Pokotia InscriptionsThe monolith at Pokotia was discovered by Bernardo Biados, Freddy Arce, Javier Escalante, Cesar Calisaya, Leocadio Ticlla, Alberto Vasquez, Alvaro Fernholz, Omar Sadud, Rodrigo Velasco and Paulo Batuani. This research , is strongly supported by the President of the Congress of Bolivia, the Honorable H. Enrique Enrique Toro. We thank President Toro greatly for his continued support.
Some time ago Bernardo Biados sent me photos of a monument he found at Pokotia.
The site of Pokotia is around 10 km south of Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku). These insrcriptions are very interesting because they support the Fuente Magna evidence that the Sumerians formerly lived in South America.
The inscriptions at Pokotia were discovered by Bernardo Biados, Freddy Arce, Javier Escalante, Cesar Calisaya, Leocadio Ticlla, Alberto Vasquez, Alvaro Fernholz, Omar Sadud, Rodrigo Velasco and Paulo Batuani. This monolith proves that the ancient South Americans had syllabic writing. Zecharia Sitchin, in The Lost Realms ( N.Y.: Avon Books, 1990) provides a great discussion of the evidence of writing in ancient Peru and Bolivia (pp. 148-152). He observed that Alexander von Humboldt, in Vues des cordillieres et monuments des peuples indigenes de Amerique (1824) wrote that "It has been recently out in doubt that the Peruvians had besides Quippus , knowledge of a sign script".
It is interesting to note that Sitchin published a picture of skin parchment he claims was formerly in the Peruvian museum at La Paz Bolivia, that have many of the signs found on the Fuente Magna bowl and the Proto-Sumerian script (p.150). According to Sitchin , it was published by Ribero and von Tschudi, in Reisen durch Sudamerika. If this parchment still exist in the museum it will provide even further support for the presence of Sumerian writing in South America.
The area where the Pokotia monument was found is a center of archaeological activity. In this area archaeologist have found numerous sites where pyramidial figures resembling ziggurats. These figures are expertly discussed by M. E. Moseley, The Incas and their ancestors (N.Y.: Thames and Hudson,2000). These ancient sites include Pukara at the northern end of Lake Titicaca, and Chiripa and Wankarani in Bolivia.
The ancient centers of this area are usually made in a u-shape. This style of archetecture was popular in the Huaura and Lurin Valleys. This u-shape tradition at Paraiso date back to 1900 BC (Moseley, p.138). Between 1200-800 BC, copper smelting existed at Wankarani and Chiripa. The Pukara site dates back to 400 BC
The Pokotia inscriptions show affinity to the inscriptions found on the Fuente Magna bowl. Below we list the signs found on the statue from Pokotia.
The Pokotia inscriptions are written in the Sumerian language. The signs are related to the Proto-Sumerian writing. The phonetic values for the signs are the phonetic values of similar signs found in the Vai writing. The sounds for the Vai writing were also used to interpret the Olmec writing and Indus Valley writing.
The Pokotia signs are found on the front of the statue below the hands. The Pokotia signs are found on the right and left thighs of the figure.
The symbols on the Pokotia statue are read from top to bottom, right to left. The signs have syllabic values.
Below are the inscriptions from the left side of the Pokotia stela. These inscriptions are read from top to bottom, and right to left.
Me be lu
Lu ge me I
A I lu ki su
" Distribute/ the opening of the Oracle to mankind./ Proclaim [that Putaki's] offspring (are to) witness esteem./Act justly (now), to send forth the oracle to nourish knowledge./ Appreciate the cult. [All to} witness the divine decree./ Send forth the soothsayer to capture the speech [from the oracle] to make clear the ideal norm [ for living, as a guide for mankind]. [Citizens] witness in favor of this human being to create wisdom (for all mankind), and send forth [an example of good] character [Indeed]!"
There is an additional inscription on the left side of the statue. This inscription is listed below:
Mash ge pa po mi lu su ta
"The Diviner proclaims the phenomenal depth of this area , of the deity's power, to entrust man with wisdom".
On the far right side of the Pokotia statue there are inscriptions which appear to be engraved in a box that provide the name of the oracle. Below is the inscription.
Fo/Pu ta ki
Lu su Lu ki
"Good Putaki, a wise man and progenator of (many) people."
There is an additional inscription on the right side of the statue.
This inscription is presented below:
" Take an oath to witness character and wisdom. Witness the deity's power [ to make for you] a righteous soul".
Bernardo's discovery of the Pokotia monument supports the research of the Verrills that the Sumerians came to South America in search of metals. A.H Verrill and R. Verrill, Americas ancient civilizations (New York: Putnam, 1953), and J. Bailey Sailing to Paradise, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) maintain that the area around Lake Titicaca may have been called Lake Manu, by the Sumerians. According to the Verrills and Bailey the Sumerians came to this area in search of tin. They support this view by a discussion of the Sumerian traditions, that Sumerians set sail to the land west of the Mediterranean that they called the "Tin land of the West" or "Sunset Land". It is interesting to note that a major center in this area is Potosi. Bailey suggest that Potosi may relate to the Sumerian term Patesi the Sumerian term for 'priest king'.
The writing on the Pokotia monument makes it clear that the Pokotia oracle was a heard by many people in ancient Bolivia. This is interesting because the Pachacamac oracle was very popular in this area in historic times. According to Moseley , satellite shrines of one or another of his offspring were worshipped by South Americans (p.68).
During Inca (Sumerian: En-ka "Great Lord") times, the temple city of Pachacamac , contained the idol of Pachacamac which was a commanding oracle drawing devotees from Ecuador in the North through Bolivia in the South. People came from far and wide for a Pachacamac prophesy (Moseley, p.68). The Pokotia statue makes it clear that the popularity of oracles in this part of South America existed all the way back in time to the creation of the Putaki oracle.
There is other support of the early presence of writing in South America dating back to ancient times. Moseley published a number of inscribed Moche bricks and a Tiwanaku portrait head. The characters on the bricks and statue are identical to the Pokotia writing. The symbols on the inscribed Moche bricks are identical to the na, I, a, mash/bi, mi, ma, po, ki, ta and su signs listed on the Pokotia sign list above. The symbols on the Tiwanaku head are identical to the me and mash/bi signs found on the Pokotia statue.
In addition to evidence from South American popular culture (oracle worship) and archaeology there is linguistic evidence that support the Sumerian presence in Bolivia. Mario Montano has found startling linguistic evidence that indicates a Sumerian substratum in the Aymara and Quechua languages. These languages are spoken in Peru-Bolivia.
As you can see from the above table many Aymara terms relate to the metaphysical world. This is not surprising given this decipherment of the Pokotia statue and the Magna Fuente bowl which indicated that the Sumerians had established many aspects of their religion in Bolivia.
There are other Sumerian terms which relate to Aymara. These signs are listed below: