditation, and as dedicatory oil to your god(s). It is also used in healing rituals. One who wears lotus oil is sure of good fortune and much happiness.
MAGNOLIA: An excellent oil for meditation and psychic development. It also brings peace and harmony.
MELILOT: Fights depression, or what the old Witches used to call melancholy.
MIMOSA: prophetic dreams; getting to the truth; making decisions. Used in healing rituals, and also in producing prophetic dreams. Anoint the forehead before retiring.
MINT: Used in prosperity spells, and to increase one's business. Anoint wallets, etc.
MUSK: The universally accepted "sex scent". It is also worn to purify and to gain courage. It is a magnetic oil, worn with equal success by both sexes.
MYRRH: A purification, protection and hex-breaking oil. Possesses a high vibratory rate, making it excellent for the more religious rituals of magic. Anoint the house every morning and evening as part of any protection ritual.
NARCISSUS: "Stupidfyer". This oil brings peace and harmony, soothes the nerves and relaxes the conscious mind. A "narcotic" type oil.
NEROLI: Magnetic women's oil. Rubbed between the breasts to attract men, or onto the temples to give peace.
NUTMEG: This oil is rubbed onto the temples and the third eye to help in meditation and to induce sleep. It is protective as well.
ORANGE BLOSSOM: To make a person in the mood for marriage, wear this oil. Many women add it to their daily baths to build up their attractiveness. Sometimes known as mantrap. Enough said!
ORRIS ROOT: Attracts the opposite sex. Douse your clothes with the oil.
PATCHOULY: A very powerful occult oil, one of the magnetic oils to be worn by men. It attracts women. Also wards off negativity and evil, gives peace of mind, and is very sensual.
PEONY: A lucky scent for all who need customers, success in business, or good fortune.
PEPPERMINT: Used to create changes within one's life. Also used to relax and allow one to unwind.
ROSE: The love oil. Used in all love operations, added to baths, and to induce peace and harmony. Take a handful of rose buds; place them in a silver goblet. Pour one dram rose oil over them. Let soak for a week. After this, on a Friday night, burn them over the charcoal to infuse your house with loving vibrations. This is an excellent "peace" incense, and can be done regularly to ensure domestic tranquility.
ROSE GERANIUM: Oil of protection. Anoint windowsills, doors of house. Wear on self. Also imparts courage to the wearer. An excellent oil to use to bless a new home or apartment. A few drops on a charcoal block will release its powerful vibrations throughout the entire house. Also used to anoint censers.
ROSEMARY: A very vitalizing oil, rosemary is used in healing rituals and also to promote prudence, common sense, and self-assurance. It aids mental powers when rubbed onto the temples. It is also protective and is used much like Rose Geranium. Rub onto the temples to ease pain of headache and in all healing rituals.
RUE: To break up negativity and curses, anoint a sprig of dried rue with this oil. Tie up in a red bag and carry for protection. Add nine drops of the oil to the bath every night for nine nights in succession during the waning moon to break a spell that has been cast against you. Salt may be added to the bath as well.
SAFFRON: Wear to aid in the development of clairvoyant powers.
SANDALWOOD: Protective, very healing, this oil is used to anoint. It also aids one in seeing past incarnations. Try anointing the forehead to promote the Sight.
SESAME: Gives hope to one who is sick, discouraged or lonely.
SWEET PEA: One of the most beautiful of all scents, sweet pea oil is worn to attract strangers of all kinds, some of whom may become lovers or friends. Wear as a personal oil.
SPIKENARD: Wear during rituals to the ancient deities of Egypt, also to anoint sacred objects, such as altars, tools, etc.
TEA TREE OIL - (melaleuca alternifolia) Very effective fungicide, antibacterial and antiseptic. Michael Tierra, calls Tea Tree Oil, "the first aid kit in a bottle." Use for cuts, pimples, boils, cold sores, burns, stings, ticks, athletes foot and other fungal infections.
TUBEROSE: Mistress of the Night, as it is also known, is an excellent aphrodisiac. Promotes peace and also aids in psychic powers. Men wear it to attract women. Very much a physical oil.
VANILLA: A vitalizing oil, said to be sexually arousing in women. Use as an energy restorer. Sometimes used to gain extra power during magical ceremonies.
VERVAIN: Assists in obtaining material objects. It also stimulates creativity. Aids those who desire success in the performing and creative arts.
VIOLET: The oil is used in love operations and is sometimes sexually exciting. However, many people can't stand the fragrance of the violet, for some curious reason. Once thought to be sacred to the Fairy Queen. Very healing, added to baths.
WINTERGREEN OIL - (Gualtheria promcumbens) Use as a salve to rub on sore joints and muscles. Harmful or fatal if taken internally.
WISTERIA: The door between the world of men and the realm of the Gods, the passport to higher consciousness and existence, and to bring illumination. Wear only when in complete serenity.
YLANG-YLANG: Makes its wearer irresistible to the opposite sex. Also soothes the problems of married life. Can help in finding a job. If worn to interviews you will be much calmer and more impressive to the interviewer. Sometimes called 'Flower of Flowers.'

Making Essential Oils from Herbs

(Copyright Ceci Henningsson, 1994)

A "carrier" oil.

The intended use decides which one. Edible oils are sold in super-markets everywhere, and can often be used for other purposes than just eating. In herbal cosmetic shops like the Body Shop you can buy pure or blended oils for special purposes like bathing and massage. You can experiment with different oils for different purposes, but never ingest any oil that wasn't specifically made for the purpose. It's important that you use new oil with the best before date well ahead, as fragrant oils don't keep as well as essential oils. Wheat germ oil can be used as a preservative if you find that your oils don't keep well.

The herb.

