Chapter -V  Resources Of Pakistan

Q.1 What kind of soil are are found in Pakistan?

Q.2 Which are the well known kind of forests? What are their charachterstics?

Q.3 What is meant by Mineral resources? Name the Mineral Resources of Pakistan?

What kind of soils are found in Pakistan?

Definition :
  Land is a gift of nature as the agriculture depends on it. The upper layer of land which supports plant's growth is called soil.

Local Soil :
                    The soil formed in an area due to certain climatic changes is called local soil.

Alluvial Soil :
         The soil which is carried or shifted from one place to another under natural factors specially rivers is called transported  (or Alluvial Soil).

Diffrence of Soil :
                There is a diffrence in soil in every part of Pakistan. In various areas the formation of local rocks and mixing of vegetational components the colour of these areas and their soil have undergone changes.

North Eastern Soil :
                    The colour of North Eastern soil is reddish but it has changed to deep brownish colour due to inclusion of  vegetation.

North Western Soil :
       In the high plains of North Western Mountain regions rainfall is scanty and there is less vegetation therefore the colour of the soil is reddish.

Soil Of Upper Indus Plain:
   The soil of upper plains of Indus is of dry nature. It has more Calcium Carbonate and less vegetational constituents. This soil is usuallly found far away from the run of the rivers.

Hard Crust Soil :
                            The soil of the areas lying in mountainous vallys of Indus Basin i.e Jhelum, Gujrat, Rawalpindi and Sialkot is called Hard Crust Soil.

Soft Crust Soil:
             The soil of the eastern districts of the upper plain of Indus basin is called soft crust soil.

Sandy Crust Soil:
              The soil of Multan and Bahawalpur areas is called Sandy Crust Soil.

Soil of Thal and Cholistan :
   The soil found in Thal and Colistan desert areas is of yellow colour and comprises sand particles. It includes lime, phosphate, potassium and iron particles wich are the essential requisites of fertile soil.

Loamy Soil:
      In the Western parts of the lower plains of Indus basin, the soil is Loamy. It has more of lime, silt and sandy material. Its colour is reddish.

Soil of Nara and Thar Desert:
       The soil of Nara and Thar Desert is of yellowish colour.

Loess Soil:
     The soil found in the South West of Balochistan Plateau is no less fertile. Its colour is a bit reddish. I tis called Loess Soil.

Q.2 Which are the well known kind of forests? What are their charachterstics?

List of Points:-

*  Introduction
*      North and North-Western Mountainous Forests
*      Sub-Mountainous Forests
*      The Western Dry Mountainous Forests
*      The Riverine Forests
*      Canal Forests
*       Tidal Forests
* Conclusion

         The natural vegetation of any place comprises trees,shrubs,grass and herbs. It has great effect on its climate, land structure, soil and other physical conditions. Forests are generally found in the areas where there is high rainfall. Most of the forests exist in the plains but some are found on the mountain slopes as well.
 In Pakistan about 3.6% of the total area is under forests. Tis is much below the considered opinion of experts 20 to 25% of area is essential for the balanced economy and ecology of a country. The reason of small area of forests in Pakistan is shortage of rains. Secondly, most areas already covered with the forests in the past, have now been deforested to make for cultivation purposes.
 On the basis of climate, the forests of Pakistan can be classified into the following main groups:

(1) North and North-Western Mountainous Forests:-
 These are mostly found in Hazara, Murree, Dir, Swat and Chitral's mountainous region. Here evergreen coniferous forests are located in which fir, deodar and blue pine trees are well known. They grow generally on a height of 1000 to 4000 metres above the sea-level. Some broad leaf species grow on the altitude of lower than 1000 metres. These include oak, maple, birch, walnut and chestnut. The wood got from these forests is used for furniture and construction of houses.

(2) Sub-Mountainous Forests:
These forests grow at a height of 1000 metres above the sea-level. They are found in Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mardan and Kohat districts. They consist of phulahi, kahu, jand and blackberry. The wood of these trees is hard and is used as fuel and for construction work.

(3) The Western Dry Mountainous Forests :-

The region has an arid climate and there are no green forests here Only stunted trees and thorny bushes grow. In Ziarat grow juniper trees which are very useful.

