Ureters - tubes that go from the kidney to the bladder.
Nephrons - where the filtration occurs in the kidneys. Each kidney has about 1 million nephrons. As they remove waste products and extra water, they return chemical the body needs. (sodium, phosphorus, and potassium)
Erythropoietin - a hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells.
Renin - a hormone produced by the kidney that regulates blood pressure.
Active Form of Vitamin D - a hormone produced by the kidney that helps control the calcium balance in the body and maintains healthy bones.
Bilateral - one on each side.
Dys - not normal.
Plasia - to do with growth, development and changability.
Renal Agenesis - no kidney at all.
ESRD - patients need some type of renal replacement therapy- dialysis or transplant. Medicare says this is at less than 10%.
CRF - anything higher than ESRD which requires some kind of medical management.
Renal Insufficiency - diminished renal function, but no biochemical derangements ofher than a somewhat elevated BUN and Creatinine.
Polyuric - a lot of urine being made

KIDNEY DISEASES - can include congenital malformations (birth defects), obstructions of the urinary tract, and disease of the kidney tissue itself.

PUV (Posterior Urethral Valve Obstruction) - a narrowing or obstruction of the urethra.
FH (Fetal Hydronephrosis) - a dilation or enlargement of one or both of a fetus' kidneys due to an abnormality in the  developing urinary tract.
PKD (Polycystic Kidney Disease) - the presence of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. The cysts can replace much of the mass of the kidneys and lead to kidney failure. Some forms are  inherited.
MKD (Multicystic Kidney Disease) - a disease in which developmentally abnormal kidneys (dysplastic kidney) grow large cysts and eventually stop functioning. Although PKD always affects  both  kidneys, MKD frequently affects only one.
RTA (Renal Tubular Acidosis) - A condition in which the kidneys do not properly regulate the amount of acid in the body.
WT (Wilm's Tumor) - A type of childhood cancer that involves the kidney.
Nephritis - An inflammation or infection of the filtering units of the kidney.
Nephrosis - A change in nephrons that is not inflammatory.
NS (Nephrotic Syndrome) - When large amounts of protein are lost from the body through urine, usually as a result of nephrosis.
MCNS (Minimal Change Nephrotic Symdrome) -
MesGPN -
VUR (Vesicouretal Reflux) - when the mechanism that prevents urine from backing up from the bladder to the kidneys does not develop or function properly.
Polyuric Renal Failure (PRF) - the kidneys cannot effectively clean the blood, but can still make a lot of diluted urine.
ATN (Acute Tubular Necrosis) - a usually reversible condition that decreases renal function because the cells lining the tubules
have died due to some insult, usually inadequate blood flow or oxygen.
IGA Nephropathy - is a type of glomerulonephritis related to the immune system and its interaction with the kidneys. It is similar to:
MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) - is also a disesea related to the immune system and its interaction with the kidneys. Some of the same treatments work for both. There is variation within each disease in the pattern of abnormality seen in the kidney and the clinical course.
Transplant Nephropathy - scarring of the transplanted kidney often with progressive decrease in function. Some cases can have a specific cause for scarring some have non-specific causes.


Creatinine Clearanc
e - involves collecting urine over a 24 hour period. It is the rate that creatinine is excreted by the kidneys.
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen
) - common blood level test that is used to monitor kidney function. Urea is a product of protein metabolism and when it is too high, a person has uremia.
e - common blood level test that is used to monitor kidney function. It is usually expressed in mg/dl. To convert to mg/dl from mcgmol/L, mulitply by 0.0113. To convert the other way, mulitply by 88.4.
d - painless and requiring no x-ray exposure or special preparation, a renal ultrasound shows details of the anatomy of the kidneys and bladder. It can rule out or diagnose obstructions.
CT (Computerized Tomography
) - A CT scan is better than ultasounc for finding kidney stones and revealing the anatomy.
RNS (Renal Nuclear Scan
) - involves having special radioactive material injected into a vein. The dose is similar to an xray. The scan shows how the kidneys compare to each other in shape, size, & function. It can also detect scarring or other evidence or recuttent or chronic kidney function.
y - is not commonly performed but can detect bladder abnormalities by inserting a small fiberoptic videoscope into the bladder.
VCUG (Voiding Cystourethrogram
) - is used to evaluate the bladder and the ureters. This procedure involves putting dye into the bladder to see whether there is an obstruction or abnormal back flow of urine when a child urinates (VUR).
Plasma Pheresi
s - like hemodialysis except that it is directed to the liquid part of the blood, not the blood cells. Blood is removed using a large hemodialysis catheter, passes throught a machine and the plasma removed, and fresh plasma is returned along with the individual's blod cells. Used to treat FSGS in transplanted kidneys. Some slight use among steroid resistant FSGS in native kidneys.
GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate)
-  a measure of kidney function.
Biopsy (for NS disease) - The purpose of a biopsy in this diease is to try to answer these questions: 1). Are there scars and is there enough damage that End Stage disease is likely long-term? 2). Is there cyclosporine toxicity? Which can help guide you about raising or lowering the dose. 3). Is it pristine minimal change disease that looks like there may still bea good chance of permanent remission?


Indocin- a prostaglandin inhibitor and prostaglandins are involved in controling renal blood flow. It is similar to ibuprofen and is one reason why some people with renal disease are advised to limit ibuprofen inta