For this purpose it doesn't matter if it's fresh, dried or even frozen. Herbs are sold in many places. Occult shops often have quite an assortment, but the super-market in your area may sell some of these much cheaper. Super-markets often have herbs in either the spice department (notably fennel and cardamon), the health food department (notably rosehips and buckwheat) or even the hot drinks department (notably chamomile and cocoa). Specialized health food stores and natural cosmetics boutiques often have herbs too. Or, you can opt to grow your own. If you will use the oil on your skin, make sure that it won't irritate or cause allergic reactions. You may want to consult a book on aromatherapy if you are using fragrant oils for healing. Some oils are considered aphrodisiacs, and can be quite fun to use for massage. A practical consideration is the availability of a given herb. Herbs may be unavailable for many different reasons. Maybe it isn't traditionally used in your part of the world, it may be illegal for a number of reasons, it could be surrounded with superstition or it can simply be out of season.

A bottle.

Fragrant oils are sensitive to light so try avoiding crystal clear bottles. You will often want to use just a spoonful of the oil, so a squirt cap is useful. Shampoo bottles can often be used, as they are generally about the right size and have caps which are made so you can easily take a small amount without having oil run down the outside of the bottle. Plastic bottles will often be found to take on some of the aroma of the contents, so you may want to throw them away after one use, or always keep the same oil in the same bottle.
Label all your bottles carefully with the name of the herb, carrier oil and date of manufacture!

Alternative method:

The basic principle is easy: Put the herb in the oil, and wait. If you are bothered by herb particles in the finished product, you can use a tea egg or a small bag of muslin or nylon suspended by string in the bottle, and remove them when you find the fragrance strong enough. This requires a bottle with a wide opening. If you don't have such a bottle, you can strain the oil in a wire-mesh tea sieve instead. If you aren't bothered by herb particles, you can often leave the herb in the oil until you've used it all up. This works particularly well with antiseptic herbs like peppermint, but can in other cases make the oil go stale.

The time it takes for an oil to become pleasantly fragrant depends on the herb and the oil, what you consider pleasant and the conditions you keep them under. You will have to experiment with concentration, stirring, and time to find out which works best under your circumstances. With some herbs crushing can speed up the process. Seeds like fennel are among those. Many herbs vary quite a lot in strength depending on a range of factors, so sometimes you will have to adapt your recipes. The best thing is probably to develop your intuition with regards to herbs. As a rule of thumb, two weeks to three months should be adequate.

After the wait, you will have your very own homemade essential oils prepared for whatever use you see fit! Essential oils are better than synthetic oils because you can use them without worrying about getting a plastique smell when burning them, or having an allergic reaction to strange chemicals.

Alternative method 2:

Potpourri crockpot Fill the pot with dried herb and carrier oil, plug it in and let it simmer at night, strain the herbs through cheesecloth once a day, and refill with more herbs. The results aren't very strong, but the oil definitely picks up the fragrance.

Infusing oils

You could put several drops of the absolute into a base oil of apricot kernel or grapeseed or sesame oil. These oils don't go rancid very fast and make great blending oils. You should blend your essentials with a base as some essential oils irritate the skin on their own. Not to mention the money saved. Just add a few drops at a time until the scent is as strong as you like. Then use the blended oil as an anointing or massage oil.

An Easy Way To Make Your Own Oils

Mineral Oil
Fresh or dried herbs/flowers
Jar (any size you want) with a tight fitting lid

Place mineral oil and herbs in jar, place lid on tightly. Store it in a dark cool area. Once a week for 2 weeks, shake the jar. On the third week, strain the herbs out using cheesecloth or a coffee filter. At this time add more herbs and oil (if needed)and follow the same procedure For another two weeks. Smell the oil as you go along to determine the strength of the scent you want. When you have achieved the scent, strain the herbs out again, and store the Oil in a dark cool area.

This process may take awhile, but if you can't afford your own oils, it is definately worth the wait. Oils are very expensive!

Incense

Love Incense

China Rain - drawing a new love
Jasmine - luck in love
Rose - true love
Ylang Ylang - to strengthen or create balance in love
White Jasmine - to heighten sexual aspects in relationships
Musk - to excite sexual love and intense desire
Patchouli - to maintain happiness in love
Copal - after a quarrel
Gardenia/Lavender - to ease hurt caused by love

Money Incense

Red Ginger - success and improvement
Cinnamon - draw money and success to you
Bergamot - to attract money
Honeysuckle - to maintain your money
Basil - correct paths to money

Protection

Carnation - protection, strength
Dragons Blood - protection, potency
Frankincense - protection, astral strength
Coconut - protection, purification
Myrrh - protection, spirituality
Sandalwood - protection, healing
Bayberry - unwanted influences, control

Psychic Awareness

Lemongrass - to increase powers with tools
Frankincense - again used in High Magick
Eucalyptus - to increase powers
Lotus - for strengthening and protection of powers
Myrrh - again, a high vibratory scent
Queen of the Night - special blend for second sight and improving powers
Kachina Dreams - special blend for spirits and calling wisdom
Angelic Visions - special blend white light illumination, spirituality
Ocean Breeze - special blend for water powers, restoration

Blue Berry - Burn to keep unwanted influences away from your home and property
Blue Roses- Specially crafted to honor the Goddess in all her aspects
Carnations - A sweet floral scent traditionally used for healing
Cherry - Sacred to Venus, this blend will attract and stimulate love
Cinnamon - Use to gain wealth and success
Coconut - Burn for protection and purification
Copal - Sacred to the Mayan and Aztecs, this blend is suitable for honoring the Gods
Frangiapani- Burn to brighten your home with friendship and love
Frankincense - Draw upon the energy of the sun to create sacred space, consecrate objects, and stimulate positive vibrations
Honeysuckle - Burn for good health, luck, and psychic power
Jasmine - For luck in general, especially in matters relating to love
Lotus - For inner peace and outer harmony, to aid in meditation and open the mind's eye
Musk - Burn for courage and vitality, or to heighten sensual passion
Myrrh - An ancient incense for protection, healing, purification and spirituality
Passionflower - For peace of mind, this sweet scent will soothe troubles and aid in sleep
Patchouli - An earthy scent used in money and attraction spells
Pine - Burn for strength, and to reverse negative energies
Rose - For love magick, and to return calm energies to the home
Sandalwood - A delicious all-purpose scent used to heal and protect, also for purification
Spice - A fiery scent to be charged for any magick
Spirit - Raise your personal vibration, attract spirit guides and honor your personal deity
Strawberry - For love, luck and friendship
Tangerine - A solar aroma used to attract prosperity
Temple - devotional incense for the altar during ritual
Vanilla - Stimulate amorous appetites and enhance memory

ABRAMELIN INCENSE

2 parts Myrrh
1 part Wood Aloe
a few drops Cinnamon oil

Burn to contact spirits during rituals or as a simple consecration incense to sanctify the altar or magical tools.

