The Proto-Saharan Homeland of the Dravidian, African, Sumerian and Elamite People



Clyde A. Winters 


The civilization and culture of many African Nations originated in middle Africa in what is now the Sahara 10,000 years ago.

The original inhabitants of the Sahara where the Kemetic civilization originated were Blacks not Berbers or Indo-European speakers. These Blacks formerly lived in the highland regions of the Fezzan and Hoggar until after 4000 BC. This ancient homelend of the Dravidians, Egyptians, Sumerians, Niger-Kordofanian-Mande and Elamite speakers are called the Fertile African Crescent. (Anselin 1989,pp.16; Winters, 1981,1985b,1991). We call these people the Proto-Saharans. (Winters 1985b,1991) The generic term for this group is Kushite. This explains the analogy between the Black African, Sumerian, Elamite and Dravidian languages . The Egyptians called these Proto-Saharans Ta-Seti and Tehenu. Farid (1985,p.82) noted that "We can notice that the beginning of the Neolithic stage in Egypt on the edge of the Western Desert corresponds with the expansion of the Saharan Neolithic culture and the growth of its population". (emphasis that of author)

The Homeland of the Proto-Saharans was that part of Middle Africa we call the Sahara. Although today the Saharan region is presently arid, around 8000 years ago this area was a center for civilization, situated in a Mediterranean climate.

This area was the original home of the Black African, Egyptian, Elamite, Dravidian, Sumerian and Mandingpeople.

Here the Proto-Saharans began as a single linguistic community, which shared cultural traits that were fashioned in their Saharan homeland. The Egyptians referred to this area as God's land, the home of the Gods.

The linguistic evidence furnishes an abundance of material, which supports the hypothesis of a historical connection between the Dravidians , Elamites, Sumerian and Black African languages. A unified cultural group probably spoke the hypothetical Proto-language of this group over a continuous part of middle Africa.

The history of the Proto-Saharans begins in the Sahara, some seven to eight thousand years ago. The Proto-Saharan speakers remained in this area until the Sahara began to change from a Mediterranean to an arid climate. It was after the migration of the Proto-Saharan peoples into Asia and Europe that they came in contact with the Altaic, Uralic and Indo-European speakers.

Archaeological evidence indicates that there was unity between the Proto-Saharan populations in middle Africa. Since the climate was wetter several thousand years ago, the major crops were ensete, rice, sorghum, millet, sesame, barley and fonio. Between 6000-5000 B.C.,the Sahara was parkland with a Mediterranean vegetation. This period is called the AFRICAN AQALITHIC. It is called the African Aqualithic because of the

abundant streams, and rivers that dotted middle Africa at the time. Due to the wet environment the Proto-Saharans communicated mainly by boat.

The original homeland of the Proto-Saharans was in the Saharan zone. The Saharan zone is bounded on the north by the Atlas mountains, the Atlantic Ocean in the West, the tropical rain forest in the south and the Red Sea in the East. It was here that the ancestors of the founders of the river valley civilizations developed their highly organized and technological societies.

Ethnically the Proto-Saharans were round-headed Mediterranean of the ancient variety commonly called Negroes. For purposes of this book we will call this group Africoid. Around 7000 B.C. Mediterranean of a fairly tall stature not devoid of Negroid characteristics appears in the Sahara at Capsa

(now Cafsa).(Desange 1981) These Mediterranean's are called Capsians. This group flourished in an area extending from the western borders of North Africa into the southern Sahara. They lived on hillocks or slopes near water. But some Capsians lived on plains, which featured lakes and marshes. Their way of life continued from the Neolithic era up to the time of the Garamante.

Ceramics spread from the central and eastern Sahara into North Africa. These ceramics were of Sudanese inspiration and date back to the seventh millennium B.C. This pottery was used from Ennedi to the Hoggar .The makers of this pottery were probably from the Sudan. (Desanges 1981) The Capsian pottery tradition also came from the Sudan, and first appeared at the valley of Saoura, and later at Fort Flatters. This type of pottery probably originated at Elmenteita in Kenya. (Ki-Zerbo 1979)

Skeletons of the Mediterranean type have been found throughout Middle Africa, Southwest Asia, Mesopotamia, Indo-Pakistan, Central Asia and China. It is no secret that the founders of ancient Egypt, Elam, Sumer and the Indus Valley were all of the Mediterranean type. These Mediterranean people called themselves: KUSHITES.

