HUMANS AND NEANDERTARS WERE CONTEMPORARY
(Last Review 17 February, 2004)
T. C. Mitchell, from “The British Museum” stated regarding giants: “no archaeological remains have been recovered which throw any light on this question, unless the presence of Neanderthal skeletons in the caves of Mount Carmel are considered to do so" ("Giant", in: The New Bible Dictionary, 1962 (1st ed.) and 1982 (2nd ed.), p. 466, Eerdmans, Mich.).
J. F. Douglas, the PhD British Editorial Associate of Christianity Today, Formerly Librarian of the Tyndale House, Cambridge, and the organizing editor of The New Bible Dictionary stated, “Goliath may have descended from that remnant of the Rephaim which, after having been scattered by the Ammonites (Dt. 2:20,21; 2 Sa. 21:22), took refuge with the Philistines. For discussion of his origin, see G. A. Wainwright, ‘Early Philistine History’, VT, IX, 1959, pp. 79 f. His height is given as ‘six cubits and a span’, i.e., 10 ½ feet, if the cubit is understood as 21 inches. That this, thought an unusual, is not an impossible phenomenon, is confirmed by the discovery in Palestine of human skeletons of similar stature and of roughly the same period” ("Goliath", in: The New Bible Dictionary, 1962 (1st ed.) and 1982 (2nd ed.), p. 481, Eerdmans, Mich., the Spanish version by: Ediciones Certeza, 1991 (basada en la de 1982 (2nda edic.), Chile).
J. M. Abreu, New Testament Teacher in the Latin American Biblical Seminary, San Jose, wrote, “The human skeletons from the same period and that have been found in the philistine region reveal populations of giants similar to Goliath” [“Las osamentas humanas provenientes del mismo período y halladas en la zona filistea revelan poblaciones de gigantes semejantes a Goliat”] (“Goliat”, Diccionario Ilustrado de la Biblia (in Spanish), 1977, p. 256, Editorial Caribe, Colombia).
Read the next description of "Goliath" provided by Lindahl: “Neandertals were about 30% larger than an average modern man and of great muscular strength. They had low foreheads, protruding brows, and large noses with broad nostrils and were meat eaters” (Lindahl, T., Facts and Artifacts of Ancient DNA, 1997, Cell, Vol. 90, 1-3).
“The 17-th century Theologian, Joachem Neander strolled the valley through of the Dussel River so often that the valley was named after him. "Tal" in German means " valley". The "old German" is "thal" and when pronounced the "h" is --- that's right, silent. Neanderthal first official name was Homo antiquus” … In the year 1856 the great British anatomist, Richard Owen addressed the Royal Institution of Great Britain… about the comparative differences between humans and apes. One of the key anatomical differences was the ape's very prominent eyebrow ridge... in the very next year near the Dussel River in Germany, a skullcap and some limb bones were discovered. The skullcap appeared to be human except for the especially heavy eyebrow ridges… Professor Hermann Schaafhausen, from the University of Bonn studied the bones and proposed they represented an ancient race of humans probably even primitive and barbaric...” (“Will The Real Neandertal Please Stand Up”, By Robert Harsh, Online edition).
The clear difference of the eyebrow region between Neandertals and humans was carefully described since 1908 (Cunningham, D.J. The evolution of the eyebrow region of the forehead, with special reference to the excessive supraorbital development in the Neanderthal race, 1908, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 46, 243-310).
The evolutionist Thomas Huxley declared, regarding Neandertals, "it can in no sense be regarded as the intermediate between Man and the Apes" (Man's Place in Nature, p. 156).
“It is important to note that the dating of these samples has been problematic, [more recent] specimens [are] not covered by the 14C and potassium-argon dating techniques, dates estimated for have been [also] estimated using the newly developed luminescence and electron spin resonance techniques [and] must be regarded as estimates, at best”, “Neanderthal man was every bit as intelligent as we are today” (Ashley Montagu, M. F. Man: His First Million Years, 2nd edition. Signet Science Library, 1962. p. 58).