ALTAR INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Myrrh
1 part Cinnamon

Burn as a general incense on the altar to purify it and to promote ritual consciousness during rituals.

Amun-Ra incense

4 oz. Frankincense
3 oz. Cinnamon
1 oz. Mastic
2 drops olive oil
3 drops oil of rose
3 drops tincture of myrrh

Blend the three resins, and powdered them very finely. Blend the oils and add them to the resins. This should be kept in an airtight jar in the dark for three months before use.

APHRODITE INCENSE

1 part Cinnamon
1 part Cedar
a few drops Cypress oil

Burn during rituals designed to attract love.

APOLLO INCENSE

4 parts Frankincense
2 parts Myrrh
2 parts Cinnamon
1 part Bay

Burn during divination and healing rituals.

ASTRAL TRAVEL INCENSE

3 parts Sandalwood
3 parts Benzion
1 part Mugwort
1 part Dittany of Crete

Burn a small amount in the room to aid in projecting the astral body.

BELTANE INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Sandalwood
1 part Woodruff
1 part Rose petals
a few drops Jasmine oil
A few drops Neroli oil

Burn during Wiccan rituals on Beltane (April 30th) or on May Day for fortune and favors and to attune with the changing of the seasons.

BORN AGAIN INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
1 part Mullein
1 part Mums (Chrysanthemums)

Burn when distraught over the passing of a friend or loved one.

CIRCLE INCENSE

4 parts Frankincense
2 parts Myrrh
2 parts Benzoin
1 part Sandalwood
1/2 part Cinnamon
1/2 part Rose petals
1/4 part Vervain
1/4 part Rosemary
1/4 part Bay

Burn in the circle for all types of rituals and spells. Frankincense, myrrh and benzoin should definitely constitute the bulk of the mixture.

Circle of Protection Incense

This incense can be used in rituals designed to protect something from evil influences or energy. It works especially well with Peaceful Home Oil.

* 1 oz powdered sandalwood
* 1/2 oz powdered five-finger grass
* 1/4 oz powdered frankincense
* 1/4 oz grated orange peel
* 1/4 tsp saltpeter
* 1 dram Gardenia Oil (or Jasmine Oil)
* 2 drams Tincture of Benzoin

CLEARING INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
3 parts Copal
2 parts Myrrh
1 part Sandalwood

Burn this incense to clear your home of negative vibrations, especially when household members are arguing or when the house seems heavy and thick with anger, jealousy, depression, fear, and other negative emotions. Leave the windows open while burning this mixture.

Diana Incense

It is recommended that it be made in the hour and the day of the Moon - i.e. the first or eighth hour after sunrise, or the third or tenth hour after sunset, on a Monday. Thoroughly mix equal amounts of the following:

Gum mastic
Jasmine
Mandrake
Orrisroot

Add a few drops of wintergreen oil and moisten with a little clear mineral oil.

ESBAT INCENSE

4 parts Frankincense
3 parts Myrrh
2 parts Benzoin
1 part Sandalwood
1 part Gardenia petals
1/2 part Thyme
1/2 part Poppy seed
1/2 part Rose petals

Burn during rituals and spells on the Full Moon, or at any Wiccan gathering other than the Sabbats.

FALL SABBAT INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Myrrh
1 part Rosemary
1 part Cedar
1 part Juniper

Burn during fall and winter Sabbat rituals.

Fire of Azrael incense

¬* oz. Sandalwood chips
¬* oz. Juniper berries
¬* oz. Cedarwood oil

Mash and chop the juniper berries, and add them to the sandalwood chips.
Mix thoroughly. Add the Cedarwood oil and again mix thoroughly. This is Azrael in his divinatory aspect, not his death aspect.

4 WINDS

4 M. Lavender
1 M. Rose petals
Musk oil (synthetique)
Honeysuckle oil (bouquet or synthetique)

Combine oils as desired in a vial and set aside. You may desire to prepare the oil in advance so they've time to meld. Next grind the lavender and rose in your mortar to a powder on a Monday night after the full moon or on the full moon. I like to do this in the sign of Gemini in the hour of Mercury but it isn't necessary. Grinding rose petals can be annoying. Keep at it though, they will powder.
Make safe to charge throughout the procedure and keep your will focused and your thoughts positive. No cursing the rose petals. EG Introduce the oil to your herbs as you normally would, a little at a time, working it well throughout until as much oil as desired has been incorporated. The product should be moist, but never wet. Store in a dark container in a warm place and disturb contents regularly but do not open. I like to let it rest 3-6 months before using it. When ready, charge again and use in any ritual associated with the four lesser elements or burn just to harmonize the quartet in your life environment.

FULL MOON RITUAL INCENSE

2 parts Sandalwood
2 parts Frankincense
1/2 part Gardenia petals
1/4 part Rose petals
a few drops Ambergris oil

Burn during Esbats or simply at the time of the Full Moon to attune with the Goddess.

FULL MOON RITUAL INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
1 part Sandalwood

Burn during Full Moon rituals, or simply to attune with the Moon.

FULL MOON RITUAL INCENSE #3

3 parts Gardenia petals
2 parts Frankincense
1 part Rose petals
1/2 part Orris
a few drops Sandalwood oil

A third like the above.

GREEK GOD AND GODDESS INCENSE

4 parts Frankincense (sacred to Apollo)
2 parts Myrrh (Demeter
1 part Pine (Poseidon)
1 part Rose petals (Aphrodite)
1 part Sage (Zeus)
1 part Willow bark (Persephone)
a few drops Olive oil (Athena)
a few drops Cypress oil (Artemis/Hecate)

Burn to honor Them.

Gris-Gris Faible Incense

This is an incense used to destroy the power of someone trying to harm you but may also be used as an uncrossing incense.