The Kushites are known in history as bowmen and great sailors. These Kushites called Group-A by archaeologists founded the earliest empire in the World, in Nubia. The first recorded empire on earth was located at Qustul, Nubia around 3300 B.C.. This is over a hundred years earlier than the founding of the Egyptian Empire. As a result the term designating royalty in Egyptian nsw < n y swt = "(the man) who comes from the south".

This empire was called Ta-Seti, or the Land of the Bow.It was clear that the government and writing usually associated with Egypt was first invented in Nubia, and later carried down the Nile into Egypt. The people of Ta-Seti, were called "Steu" or "bowmen". The Egyptians called the area around Kush Tata-Neter "God's land".

The Kushites took the name Kush to many regions they settled in Asia. The most important Kushite colony was ancient Elam, i.e., hatam (Khaltam). The capital city of Elam, was called Kussi by the Elamites. In Akkadian,Elam was called Giz-bam or "the land of the bow". The ancient Chinese tribes called the Elamites:Kashti. Moreover, in the Bible in Jeremiah (xlxx,35) we find "bow of Elam".

Black-and-Red Ware (BRW)

These Kushites used a common red-and-black ware that has been found from the Sudan in Africa, across Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent all the way into China. The earliest examples of the black-and-red ware of the Proto-Saharans date to the early Amratian period 4000-3500 BC. (Hoffman 1979) It was after 3500 B.C., and especially 2500 B.C. ,that the Proto -Saharans began to deeply affect the activities of the Eurasian peoples.

The Amratian period of Middle Africa is the focal point for the spread of BRW. There is affinity between BRW found at Anau, in Russian Turkestan, and similar pottery from southeastern Europe. Dr. J.G. Andersson (l934) found a similarity between pottery fragments found at Anau, and fragments discovered at Yangshao sites in Henan and Gansu province.


Linguistic and archaeological evidence can help us to reconstruct the Proto-Saharan economy and social organization. The economy was diversified and shifted from hunter-gatherer to herder and later food producing as a result of the rise of consistent seasonal rains in Middle Africa after 7000

B.C. This regular rain led to the development of the mixed agriculture-herding economy of the Proto-Saharans. The bioarchaeological remains from the Sahara indicates a mixed economy based on the herding of cattle and goats, and the cultivation of barley. Over time the shifting Saharan environment limited , rather than determined the Proto-Saharan sedentary types of food producing technology.

The earliest horizon of the Sahara during the Late Pleistocene pottery and baskets were probably used by hunter-gatherer groups to collect grain, as evidenced by the abundance of millstones on early Saharan sites. Due to the richness of the flora and fauna in the Sahara during this period ethnic groups in Middle Africa were semi-sedentary hunter -fisher-gatherers who engaged in the exploitation of their habitat. These people may have had a limited interest in the domestication of plants and animals. But it was not until the return of an arid climate to the Sahara between 12,000 -7000 B.C. that the Saharans were forced to domesticate cattle and goats to ensure a reliable source of food. It was probably during this African Aqualithic that Proto-Saharans probably began to seriously domesticate/collect plants to supplement their diets.

The Paleo-climate of Africa explains the south and eastern migration of Negroes from North Africa and the Sudan respectively, into West Africa.There were various climates in Africa. In the Sahelian zone there was a wet phase during the Holocene (7500-4400 B.C.) which led to the formation of large lakes and marshes in Mauritania, the Niger massifs and Chad.(Talbot 1980) In the Niger area, the west phase existed in the eight/seventh and fourth/third millennia B.C. (McIntosh and McIntosh 1986:417)

There were very few habitable areas in West Africa during the Holocene wet phase. According to McIntosh and McIntosh (1986) the only human occupation of the Sahara during the humid phase was situated in the Saharan massifs along wadis. By the 8th Millennia Saharan-Sudanese pottery was used in the Air region. (Roset 1983) Ceramics of this style have been found at sites in the Hoggar. (McIntosh and McIntosh 1983b:230) Dotted wavy-line type pottery has also been discovered in the Libyan Sahara.