The errors in the calculation of "great antiquity" for Neandertal bones that were buried side by side with humans underlies in the dating methodologies used. All "dating" systems are based in imaginary assumptions of its inventors, and of course none of them includes in their equation the presence of water covering all earth, which can even explain the existence of petrified forests (it is amazing that the wood was able to be transformed in precious stone, i.e., agate. I think that on reproducing the conditions of the flood, i.e. water, dead bodies and its molecules flowing loose [every breathing being was drowned], time underwater [for the still living sap of the trees to suck on such substances, remember the childish experiment of red ink in water being absorbed by a leave and taking the red color on all its veins?], high pressures, freezing, etc).
Denton (see below) has provided a good critique regarding the failure of dating methodologies.
The Neandertals are not humans according to anatomy.
Mitochondrian Neandertal DNA has been recovered from their bones and analyzed and the conclusion that has been set thus far is that that DNA does not match humans:
“Neandertals seem to have been more similar to modern humans than to apes in having a low species-wide mtDNA diversity. In the case of humans, the low genetic diversity seen in both mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences is likely to be the result of a rapid population expansion from a population of small size, often assumed to have been made possible by use of a complex language” (Krings, A view of Neandertal genetic diversity, 2000, Nature Genetics vol. 26, 144-146).
"The relationship between Neanderthals and humans remains enigmatic… Details of the Mezmaiskaya Cave (in the northern Caucasus) sequence (of DNA from the mitochondria) also support the suggestion that there was no contribution of Neandertals to the pool of mitochondrial genes in modern human populations" (Höss, M., Ancient DNA Neanderthal population genetics2000, Nature, 404:453-454).
The mtDNA of Neandertals shows to be different when compared with humans, having frequent insertions and deletions of nucleotides. It has been taken mainly from mitochondrial hypervariable regions I and II sequences
Mitochondrial DNA is a maternal inherited DNA only transmitted from female to female. One author suggested that we need to obtain “a frozen Neanderthal corpse; perhaps one disgorged by a melting glacier” (Haywood, J. The Illustrated History of Early Man, 1995, PRC Publishing Ltd. Pp: 34-41).
Also a study dealing with extracts of nuclear DNA, researchers hybridized DNA from two European Neanderthals with DNA from the humerus of an anatomically modern human from the Stetten (Vogelherd) cave site (DNA also hybridized with additional control samples). The two Neanderthal samples always yielded hybridization signals similar to each other differing from the signal of the Stetten early modern human by at least a factor of two. These results led the researchers to conclude that Neanderthals and early modern Europeans belonged to separate species (Scholz M. L., et al, Genomic differentiation of Neanderthals and anatomically modern man allows a fossil-DNA-based classification of morphologically indistinguishable hominid bones, 2000, American Journal of Human Genetics 66: 1927-1932). This Neandertal nuclear DNA plus all the mtDNA of Neandertal sequence differs markedly from our own, and show that Neandertals were less like us genetically compared with early modern humans of similar, or even greater antiquity than the Neandertal bones analyzed, as modern type humans were around on those regions explored, for a long time 'before' the Neandertals appeared.
A Neanderthal (Neandertal) partial skeleton was the first fossil hominid to be publicized. In 1856, limestone miners quarrying into a cave found parts of an unusual human skeleton in the Neander Valley (valley = “tal” or “thal” in 19th-century German). A nearly complete Neandertal skeleton was found in 1908 in the southwestern France (La Chapelle-aux-Saints), and Marcellin Boule was the first in representing those bones, that pertained to an old male arthritic Neandertal, as pertaining to a hairy, slouching, bent-kneed, hulking, and dim-witted brute, who shuffled with the bent-knee of an ape. Now we know that Neandertals walked with a normal upright gait. Another crippled skeleton was found in a cave at Shanidar in Iraq, his tooth wear shows that he used to chew hides, probably to soften them before making them into clothes. No body ornaments but red ocher has been found at some Neandertal sites. In succeeding years many Neandertal specimens have been found, not only in the German Neander Valley or in Iraq, but also in France, Spain, Italy, Israel etc.
Neandertals were decidedly more robust than humans, with very large muscle attachments on their bones (body bones heavy and thick and long bones of some specimens somewhat curved), indicating that he was powerfully muscled and probably twice as strong as an average modern human. Thick, heavy bones with markings of powerful muscles reveal a people capable of enormous exertion and endurance, for physically demanding lives as mighty and cunning hunters. Meat formed the main part of their diet. Neandertals hunted mammoth by stampeding them over cliffs or into bogs where they could be killed more easily. Many mammoths have been found perfectly preserved in permafrost in Siberia. However, Neandertals preferred smaller preys, and they were also cannibals (see below).