* 1 oz powdered sandalwood
* 1/2 oz powdered bay leaves
* 1/2 oz powdered dill seed
* 1 tsp powdered asafoetida
* 1/4 tsp saltpeter
* 2 drams Tincture of Benzoin
* 1 dram Uncrossing Oil

Herne incense

¬* oz. Deer's tongue leaves
¬* oz. Patchouli leaves
¬* oz. Rue
1 oz. Gum sandarac
1/3 oz. Gum guyicum
26 drops vetiver oil

Make during the waxing Moon. Grind the deer's tongue, patchouli and rue extremely finely with pestle and mortar, and mix them. Grind the gum sandarac to gravel consistency, and the gum guyicum extremely finely, add them to the others, and mix. Finally add the vetiver oil, and mix well.

HORNED GOD INCENSE

2 parts Benzoin
1 part Cedar
1 part Pine
1 part Juniper berries
a few drops Patchouli oil

Burn to honor Him in His many guises, especially during Wiccan rituals.

IMBOLC INCENSE

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Dragon's Blood
1/2 part Red Sandalwood
1 part Cinnamon
a few drops Red Wine

To this mixture add a pinch of the first flower (dry it first) that is available in your area at the time of Imbolc (February 1st). Burn during Wiccan ceremonies on Imbolc, or simply to attune with the symbolic rebirth of the Sun-the fading of winter and the promise of spring.

LUGHNASADH INCENSE

2 parts Frankincense
1 part Heather
1 part Apple blossoms
1 pinch Blackberry leaves
a few drops Ambergris oil

Burn Lughnasadh Incense during the Wiccan rituals on August 1st or 2nd, or at that time to attune with the coming harvest.

MABON INCENSE

2 parts Frankincense
1 part Sandalwood
1 part Cypress
1 part Juniper
1 part Pine
1/2 part Oakmoss (or a few drops Oakmoss bouquet)
1 pinch pulverized Oak leaf

Burn during Wiccan ceremonies on Mabon (the Autumnal Equinox, circa September 21st), or at that time to attune with the change of the seasons.

MIDSUMMER INCENSE

2 parts Sandalwood
1 part Mugwort
1 part Chamomile
1 part Gardenia petals
a few drops Rose oil
a few drops Lavender oil
a few drops Yarrow oil

Burn at Wiccan rituals at the Summer Solstice (circa June 21st) or at that time to attune with the seasons and the Sun.

MIDSUMMER INCENSE #2

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Benzoin
1 part Dragon's Blood
1 part Thyme
1 part Rosemary
1 pinch Vervain
a few drops Red Wine

Another like the above.

Pan incense

4 oz. Dittany of Crete
1 dried vanilla pod (2 if small)
2 oz. Benzoin
1 oz. Sandalwood
¬* oz. Pine needles (better cypress if available)
Half a dozen goat hairs if available

Break up the Dittany of Crete flowers with your fingers, powder the vanilla, and mix all the ingredients thoroughly.

(Incidentally, Dittany of Crete is an excellent herb for stews and casseroles, and for clearing the remnants of infection such as the common cold out of the system.)

OSTARA ICENSE

2 parts Frankincense
1 part Benzoin
1 part Dragon's blood
1/2 part Nutmeg
1/2 part Violet flowers (or a few drops Violet oil)
1/2 part Orange peel
1/2 part Rose petals

Burn during Wiccan rituals on Ostara (the Spring Equinox, which varies from March 20th to the 24th each year), or to welcome the spring and to refresh your life.

SABBAT INCENSE (caution!)

4 parts Frankincense
2 parts Myrrh
2 parts Benzoin
1.2 part Bay
1/2 part Fennel
1/2 part Thyme
1/2 part Pennyroyal
1/2 part Solomon's Seal
1/4 part Rue*
1/4 part Wormwood*
1/4 part Chamomile
1/4 part Rose petals

Burn at Wiccan Sabbats.

Scrying Incense

Many Witches employ crystal balls in their divination sessions. To strengthen the crystal, rub it with fresh Mugwort leaves. While scrying (gazing) burn an incense composed of mugwort and wormwood, equal parts. Place the ball on the altar between two white candles, with the censer back on the other side of the ball.

SIF

6 M. Mugwort
6 M. Sandalwood
3 M. Patchouli
Rose oil (absolute/otto/sythetique/bouquet)
Rose water
Vanilla extract/oil
Benzoin tincture/extract
Red food colouring

In the hour of Venus on a Friday as the moon increases, grind well to powder all of the dry ingredients separately. Blending each thoroughly and compleatly in turn thereafter; charging all the while, of course. Optionally, you may also include 3 M. of white saunders and florentine.
In a large glass bottle with a good seal pour in 1 OZ. vanilla extract or oil and colour as desired with the food colouring. The shade may be aslight or dark as you choose, but too much can effect the fragrance negatively. I like to make it a very pale pink or light rose; just a hint of colour. To this, add no less than 1 OZ. Of rose otto/absolute (or substitute synthetique/ bouquet), 7 drops of rose water and blend thoroughly. Rose should be a bit stronger than the vanilla.
Add one or two drops of benzoin tincture/extract. Gradual, by the dropper, add oil blend to the herbs cutting it in thoroughly with each addition until moist but not wet. Allow to dry open and stir it regularly until thoroughly dried. Add more oils until moistened again and dry sealed. Let rest several weeks or months before use.

Spring Sabbat Incense

3 parts Frankincense
2 parts Sandalwood
1 part Benzoin
1 part Cinnamon
a few drops Patchouli oil

Burn during spring and summer Sabbat rituals.

Sun God incense

Giant fennel
Rue'
Thyme
Chervil seed
Pennyroyal
(All in equal quantities)

Chamomile
Geranium
(Half quantities)

For incense, these ingredients should be either chopped up small or dried and ground, before blending. If you find the mixture too quick-burning, mix in a little gum mastic. This recipe is in fact, a combination of plants used as fuel for festival bonfires (especially at Beltane and Midsummer).

Vision Incense

3 parts Cinquefoil
3 parts Chicory Root
1 part Clove.