The pastoral-sedentary tradition is a highly developed specialization exploiting food resources of the Savanna and herding cattle throughout Middle Africa over 500 years ago. The bioarchaeological remains from the Sahara indicates a mixed economy for the Proto-Saharans based on herding of cattle

goats and sheep, and the collection of sorghum, millet, yam and rice along the marshes and lakes.

The view that food production preceded pastoralism in the Proto-Saharan case--at this junction in archaeological research--is untenable. It would seem more reasonable to assume that a hunter-gatherer group which clearly specialized in the hunting of animals (as evidenced by the abundance of

arrowheads) would have moved from hunter-gathering to animal domestication, since they would be keenly aware of the habits of game, and therefore make the shift to animal husbandry rapidly when climatic conditions in the Sahara made it impossible to collect grains.

The return of rains during the African Aqualithic probably led to renewed interest in plant collection and later domestication. It was probably during this period that various groups began to specialize either in a pastoral or mixed-pastoral food producing economy. The fact that both of these economies held the best benefit for a stable society, may have encouraged the diverse Saharan ethnic groups to form some sort of "federal " relationship, which encouraged trade and cooperation between the varying peoples practicing different economies.

The contemporary nomadic pastoralist tradition in the Sahara was first introduced as a sedentary pastoral adaptation around 7000 years ago. At this time the Sahara was a mosaic of lakes and marshes united by permanent streams. The vegetation was Mediterranean and grew abundantly in the Saharan

highlands, in Hoggar and Tibesti.

In addition to cattle, the archaeologist have found that the Proto-Saharans had abundant pottery and grinding stones. This wavy line pottery was first discovered at Khartoum, and dates to 4000 B.C.

The collection of plants also provided a reliable source of food during the formative stages of Proto-Saharan society. The discovery of large amounts of pottery and heavy grinding stones during this period at many sites suggest the possibility that pastoralist were more sedentary at this time.

A comparative study of the languages spoken by the Proto-Saharans(PS) gives us a very clear indication of their cultural traits. The Proto-term for the Proto-Saharan culture trait will be PS plus an asterisk e.g.,*PS. For example the Proto-Saharans had chiefs PS: *sar, and lived in cities/town

PS:*uru. In these cities and between the several cities they built roads PS:*sila.








The Proto-Saharans called people or humanity PS:*oku. The mother of the family was called PS: *amma or *ma ; and the father was called PS:*pa. The children both boys and girls were referred to as PS:*de/di/du. They lived in houses called PS:*lu/du.

Due to the abundance of water during the African Aqualithic the Proto-Saharans used the suffix PS:*-ta, to indicate a place of habitation. They also used boats called PS:*kalam.










The Proto-Saharans had writing. They either engraved their syllabic script in rocks, or used a stylus to engrave wet clay. This view is supported by the fact that the term for writing often has the long -uu, attached to various initial consonants usually /l/, /r/, or /d/. For example writing in Sumerian is Ru and Shu, Elamite Talu, and in Dravidian carru. These terms agree with the Manding term for excavate or hollow out du/do, kulu, tura, etc. This shows that the Proto-Saharan term for writing denoted the creation of impressions on wet clay or hard rock.The Sumerian term for carving was du.

The Proto-Saharan script was the model script for the ancient Mande script, Proto-Elamite, Indus Valley writing and Linear A. The Proto-Saharan writing was first used to write characters on pottery, to give the ceramics a talismanic quality. Thus we find Proto-Saharans characters on ancient Chinese, Egyptian, Linear A and the Indus Valley.(Winters 1985).

