1Zıyyadin Göyüshov, "Häsän bay Mälikov Zärdabı," Häsän bay Zärdabı: Sächilmish Äsärläri (Azärbayjan Dowlät Näshrıyyätı, Baku, 1960), p. 8, which refers to an apparently unpublished memoir of him by his widow, Hänifä Khanim. We are told that he was Sunni in Tad Swietochowski's "Äkinjı, 1875-1877. The Rise of the Azerbaijani Press and Public Debates in the Readers' Correspondence," Herzog, Motika, Pistor-Hatam (ed.), Presse und Offentlichtkeit im Nahen Osten (Heidelberg, Heidelberger Orientverl., 1995), p. 179.

2Häyat, December 28, 1905 and January 3, 1906, I:129 and II:2. I have taken the quotations from Häyat from the Cyrillic edition of published in Z. B. Goyushov, Häsän bay Zärdabı: Sächilmish Äsärläri.

3Äkinjı, March 17, 1877, III:6, "Dakhelıyyä" (roughly, editorial). All dates in the citations are from the old Russian calander. All quotations from Äkinjı are taken from the Cyrillic edition published in Turan Häsänzada and `Äzız Mırähmädov, Äkinjı (1875-55) (Azärnäshr, Baku, 1979).

Of course, such beys would not give any thoughts to the well-being of the people. They needed money to busy themselves with pleasures and the people, for their part, had to be like animals to be ruled over for the sake of their rule. Since learning was bitter to these fellows, the only thing they got out of these schools was to change their customs, i.e., their way of eating, drinking, dressing, etc., into the ways of foreigners, and remained completely ignorant of learning.
4See the news column in Äkinjı, January 18, 1877, III:2 and after. See also the editorial in July 21, 1877, III:15.

5Häyat, January 6, 1906, II:5.

6Häyat, December 28, 1905 and January 3, 1906, I:129 and II:2.

7Häyat, December 10, 1905, I:116.

8Häyat, December 21 and 23, 1905, I:123 and 125.

9May 12, 1877, III:10. See also his poem of June 11, 1876, II:11.

10June 23, 1878, III:13.

11This was written after the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war.

12May 27, 1876, II:10.

13November 6, 1876, II:21.

14July 25, 1876, II:14. See also November 6, 1876, II:21.

15Häyat, December 28, 1905 and January 3, 1906, I:129 and II:2.

16War broke out April 12; permission to print these telegrams was announced in an editorial, August 18, 1877, III:17.

17Häyat, loc. cit.

18See, e.g., October 8, 1876, II:19.

19July 25, 1876, II:14.

20November 20, 1876, II:22.

21March 17, 1877, III:6.

22In Persian.

23September 22, 1876, II:18.

24By Äkinjı regular Ähsän ül-Qäva'ed, November 20, 1876, II:22.

25May 13, 1876, III:9.

26Letter, February 1877 (no date), III:3.

27Letter, May 26, 1877, III:11.

28Editorial, July 25, 1876, II:14. It should be noted that the Armenians are refered to as hamchesm, which can mean "rival." A letter from Äkinjı regular Äsgär Goranı on the same theme says that the Caucasian Armenians have four gazettes and four journals. (December 22, 1876, II:24.)

These articles were written under conditions of relatively low tension between Armenian and Muslim. It seems to have survived the communal slaughter of 1905; he favorably compares Armenian didactic and patriotic poetry with the poetry of their Muslim neighbors.

29See below.

30Häyat, December 28, 1905 and January 3, 1906, I:129 and II:2.

31See the news item in December 22, 1876, II:24.

32February 15, 1876, II:3.

33See the letter from Rasht in July 17, 1877, III:14.

34July 25, 1876, II:14. See also the letter by a "Friend of Iran" which appeared in the issue of August 23, 1876, II:16, which elaborates on this satire.

35These pomposities, extreme even by contemporary Iranian standards, were clearly meant to be satirical.

36This, at a time of massive crop failures and apalling suffering in northern Iran.

37In Persian.

38March 15, 1876, II:5.

39January 18, 1877, III:2.

40July 22, 1875, I:1,

41Letter, October 5, 1875, I:6, letter, November 18, , I:9,

42October 22, 1876, II:20, citing Pravitelstvenni Vestnik, citing the London Times.

43November 20, 1876, II:22, citing Birzhevoi Vedomosti.

44December 22, 1876, II:24, citing Peterburgski Vedomosti.On the other hand, a dispatch from Tehran reports that the Iranian government is following Ottoman affairs very closely but in the event of war, it has no intentions of seizing Baghdad. (January 4, 1877, III:1) At the very least, such a denial points to the existence of widespread suspicions of Iran's intentions.

45 September 1, 1877, III:18.

46April 14, 1877, III:8. It should be noted that this was the consul whom Zein ol-`Abedin Maraghe'i would excoriate in his Seyahatnameye Ebrahim Bey.

47Editorial, March 29, 1876, II:6.

48June 11, 1876, II:11. Säyyid `Äzım's indifference to the difference between Muslim and Russian was too much for the editor, who, while complimenting him on his eloquence, added that "Man must acquire learning to be a human and accept Islamic qualities."

49Häyat, January 6, 1906, II:5.

50Editorial, June 11, 1876, II:11.

51Häyat, December 13, 1905, I:117.

52Häyat, November 25 and December 8, 1905, I:107 and 115.

53Häyat, December 28, 1905 and January 3, 1906, I:129 and II:2.

54This issue is the subject of Kheirülla Mämmädöv, Äkinjıdän Mülla Näsräddinä qädär (Yäzichi, Baku, 1987). The various opinions on the matter are summarized in pp. 5-6.

55Häyat, January 11, 1906, II:9.

56The reader cannot help but not that the editor of Häsän bay Zärdabı: Sächilmish Äsärläri felt compelled to translate the title of the piece from the sonorous Perisanized Arabic Ittihad-i Lisan to Dil Birliji.

57Häyat, January 13, 1906, II:12.

58Zıyyadin Göyüshov, Introduction, Häsän bay Zärdabı: Sächilmish Äsärläri, p. 27, which shows a photograph of a massive funeral procession for Häsän bey.

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