Grind together on a Wednesday night. To be burned when no props, such as cards, are to be used. Contacts the subconscious mind and allows that which is unknown to become known.

Witches' Sight Incense

This is an all-purpose formula, to be burned while reading tarot cards, using the crystal, meditating, etc. It is composed of:

Gum Mastic
Patchouli
Cinnamon
Juniper
Sandalwood

On a Wednesday, during the waxing moon, take equal parts of the powdered herbs, mix well, and moisten with a few drops mingled musk and ambergris oils. The artificial ambergris will work; ambrette oil will do for the musk. If these are unavailable, use clove and nutmeg.)
Mix until all particles are moistened, crumbly but not soggy. Let stand overnight, and then pack in jar, leaving the cork slightly loose.

YULE INCENSE

2 parts Frankincense
2 parts Pine needles or resin
1 part Cedar
1 part juniper berries

Mix and smolder at Wiccan rites on Yule (on or around December 21st), or during the winter months to cleanse the home and to attune with the forces of nature amid the cold days and nights.

INCENSES AND USES

Money-Drawing Incenses:

Cedar
Chamomile
Cinnamon
Cinquefoil
Clove
Elder
Fern
Ginger
Goldenrod
Honeysuckle
Jasmine
Mint
Patchouli
Pine
Tea
Vervain

Protection Incenses:

Amaranth
Angelica
Ash
Bay
Birch
Carnation
Cedar
Cinnamon
Cinquefoil
Clove
Dragon's Blood
Elder
Fern
Frankincense
Garlic
Heather
Lavender
Mint
Mugwort
Myrrh
Pine
Rose
Rowan
Sandalwood
Valerian
Vervain
Willow

Earth Incenses:

Fern
Mugwort,
Patchouli
Vervain

Air Incenses:

Broom
Clover
Dandelion
Eyebright
Hops
Lavender
Lemongrass
Mint
Pine

Fire Incenses:

Angelica
Ash
Bay
Cedar
Cinnamon
Cinquefoil
Clove
Dragon's Blood
Frankincense
Peppermint
Rosemary

Water Incenses:

Apple
Avocado
Catnip
Chamomile
Elder
Heather
Jasmine
Lemon
Lilac
Myrrh
Orchid
Rose
Sandalwood
Spearmint
Strawberry
Valerian
Vanilla
Violet
Willow
Wintergreen

Elemental Incenses

Edain McCoy
Llwellyn's 1999 Magical Almanac (pages 247-249)

Magical people quickly find themselves on intimate terms with the four elements: earth, water, fire, and air. As basic as the elements their associations are vitally important to all our magickal and ritual workings because they make up the four-squared foundations on which our successes are constructed. Newcomers and elders alike need the to seek out new ways to align with these energies and keep their associations fresh and at the forefront of the magical consciousness.

One of easiest ways to accomplish this is to work with incenses that embody the energies of each element, changing each formula when grows too familiar. Incenses can be ignited in a small, heat-resistant bowls and placed at the four cardinal points of our sacred circles, or at the four points of a personal altar when all four need to be present in balance. They can be used individually when a spell or other magical working requires to attune with one particular element that is related to our goal.

To use homemade incenses you will need to purchase charcoal incense blocks that can be found in occult and metaphysical shops, religious supply stores, or can be ordered from many occult mail order houses. Avoid using the fast-lighting charcoal designed for outdoor barbecue grills. These brands contain substances that are not meant to be used in unventilated areas and can be harmful if inhaled.

Incenses can be made from any dried, non-toxic plant. This includes stems, petals, blades, bark, and roots. Fresh plants can be tied in small bundles and hung up in an arid area of your home to dry. When the plants have dried, measure out a small amount and begin to grind them slowly into a powder, keeping in mind the whole time the precise purpose for which they are being created. This is the beginning of the magical process when you start moving toward your goal by your will power and visualizations. Many powdered herbs are readily available in culinary shops, and these can also be used, but you should first handle them extensively in order to imbue them with your personal energy.

Make sure the charcoal block is lit and burning evenly before applying any incense. Most of these "blocks" are round, and you can estimate the amount of incense it can easily take by matching it to its diameter. For example, a charcoal block with a 1/2-inch diameter can take about a level half teaspoon of powdered incense. Incense can be reapplied when at least three-quarters of what already applied has burned off.

The following recipes can get you started working with the elemental incenses. When you feel it's time for a change, take a look at the list of alternative herbs provided to begin experimenting with your own elemental blends. As you will see from this list, several herbs have more than one elemental attribute.

Earth Incense

Earth is usually associated with the direction of north. This element is feminine in nature, and its attributes include stability, fertility, prosperity, grounding, money, planting, home life, the Mother Earth herself, and many types of healing. For the basic earth incense combine the following:

3 parts patchouli
2 parts pine
1 part bistort
1 part vervain

Other earth-related herbs and plants include barley, cedar, corn silk, juniper, magnolia, oak bark, soybeans and wheat.

Water Incense

Water is usually assigned to the direction of west. This is the element of the natural psychic, one related to pregnancy, birth, rebirth, death, regeneration, divination, purification, psychic endeavors, spirit contact, and past life exploration. Water is the other feminine element. To make the basic water incense try using the following:

3 parts lavender
1 part willow bark
1 part catnip
1/4 part valerian

Other water-related herbs and plants include cypress bark, jasmine, kelp, lotus, moss, mrytle, myrrh, rue, sandalwood chips, seaweed, and vanilla.

Fire Incense

Fire is a masculine element, one usually associated with the south in the Northern Hemisphere. Its energies govern the areas of protection, employment, sex magic, the law, exorcism, strength and courage, and profound transformations or change. A basic fire incense recipe contains:

4 parts frankincense
3 parts cinnamon
1 part dried orange peels
1/4 part thyme

Other fire-related herbs and plants include allspice, basil, bay, black pepper, clove, cumin, dill, garlic, ginger, nutmeg, onions, and thistle.