The Proto-Saharans used water for communication purposes. Due to the abundance of water during the African Aqualithic the leaders of the Proto-Saharans were men that could tame the waters by dams, or building boats and habitation mounds safe from the numerous floods. Over time the Proto-Saharans formed a confederation of city states called the FISH CONFEDERATION.


The Fish or MAA Confederation had many culture features in common. For example they traced their roots back to the Sahara, especially Libya and Nubia. The principle god for these Proto-Saharans was Amon or Amun. In the archaeological literature these people are called Ta-Seti (A-Group) and C-Group people of ancient Kush/Nubia. The ancient Libyans were called Temehu, by the Egyptians. These Temehu people are called by archaeologists C-Group people. The C-Group people settled much of the Sudan. The cylindrical tomb common to this area was also frequently built by other Proto-Saharans in Asia.

The Temehu kept small live stock. In addition to worshiping Amon,this Libyan group of Proto-Saharans worshipped the goddess Neith. In Europe she was called Athena, to the Manding and Minoans she was known as Nia.

The members of the Maa Confederation include the Egyptian founders of the New Kingdom, Elamites, Dravidians, Manding and the Sumerians.The God Amon of the Egyptians was taken to Egypt during the New Kingdom.The generic term used by the Proto-Saharans to refer to themselves was KUSHITE.


During the Aqualithic period the Proto-Saharans maintained well developed trade links with the east African homelands by boats which could travel across Africa along the numerous streams and rivers which dotted the more watered Middle African environment 8000 years ago.

The so-called Egyptian and Mesopotamian style boats are depicted in the Sahara at Tin Tazarift. These boats used by the Egyptians, Sumerians and Elamites are nothing more than the boats used by the Proto-Saharans. These boats were also used by the descendants of the Proto-Saharans in Mesopotamia and India. To navigate these boats the Proto-Saharans used celestial navigation.

Boat building has been known in Africa for thousands of years. Reed boats and reed boat illustrations are found throughout Middle Africa. Apart from human and animal figures appearing in Nubian rock drawings the most dominant motif is the reed boat.Other examples of reed boats have been found

in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, both areas of early Proto-Saharan settlement. The first use of the mast and sails on reed boats, along with cabins on the deck appear at Ta-Seti, in Nubia over 3000 years ago.

In the riverine cultures of the Proto-Saharans, each community had marine architects, ship builders and expert sailors. The presence of an elevated bow and stern on many boats depicted in the Saharan rock art and the peculiar "bowstring", astern and "fuse" for the rudder oar, indicate these ancient ships were used for navigation on the open seas. Reed or plank

boats are still made by the Dravidians in India, and the Bozo of West Africa along the Niger river.

Plant Domestication

The earliest Neolithic farmers cultivated barley. They used a wavy line ceramic style of Middle Africa referred to as the Saharan-Sudanese ware.

The Proto-Saharans, once engaged in intensive agriculture began to build towns. Complex political organizations and craft specialization followed as certain ethnic groups, clans became more and more sedentary.

The Proto-Saharans practiced a form of intensive agriculture characterized by use of the hoe, related water storage and irrigation techniques, plus the application of fertilizers (manure) to the land.

The ability of the Proto-Saharans to produce surplus food led to an increase in population and changes in social organization. Naturally population increases forced the ancestors of the Proto-Saharans to spill over into more marginal areas. This forced them to domesticate plants and animals to preserve traditional levels of food production, that had resulted from plant collection.

In Nubia the people long practiced agriculture. In 17000 B.C the people at Tushka were cultivating barley. The farmers at Tushka were the Anu people who first took civilization to Egypt and Mesopotamia.

At Kadero, a Proto-Saharan site in the Sudan we find that by 3310 B.C.,sorghum and millet was being cultivated.In Northwest Africa rice was being cultivated by 3000 B.C.

Land of cultivation was called *ga(n), in Proto-Saharan. Barren land near water that was cultivatable was called PS:*de(n)/di(n). The mainstay plant collected by the Proto-Saharans was millet and or sorghum. They took

this crop with them to Asia. The Proto-Saharans called their grain *se. The word for cultivate was PS:*be. They used the hoe PS:* pari, to cultivate the land. In addition they had dogs PS: *ur-, to help them hunt and watch over their domesticated stock.

Animal Domestication

The Proto-Saharans had a mobile life style and cattle was the mainstay domesticate. Much of the evidence relating to this pastoral way of life comes from the discovery of cattle bones at excavated sites in the Sahara, and the rock drawings of cattle found at many of these sites.

Bones discovered at desert sites inhabited between 7000-2500 B.C.,indicate that residents here not only farmed but herded sheep, goats and cattle, when the Sahara blossomed.

Animal domestication in much of the Saharan zone came in response to the decline in resources around lakes and river valleys after 5000 BC when the Sahara entered a dry phase.(McIntosh 1980) The Proto-Saharans probably domesticated sheep and goats initially, and supplemented these animals with

cattle. (Camps 1974) The Proto-Saharans called the sheep *kari.

A major Proto-Saharan site was Tadrart Acacus (9500-8500 B.C.). Here the people were reliant on pastoralism by 4000 B.C. They herded goat/sheep.








The horse was known to the Proto-Saharans. This view is supported by the archaeological evidence which indicates the remains of a small stature horse in North Africa, and its presence in Egyptian hieroglyph. In the hieroglyph the large Egyptian horse was called sesem, while the small Egyptian horse was called nefer. The term nefer, is analogous to PS *par.

The horse was just as common to Upper Egypt as in Nubia. This is supported by the fact that in Thebes as early as the 18th Dynasty Thebans rode horses bareback. They could not have got the horse from the Hyksos,because this group of Asians never conquered Thebes. Moreover, the appearance of Egyptians on horseback on the paintings found in the tomb of Menena, and the horse and rider in painted wood, dating to the early 18th Dynasty testify to the horsemanship of the Egyptians. In addition horses are depicted in the rock art of Nubia.

During the Neolithic Subpluvial (ca. 7000-6000 B.C.), farming and herding were practiced by the Proto-Saharans in the green savannas of the Sahara. Migrating Proto-Saharans probably remnants of the future Egyptians took domesticated cattle into the Nile Valley.(Hoffman 1979:102) These pastoral people moved from the South into the Nile Valley, not from the Southwestern part of Asia into the Nile Valley.

The early Proto-Saharans made adequate uses of local game and plant life, and they established permanent and seasonal settlements around well stocked fishing holes. The wanderings of this hearty folk were dictated by the varying climatic conditions found in Middle Africa. Hoffman(l979:218) commenting on the role of the Proto-Saharans in the founding of Egypt observed that," A exploration of the Western Desert (also known as the Libyan Desert, or more generally, the Sahara) proceeds at an ever quickening pace, it is now apparent that the despised foreigners of Egypt's desert frontiers comprised a major areal tradition roughly comparable to those of Upper and Lower Egypt. Paradoxically, it was this desert tradition and not those of the Nile Valley that contributed to pre-historic Egypt those critical innovations like farming, cattle pastoralism, and long-distance trade that led to groundwork for her precocious civilization".

Variations in the weather patterns of Middle Africa forced the people to move from one area to the other depending on the environmental conditions resulting from changes in the climate. The first major migration of the Proto-Saharans from the nuclear Southern Sahara region occurred around 5200 B.C., when they began to move from the central Sahara,into the southern Sahara, and northwest Africa, back into Nubia. Beginning around 4200 B.C. the Sahara began to dry up. Many migrates fled the increasing harsh environment to settle much of West Africa,and Nubia , Equatorial Africa, and much of the Niger Valley at this time was probably still a forest zone.

For much of the African Aqualithic the Nile Valley was a swampy area.After the end of the European glacial period there was a decrease in the rainfall of the Sahara. This made the Nile Valley an attractive area of settlement for many Proto-Saharans, because as the Sahara became more arid the Nile Valley changed from a swampy hostile environment to one quite pleasant and habitable.

Due the decreased habitability of the Sahara, and the settlement of many Proto-Saharan populations in the choice areas of Middle Africa, which were not covered with forest or swampy areas where sickness was rampant, after 3500 B.C. many Proto-Saharans began to migrate out of the Sahara into Europe, Asia, and after 2000 B.C. the Americas.

To settle new areas the Proto-Saharans used their ability as navigators to transport entire tribes from Africa to Asia and Europe. The vessels of the Proto-Saharans were similar to the Egyptian style boats, as indicated by the boat depicted in the Sahara at Tin Tazarift.

The advent of hyperaridity led to the collapse of the Saharan culture. High population density, and the resulting need for a reliable food supply forced the Proto-Saharans to migrate out of the Sahara into other parts of Africa, Asia and Europe. The first group to migrate out of the Proto-Sahara was the Elamites and Sumerians.

The Nile Valley was already settled by the Proto-Egyptians and the A-Group people of Ta-Seti, so the Proto-Sumerians migrated into Mesopotamia while the Elamites made their way to Iran. These groups arrived in these areas by sea. They commenced to settle in Mesopotamia many cities formerly

settled by the Anu people, who had fled these cities as a result of the great flood after 4000 B.C.

The linguistic evidenced shows that the Elamites were basically a mixed group speaking Dravidian and Manding languages. These Proto-Manding and Proto-Dravidian elements migrated across the Zagros Mountains into Central Asia and China after 3000 B.C. Remnants of these Kushites made their way into the Indus Valley.

The Dravidian people of South India are the result of possibly two migrations from Africa into the Indus Valley and India. The Proto-Dravidians were probably remnants of the Proto-Saharan herders who occupied the central and southern Sahara until 2400 B.C., when hyperaridity began to dry up lakes, and cattle herding was more difficult. (Winters 1985,1989,1990)

Up until 2500 B.C., most of the Proto-Manding that had not made the migration to Iran were living in the Western Desert and the southern Sahara. This is supported by the archaeological evidence that indicates that the Sahelian and Sudanic zones were uninhabited by herders before 2500 B.C.(McIntosh and McIntosh 1981) After 2400 BC remnants of the Manding lived in Libya and began to settle Crete. The other major Manding sites were at Karkarichinkat which was occupied until 2000 B.C. By 1500 BC the Proto-Manding lived in the Tichitt region.

The cultural and ethnic affinities of the Proto-Saharans encouraged the development of well organized trade relations between these groups in Africa and Asia. From the 4th Millennium through the 3rd Millennium B.C. an extensive trade network connected the Kushites/Proto-Saharans from Egypt to

the Indus Valley, Iran and West Asia. Homer alluded to the Kushite diaspora when he wrote: "A race divided, whom the sloping rays, the rising and the setting sun surveys".

Archaeologists have found vessels from IVBI workshop at Tepe Yahya, in West Asia that have a uniform shape and design. This style of vessel is distributed from Egypt to Soviet Uzbekistan and the Indus Valley. These intercultural style vessels show clear parallels between Egyptian,Iranian, Sumerian and the Indus valley civilization.

The discovery of Intercultural style vessels from Susa (in Iran),Sumerian, Egyptian and Indus Valley sites suggest a shared ideological identity among these people. In fact the appearance of shared iconographic symbols and beliefs within diverse areas suggest cultural and ethnic unity among the people practicing these cultures. The common naturalistic motifs shared by the major civilizations include, writing (symbols), combatant snakes, the scorpion, bull and etc. This evidence of cultural unity is explained by the origin of these people in the Proto-Sahara.

The inhabitants of the Fezzan were roundheaded Africans. The cultural characteristics of the Fezzanese were analogous to C-Group culture items and the people of Ta-Seti . The C-Group people occupied the Sudan and Fezzan regions between 3700-1300 BC. (Jelinek 1985)

The inhabitants of Libya were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South. (Diop 1986) A Tehenu

personage is depicted on Amratian period pottery.(Farid 1985 ,p. 84) The Tehenu wore pointed beard, phallic-sheath and feathers on their head.