(4) The Riverine Forests: -

The forests which are located along the Indus river and its eastern tributaries are locally called 'Bela' (Riverine forests). These are regarded very important in Sindh. Both sides of the forests have the area of depression. These forests are inundated by floods. Most important trees found in these forests are shisham and acacia (kikar or babur).

(5) Canal Forests:-

In the plains of Punjab and Sindh forests are grown at some places with the help of irrigation. In Punjab Chhanga-Manga, Wan-Bachran and Chicawatni forests are worth mentioning. Changa-Manga forests is very famous. This is an artificial forest spread over 12500 acres which yielding fuel and construction wood. In Sindh also similar forests have been planted at many places. On canal banks, trees have been planted. They include acacia, mulberry and shisham trees.

(6) Tidal Forests:-

Due to rise and fall of tides, the coastal area of the lower Sindh is marshy or swampy. The mangrove trees grow in abundance here. The trees are of small height, from which fuel wood is obtained. It is also used as fodder for camels.
 During the last few years the fuel wood obtained from the forests of Pakistan has been more than 450,000 cubic metres annually. During the same period nearly 200,000 cubic metres of timber for house building has been obtained per annum. Gum, Ephedra and Mazri have been produced in sufficient quantity beside wood. Ephedra is used in cough medicines. Its factory is at Quetta. Mats and baskets are made from Mazri.

  The forests have always attracted mankind for its beauty and advantages. In summer forests are veryhelpful to decrease the intensity of heat. There is coolness under the shade of trees. In winter forests protect us from cold winds. They also protect man, animals and agricultural crops against the dangerous stormy winds. Because of the forests the snow on the hill tops melt very slowly, the fertility of soil remains intact. The forest paly a very important role in balancing the atmosphere. With the protection of forests the danger of floods in the rivers reduced.
      Unfortunately we do not have a great number of forests in Pakistan but if we all try to grow grants in our surroundings it will be too good for us and the atmosphere will surel be quite pleseant.

Q.3 What is meant by Mineral resources? Name the Mineral Resources of Pakistan?

List of points:-

 Pakistan is rich in mineral resources. All these minerals play a very important role in the industrial development of a country. The country blessed with mineral wealth makes a very rapid progress in the field of economics and industry.
        Fortunately Almighty Allah blessed Pakistan with all important and precious minerals. 85% of Pakistan is coverd with crusty rocks specially with lime rocks. At some places there are sand stores and at few places shells are in great number. The north eastern Balochistan, the mountain areas of N.W.F.P and the salt ranges possess fire rocks as well.
   The important mineral resources of Pakistan are :-

Mineral Oil:-

1. Oil has a very significant value in this age of industry.
2. It is used in factories and mills.
3. The transport system also depends upon it.
4. It is of domestic use also.

Places found at:-
 New oil fields have been discoverd in the southern part of Hyderabad and Badin districts. The places in Pakistan from where oil is obtained are :-

There is a strong possibility that we may find oil reserviors in the sea near our coastal areas.

 Till recently the discovery of oil in Pakistan was not encouraging. We used to produce only 8% of our requirement. Although there has been an increase in the production of oil over previous years. The total yearly production of oil in the country in 1981-82 was 3.96 million barrels, in 1982-83 it increased to 4.73 million barrels. By August 1985 the total daily production of oil reached up to 40,000 barrels and at present it is more than 60,000 barrels bringing the annual production of oil from diffrent oil fields of the country to more than 2055 million barrels.

Natural Gas :-


1. Natural gas is used for domestic purposes.
2. It is also used in industries.
3. A little part of transport system depends on natural gas.

Places found at:-
 The places in Pakistan from where gas is obtained include Sui, Uch, Khairpur, Mizrani, Bari, Sandak, Dhodak, Pir Koh, Dhullian, Meyal, Murree, Badin, Golarchi and Turk.

 In 1952 at Sui in Dera Bugti area of Balochistan natural gas in large quantity was discoverd. Pakistan meets 35% of her energy requirements with the natural gas.


The coal is not of good quality that is why it is used in kilns, ceramic industries, ginning mills and for producing thermal electricity.