Air Incense

Air is the other masculine element and it is usually associated with east. Areas governed by this element are education, communication, weather magic, general power raising, and music magic. The following combination makes a basic air incense:

4 parts rosemary
2 parts mugwort
1 part chicory
1/2 part coffee beans

Other air-related herbs and plants include benzoin, elm bark, lavender, parsley, sage, spearmint, and wormwood.

Cunningham's Intro to Incense

INCENSE HAS SMOLDERED on magicians' altars for at least 5,000 years. It was burned in antiquity to mask the odors of sacrificial animals, to carry prayers to the Gods, and to create a pleasing environment for humans to meet with Deity.

Today, when the age of animal sacrifices among most Western magicians is long past, the reasons for incense use are varied. It is burned during magic to promote ritual consciousness, the state of mind necessary to rouse and direct personal energy. This is also achieved through the use of magical tools, by standing before the candle-bewitched altar, and by intoning chants and symbolic words.

When burned prior to magical workings, fragrant smoke also purifies the altar and the surrounding area of negative, disturbing vibrations. Though such a purification isn't usually necessary, it, once again, helps create the appropriate mental state necessary for the successful practice of magic.

Specially formulated incenses are burned to attract specific energies to the magician and to aid her or him in charging personal power with the ritual's goal, eventually creating the necessary change.

Incense, in common with all things, possesses specific vibrations. The magician chooses the incense for magical use with these vibrations in mind. If performing a healing ritual, she or he burns a mixture composed of herbs that promote healing. When the incense is smoldered in a ritual setting it undergoes a transformation. The vibrations, no longer trapped in their physical form, are released into the environment. Their energies, mixing with those of the magician, speed out to effect the changes necessary to the manifestation of the magical goal.

Not all incense formulas included in this book are strictly for magical use. Some are smoldered in thanks or offering to various aspects of Deity, just as juniper was burned to Inanna 5,000 years ago in Sumer. Other blends are designed to enhance Wiccan rituals.

You needn't limit incense use to ritual, but avoid burning healing incense just for the smell, or to freshen up your stale house. Burning magically constructed and empowered incenses when they're not needed is a waste of energy. If you wish to burn a pleasant-smelling incense, compound a household mixture for this purpose.

The Materials

Incenses are composed of a variety of leaves, flowers, roots, barks, woods, resins, gums and oils. Semiprecious stones may also be added to incenses to lend their energies to the mixture, much as emeralds were once burned in fires by ancient Meso-American peoples.

Out of the literally hundreds of potential incense ingredients perhaps 14 are most frequently used. Keep a stock of these herbs on hand if you plan to make several incenses. These might include:

Frankincense
Pine needles or resin (pitch)
Myrrh
Juniper
Benzoin
Sandalwood
Copal
Cedar
Rose petals
Thyme
Bay
Basil
Cinnamon
Rosemary

Be aware that many plants (if not all!) smell quite different when being smoldered. Sweet scents turn sour fast.

If you wish, take a large number of dried and finely ground plant substances (flowers, leaves, bark, roots) and drop a small portion of each herb onto a hot charcoal block; then decide whether the scent is pleasing or not. You might make a notation of each botanical and its scent in a special notebook reserved for this purpose or on three-by five-inch cards. Also note any psychic or other sensations you notice with each burning herb. In this way you'll eventually build up a thorough knowledge of incense materials, which will aid you in your herbal magic.

Do remember that, as surprising as it sounds, scent isn't a factor in magical incense, except very generally: sweet odors are usually used for positive magical goals, while foul scents are used for banishing rituals.

Scent is power. It allows us to slip into ritual consciousness, thereby allowing us to raise power, infuse it with he proper energies, and send it forth toward the magical goal. However, not all magical incenses smell sweet. Some have strong, resinous orders; others, intensely bitter scents. Incenses intended for ritual use are blended to provide the proper energies during magical operations - not to smell pleasing to the human nose.

Don't let this scare you away from incense, however. Most of our associations with "pleasant" and "foul" odors are learned, and our noses aren't as capable of determining various scents as they should be. Retrain your nose to accept exotic scents, and the art of incense burning will become a joy, not something to be tolerated for the sake of magic.

Occult supply stores stock incense intended for use in magic. Many rare blends can be purchased for a few dollars. While these are magically effective, you may wish to make some of your own.

The Two Forms of Incense

Incense is virtually a necessity in magical practice, but there seems to be a great mystery surrounding its composition. Fortunately with practice, it's surprisingly easy to make incense.

Two types of incense are used in magic: the combustible and the noncombustible. The former contains potassium nitrate (saltpeter) to aid in burning, while the latter does not. Therefore combustible incense can be burned in the form of bricks, cones, sticks and other shapes, whereas noncombustible incense must be sprinkled onto glowing charcoal blocks to release its fragrance.

Ninety-five percent of the incense used in magic is the non-combustible, raw or granular type. Why? Perhaps because it's easier to make. Herbal magicians are notoriously practical people.

Also, some spells (particularly divinatory or evocational rites)call for billowing clouds of smoke. Since cone, stick and block incense burn at steady rates, such effects are impossible with their use.

The advantages of combustible incense can outweigh its drawbacks, depending on circumstance. Need to burn some money drawing incense for an unexpected ritual? You could take out the censer, a charcoal block and the incense, light the charcoal, place it in the censer and sprinkle incense onto it. Or you could pull out a cone of money-drawing incense, light it, set it in the censer and get on with your ritual.

Different magicians prefer different types of incense. Instuctions for the preparation of both forms appear here.

Non-Combustible Incense

Be sure you have all necessary ingredients. If you lack any, decide on substitutions.

Each ingredient must be finely ground, preferably to a powder, using either a mortar and pestle or an electric grinder. Some resins won't powder easily, but with practice you'll find the right touch.

When all is ready, fix your mind on the incense's goal-protection, love, and health. In a large wooden or ceramic bowl, mix the resins and gums together with your hands. While mingling these fragrant substances, also mix their energies. Visualize your personal power vibrating with your magical goal-exiting your hands and entering the incense. It is this that makes homemade incense more effective than its commercial counterparts.

Next, mix in all the powdered leaves, barks, flowers and roots. As you mix, continue to visualize or concentrate on the incense's goal.