There are similarities between Egyptian and Saharan motifs (Farid,1985). It was in the Sahara that we find the first evidence of agriculture, animal domestication and weaving.(Farid 1985, p.82) This highland region is the Kemites "Mountain of the Moons " region, the area from which the civilization and goods of Kem, originated.

The rock art of the Saharan Highlands support the Egyptian traditions that in ancient times they lived in the Mountains of the Moon. The Predynastic Egyptian mobiliar art and the Saharan rock art share many common themes including, characteristic boats (Farid 1985,p. 82), men with feathers on their head (Petrie 1921,pl. xvlll,fig.74; Raphael 1947, pl.xxiv, fig.10; Vandier 1952, p.285, fig. 192), false tail hanging from the waist (Vandier 1952, p.353;Farid 1985,p.83; Winkler 1938,I, pl.xxlll) and the phallic sheath (Vandier 1952, p.353; Winkler 1938,I , pl.xvlll,xx, xxlll).

The Temehus or C-Group people began to settle Kush around 2200 BC. The kings of Kush had their capital at Kerma, in Dongola and a sedentary center on Sai Island. The same pottery found at

Kerma is also present in Libya especially the Fezzan.

The C-Group founded the Kerma dynasty of Kush. Diop noted that the "earliest substratum of the Libyan population was a black population from the south Sahara". Kerma was first inhabited in the 4th millennium BC. (Bonnet 1986) By the 2nd millennium BC Kushites at kerma were already worshippers of Amon/Amun and they used a distinctive black-and-red ware. (Bonnet 1986; Winters 1985b,1991) Amon, later became a major god of the Egyptians during the 18th Dynasty.

Due to the appearence of aridity in the Mountains of the Moon the proto-Saharans migrated first into Nubia and thence into Kem. The Proto-Saharan origin of the Kemites explain the fact that the

Kushites were known for maintaing the most ancient traditions of the Kemites as proven when the XXVth Dynasty or Kushite Dynasty ruled ancient Egypt. Farid wrote that "To conclude, it seems that among predynastic foreign relations, the [Proto-] Saharians were the first to have significant contact with the Nile Valley, and even formed a part of the predynastic population". (emphasis author)

The ancestors of the Kemites originally lived in Nubia. The Nubian origin of Egyptian civilization is supported by the discovery of artifacts by archaeologists from the Oriental Institute at Qustul. On a stone incense burner found at Qustul we find a palace facde, a crowned King sitting on a throne in a boat, with a royal standard placed before the King and hovering above him, the falcon god Horus. The white crown on this Qustul king was later worn by the rulers of Upper Egypt.

The Qustul site was situated in a country called Ta-Seti. The name Ta-Seti means "Land of the Bow". Ta-Seti was the name given to Nubia and a southern nome of k Kem.

The Qustul incense burner indicates that the unification of Nubia preceeded that of Egypt. The Ta-Seti had a rich culture at Qustul. Qustul Cemetery L had tombs that equaled or exceeded Kemite tombs of the First Dynasty of Egypt. The A-Group people were called Steu 'bowmen'.

The Steu had the same funeral customs, pottery, musical instruments and related artifacts of the Egyptians. Williams (1987, p.173,182) believes that the Qustul Pharoahs are the Egyptian Rulers referred to as the Red Crown rulers in ancient Egyptian documents.

Dr. Williams (1987) gave six reasons why he believes that the Steu of Qustul founded Kemite civilization:

1. Direct progression of royal complex designs from

Qustul to Hierakonpolis to Abydos.

2. Egyptian objects in Naqada III a-b tombs

3. No royal tombs in Lower and Upper Egypt.

4. Pharoanic monuments that refer to conflict in Upper


5. Inscriptions of the ruler Pe-Hor, are older than

Iry-Hor of Abydos.

6. The ten rulers of Qustul, one at Hierakonpolis and

three at Abydos corresponds to the "historical"

kings of late Naqada period.

In summary , the Qustul material and the Saharan rock art discussed earlier support the archaeological and historical evidence that Black Africans founded the Saharan civilization. Clearly, Egyptian civilization moved from the South, northward, first from the Mountains

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