Places found at:-
 There are big deposits of coal at three places in Pakistan. (1)The Salt Ranges (2) North Eastern Balochistan (3) The Lower Indus Valley. The biggest coal mine is in the Salt Range in Makarwal. Coal is also dug from Dandot and Pidh in the same area. In the north eastern Balochistan there are mines at Khost, Shahrag, Harnai, So, Degari, Shirin Aab, Bolan and Much areas. The Lower Sindh areas mines at Jhimpir, Meting Lakhra and Thar are important.

 The annual coal production in Pakistan is about two metric tonnes.

Iron Ore:-

1. Iron Ore is used for making steel.

Places found at:-
 Iron Ore deposits in Pakistan have been discoverd at Kalabagh, Makarwal, Chitral, Hazara, Khuzdar, Chilghazi, Muslim Bagh, Nok Kundi, Chaghi etc.

 Presently the Iron Ore discoverd in Pakistan is not enough to meet our national requirements.


1. It is used for eating.
2. Floors are made from it.

Places found at:-
 The largest mine is at Khewra. Salt is also obtained from Warcha (district Khushab), Kalabagh ( disrict Mianwali), Bahadur Khel and Karak. Salt is also obtained from sea water at Maripur (Karachi) and coast of Makran.

 There are vast deposits of mineral salts in our country which are among big salt deposits of the world.


1. It is a metal which si used in making steel.
2. Foriegn exchange is also earned by it's export.
3. Sometime it is also used for making coins.

Places found at:-
 It's deposits are at Muslim Bagh, Chaghi, Kharan (Balochistan), Malakand, Mohmand and Northern Waziristan (N.W.F.P).

 Pakistan is number one producer of chromite in the world.


1. It is used for making cement, chemical fertilizers and Plaster of Paris.
2. It is also used in other countless small industries.

Places found at:-
 The areas from where it is obtained include the district of Jhelum, Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Sibbi, Loralai and Kohat. Its limited deposits are also found in Bahawalpur, Dadu, Thar and Dera Ismail Khan disrticts.

 Its large deposits are deposited in Pakistan.


1. It is used in the manufacture of electrical goods particularly wires.
2. In olden days it was used for making coins and utensils.

Places found at:-
 The deposits of copper are discoverd at various places in Balochistan and N.W.F.P. The most of them are at Sandak and Amori in the district of Chaghi (Balochistan).

 The deposits of copper are discoverd at various places in Balochistan and N.W.F.P.


1. It is used for making cement, ceramics and in other related industries.
2. It's main use is in the cement industry.
3. Limestone is also used in construction work.

Places found at:-
 Limestone is found at Wah, Dandot, Daud Khel, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi.

 The deposits of limestone is found in sufficient quantity in our country.


1. It is usde for flooring of buildings and fixed at walls for beautification.
2. Multicolor marble is in great demand in foriegn countries so ti is exported also.

Places found at :-
 The best marble is found at Mulla Gori in Khyber agency. Moreover marble is also found at Swabi(Mardan), Nowshera, Swat, Dir, Hazara, Gilgit and Chaghi areas.

 Marble of several kind at several places are found in our country.

Fire Clay :-

1. Strong bricks are made out of it which are generally used for making ovens for melting steel.
2. Pottery, tiles and sanitary items are manufactured by this clay.

Places found at:-
 It's deposits are at Swat, Hazara and Malakand areas in N.W.F.P and Nagar Parkar in Sindh. Its deposits are found in sufficient quantity in Salt Range and Kala Chitta Hills.

 It is found in sufficient quantity in Pakistan.


1. It is used in chemical industry.
2. It is also used for purification of water.

Places found at:-
 It's deposits are mainly found in Balochistan. Sulphur is also obtained from the disticts of Mardan and Jacobabad.

 It is found in large quantiy in our country.

  Allah has graciously blessed us with mineral resources. If we do not use them wisely, carefully and proper planning these deposits may be consumed very soon. It is our national duty to save these minerals and energy resources from unnessecary use and wastage. Moreover we should endeavour to explore new resources because they will be badly needed to implement our development plans. We can thus ensure an attractive prosperous future for coming generations.