Now add any oils or liquids (wine, honey, etc.) that are included in the recipe. Just a few drops are usually sufficient. On the subject of oils: If there's a sufficient amount of dry ingredients in the recipe, you can substitute an oil for an herb you lack. Simply ensure that the oil an essential oil, for synthetics smell like burning plastic when smoldered.

Once all has been thoroughly mixed, add any powdered gemstones or other power boosters. A few-not many-of the recipes in this book call for a pinch of powdered stone.

To produce this, simply take a small stone of the required type and pound it in a metal mortar and pestle (or simply smash it with a hammer against a hard surface). Grind the resulting pieces into a powder and add no more than the scantest pinch to the incense.

One general power-boosting "stone" is amber. A pinch of this fossilized resin added to any mixture will increase its effectiveness, but this can be rather expensive.

The incense is now fully compounded. Empower the incense and it is done. Store in a tightly capped jar. Label carefully, including the name of the incense and date of composition. It is ready for use when needed.

Combustible Incense

Combustible incense (in the form of cones, blocks and sticks) is fairly complex in its composition, but many feel the results are worth the extra work.

To be blunt, this aspect of incense composition isn't easy. Some of the ingredients are difficult to obtain, the procedure tends to be messy and frustrating, and some even question whether combustible incense is as magically effective as its noncombustible counterpart.

At first, making combustible incense may seem impossible to accomplish. But persevere and you'll be rewarded with the satisfaction of lighting incense cones you've made yourself.

Gum tragacanth glue or mucilage is the basic ingredient of all molded incenses. Gum tragacanth is available at some herb stores; at one time in the past every drugstore carried it. It is rather expensive but a little will last for months.

To make tragacanth glue, place a teaspoon of the ground herb in a glass of warm water. Mix thoroughly until all particles are dispersed. To facilitate this, place in a bowl and whisk or beat with an eggbeater. This will cause foam to rise, but it can be easily skimmed off or allowed to disperse. The gum tragacanth has enormous absorption qualities; an ounce will absorb up to one gallon of water in a week.

Let the tragacanth absorb the water until it becomes a thick bitter-smelling paste. The consistency of the mixture depends on the form of incense desired. For sticks (the most difficult kind to r make) the mixture should be relatively thin. For blocks and cones a thicker mucilage should be made. This is where practice comes in handy after a session or two you will automatically know when the mucilage is at the correct consistency.

If you can't find tragacanth, try using gum arabic in its place. This, too, absorbs water. All reports say it works as well as tragacanth.

When you have made the trag glue, cover with a wet cloth and set aside. It will continue to thicken as it sits, so if it becomes to thick add a bit of water and stir thoroughly.

Next, make up the incense base. Not all formulas in this hook can be used for combustible incense; in fact, most of them were designed to be used as noncombustible incenses. Fortunately, by adding the incense to a base it should work well. Here's one standard formula for an incense base:

CONE INCENSE BASE

6 parts ground Charcoal (not self-igniting)
1 part ground Benzoin
2 parts ground Sandalwood
1 part ground Orris root (this "fixes" the scent)
6 drops essential oil (use the oil form of one of the ingredients in the incense)
2 to 4 parts mixed, empowered incense

Mix the first four ingredients until all are well blended. Add the drops of essential oil and mix again with your hands. The goal is to create a powdered mixture with a fine texture. If you wish, run the mixture through a grinder or the mortar again until it is satisfactory.

Add two to four parts of the completed and empowered incense mixture (created according to the instructions for Noncombustible Incense above). Combine this well with your hands.

Then using a small kitchen scale, weigh the completed incense and add ten percent potassium nitrate. If you've made ten ounces of incense, add one-ounce potassium nitrate. Mix this until the white powder is thoroughly blended.

Saltpeter should constitute no more than ten percent of the completed bulk of the incense. If any more is added, it will burn too fast; less and it might not burn at all.

Potassium nitrate isn't difficult to obtain. Check drug stores(it isn't usually on the shelf; ask for it at the pharmacy). If you have no luck, try chemical supply stores.

Next, add the tragacanth glue. Do this a teaspoon at a time, mixing with your hands in a large bowl until all ingredients are wetted. For cone incense you'll need a very stiff, dough-like texture. If it is too thick it won't properly form into cones and will take forever to dry. The mixture should mold easily and hold its shape.

On a piece of waxed paper, shape the mixture into basic cone shapes' exactly like the ones you've probably bought. If this form isn't used, the incense might not properly burn.

When you've made up your cone incense, let it dry for two to seven days in a warm place. Your incense is finished.

For block incense make a 1/3 inch-thick square of the stiff dough on waxed paper. Cut with a knife into one-inch cubes as if you were cutting small brownies. Separately slightly and let dry.

Stick incense can be attempted as well. Add more tragacanth glue to the mixed incense and base until the mixture is wet but still rather thick. The trick here is in determining the proper thickness of the incense/tragacanth mixture and in finding appropriate materials to use. Professional incense manufacturers use thin bamboo splints, which aren't available. So try homemade wooden or bamboo splints, broom straws, very thin twigs, or those long wooden cocktail skewers that are available at some grocery and oriental food stores.

Dip the sticks into the mixture, let them sit upright and then dip again. Several dippings are usually necessary; this is a most difficult process.

When the sticks have accumulated a sufficient amount of the incense, poke them into a slab of clay or some other substance so that they stand upright. Allow them to dry.

One variation on stick incense making uses a stiffer incense dough. Pat down the dough on waxed paper until it is very thin. Place the stick on the dough. Roll a thin coating of dough around the stick. The incense shouldn't be more than twice the thickness of the stick. Squeeze or press it onto the stick so that it will stay put, let dry.

CONE INCENSE BASE #2

6 parts powdered Sandalwood (or Cedar, Pine, Juniper)
2 parts powdered Benzoin (or Frankincense, Myrrh, etc.)
l part ground Orris root
6 drops essential oil (use the oil form of one of the incense ingredients)
3 to 5 parts empowered incense mixture

In this recipe, powdered wood is used in place of the charcoal. Use sandalwood if it's included in the incense recipe. If not, use cedar, pine or juniper, depending on the type of incense to be made. Try to match the wood base of this incense to the incense's recipe. If you can't, simply use sandalwood.

Mix the first three ingredients until combined. Add the oil and mix again. Then add three to five parts of the completed incense to this. Again, this should be a powder. Weigh and add ten percent potassium nitrate.

Mix, add the gum tragacanth glue, combine again and mold in the methods described above.

Rules of Combustible Incense Composition

Here are some guidelines to follow when compounding combustible incense. These are for use with the Cone Incense Base #2 recipe above. If they aren't followed, the incense won't properly burn. There's less room for experimentation here than with noncombustible incenses.

First off, never use more than ten percent saltpeter. Ever!

Also, keep woods (such as sandalwood, wood aloe, cedar, juniper and pine) and gum resins (frankincense, myrrh, benzoin, copal) in the proper proportions: at least twice as much powdered wood as resins. If there's more resinous matter, the mixture won't burn.

Naturally, depending on the type of incense you're adding to the base, you may have to juggle some proportions accordingly. Simply ensure that frankincense and its kin never constitute more than one-third of the final mixture, and all should be well.

Though this hasn't covered all aspects of combustible incense making (that could be a book in itself), it should provide you with enough guidelines to make your own. Experiment, but keep these rules in mind.

Incense Papers

Incense papers are a delightful variation of combustible incense. Here, rather than using charcoal and gum tragacanth, tinctures and paper are the basic ingredients. When finished you'll have produced several strips of richly scented paper that can be smoldered with a minimum of fuss.

To make incense papers, take a piece of white blotter paper and cut it into six-inch strips about an inch wide.

Next, add one and one-half teaspoons potassium nitrate to one half-cup very warm water. Stir until the saltpeter is completely dissolved.

Soak the paper strips in the saltpeter solution until thoroughly saturated. Hang them up to dry.

You now have paper versions of the charcoal blocks used to burn incense. The obstacle in scenting them is to overcome the normal smell of burning paper. For this reason, heavy fragrances should be used, such as tinctures.

Tinctures compounded from gums and resins seem to produce the best results.

Empower the tincture(s) with your magical need, and then pour a few drops of the tincture onto one strip of paper. Smear this over the paper and add more drops until it is completely coated on one side.

Hang the strip up to dry and store in labeled, airtight containers until needed.

To speed drying, turn on the oven to a low temperature, leave the door open, and place the soaked incense papers on the rack. Remove them when dry.

Generally speaking, incense papers should be made with one tincture rather than mixtures. But, once again, try various formulas until you come up with positive results.

To use incense papers, simply remove one paper and hold it above your censer. Light one tip with a match, and after it is completely involved in flame, quickly blow it out. Place the glowing paper in your censer and let it smolder, visualizing or working your magical ritual.

Incense papers should burn slowly and emit a pleasant scent, but again your results will vary according to the strength of the tincture and the type of paper used.

Plain unscented incense papers can be used in place of charcoal blocks. For this purpose soak the papers in the potassium nitrate solution and let dry, then set one alight in the censer. Sprinkle a thin layer of the incense over the paper. As it burns the paper will also smolder your incense.

You may have difficulty in keeping incense paper lit. The secret here is to allow air to circulate below the papers. You can ensure this by either placing the paper on some heatproof object in the censer, or by filling the censer with salt or sand and thrusting one end of the paper into this, much as you might with incense sticks. The paper should burn all the way to its end.

The Censer

Whether you use raw incense, blocks or incense papers, you'll need an incense burner. The censer can be anything from a gilt, chain equipped, church-type affair to a bowl of sand or salt. It truly doesn't matter.

Your own taste should determine which censer is right for you. If nothing else is available, use a bowl half-filled with sand or salt and get on with it. The sand protects the bowl and the surface on which it sits against heat. It also provides a handy place on which to prop up stick incense.

Using Combustible Incense

Simply light it, blow out the flame after the tip is glowing, and set it in the censer. As it burns visualize your magical goal manifesting in your life. It's that simple. You may wish to also burn candles of the appropriate color, perhaps anointed with scented oil that is also aligned with your goal.

Naturally, incense may also be smoldered as a part of a larger ritual.

Using Noncombustible Incense

Light a self-igniting charcoal block (see below) and place it in a censer. Once the block is glowing and saltpeter within it has stopped sparkling, sprinkle a half-teaspoon or so of the incense on the block. Use a small spoon if you wish. It will immediately begin to burn, and in doing so, release fragrant smoke.*

Remember: Use just a small amount of incense at first. When the smoke begins to thin out, add more. If you dump on a spoonful of incense it will probably extinguish the charcoal block, so use small amounts. Incenses containing large amounts of resins and gums (frankincense, myrrh and so on) burn longer than those mainly composed of woods and leaves.

Don't knock off the ash that forms on top of the charcoal unless the incense starts to smell foul. In such a case, scrape off the burning incense and the ash with a spoon and add a fresh batch. Frankincense does tend to smell odd after smoldering for some time.

Incense can be burned as part of a magical ritual, to honor higher forces, or as a direct act of magic, such as to clear a house of negativity and to smooth peaceful vibrations throughout it.

* There's a difference between burning and smoldering; though I use such terms as "burn this incense" several times in this book, I really mean "smolder."

Charcoal Blocks

These are necessities for burning noncombustible incense. They're available in a wide range of sizes, from over an inch in diameter (they're usually round) to about a half-inch size. Most religious and occult supply stores stock them, and they can be obtained from mail-order suppliers.

Potassium nitrate is added to these charcoal blocks during their manufacture to help them ignite. When touched with a lit match, fresh charcoal blocks erupt into a sparkling fire which quickly spreads across the block. If you wish, hold the block. It may light easily. If so, quickly place it in the censer to avoid burning your fingers. Or, light the block in the censer itself, thereby preventing burns. This is somewhat harder to do.

Unfortunately, some charcoal blocks aren't fresh, have been exposed to moisture, or haven't been properly saturated with the potassium nitrate solution and so don't light well. If this is the case relight the block until it is evenly glowing and red. Then pour on the incense.


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