Only 10 percent of Neandertals appear to have lived beyond the age of 35 years old, however they grew up quickly and aged fast compared to modern humans.
Some Neanderthals like the one found in Altamira, Italy, have even been found upside down encased in stalactites, as an evidence of them being carried away by the flood described in the Bible.
The next is taken from John Denton, Neanderthal = Nephilim?, Nov. 2001, Research Paper 38, Online Edition:
The characteristics of Nephilim fit the scientists descriptions of the Neanderthal "a physically very strong, tough impressive race with larger joints, thicker bones, well muscled chests, long bodies, and shorter legs weighing approximately twenty pounds more than a modern human of equivalent height, regular Mr Universes… The scientists do not know what caused the extinction of the Neanderthal race but the ancient records do tell us what happened to cause the extinction of the Nephilim race, a massive deluvion flood, exterminating the entire race. The manuscripts shed further light on how this deluge occurred and how it would have affected the 14C build up in the atmosphere fitting the scientific facts found to date on the situation… the deluvian mechanism… provided the energy to create the tremendous forces needed to tear apart and crack up the earth's crust… forcing plate edges against one another with such force as to drive up and form the world's great mountain ranges that then come into existence…
Hapgood and Campbell in 1958, in their publication "Earth's Shifting Crust" say that Professor Melvin Cook stated that the build up of ice at the poles cracked the crust, the fracture lines determined by the pressures being exerted from the opposing polar forces, and adds that "the earth not so long ago contained much less water on its surface and had far more dry land: 1. Vast masses of terrestrial animal remains have been found thousands of meters deep in the oceans… 2. Marine animal remains including whale skeletons bear evidence of sudden extinction having been found hundreds of meters above sea level, evidence of some phenomena causing the water to suddenly and dramatically raise above the original sea level… 3. Thousands of flat top islands over 1,000 meters high have been charted at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. They are encrusted with coral revealing that they at one time must have been at or near the surface. 4. The island of Great Britain was once linked to Europe by a connecting plateau now 20 meters below sea level, it was once all dry land, remains of forests, animal and human bones have all been found on this plateau, evidence of a previously lower sea level. 5. The oceans and seas at present cover some 70% of the earth's surface. It has been calculated that if 20% of the earth's water was evaporated off, some 50% more dry land would appear, with the re-emergence above sea level of much of the land that at one time was originally above the water".
The Neandertals as the promoters and early users of instruments for divination (precursors of the contemporary spiritistic tool of the Ouija board, or Quija, a French (oui) – German (ja) device consisting of a flat board containing the alphabet and other characters, and a movable pointer, used, as at spiritualistic séances, to spell out words from deceiving spirits in answer to questions, etc.), mankala and geomancy, it is, as a way to mess up with spiritism forbidden by the Bible, such as the “Neandertal (Moustérien) funerary stone with cupmarks” in “The archaeology of cupmarks”.
Wim van Binsbergen have presented Online in his “Board-games and divination in global cultural history a theoretical, comparative and historical perspective on mankala and geomancy in Africa and Asia - Part II” the next evidence:
The oldest evidence is from a Neanderthal (Moustérien) grave at La Ferrassie (Dordogne, France)… where in a stone covering a body, and remarkably facing down to the earth and the dead, a number of cupmarks was discovered (Capitan, L., & Peyrony, D., 1921, ‘Découverte d’un sixième squelette moustérien à la Ferrassie, Dordogne’, Revue Anthropologique, 31: 382f; Levy, G.R., 1948, The gate of horn: A study of the religious conceptions of the stone age, and their influence upon European thought, London: Faber & Faber [6, 65-66ff, and p. 41; cf. 125, 146]). Levy adduces several more examples, tracing the pattern through to more recent times (cf. Noy, T., 1979, ‘Stone cup-holes and quaerns from Gilgal I: A pre-pottery Neolithic A site in Israel’, Paléorient, 5: 233-238; Morris, R.W.B., & M. Milburn, 1977, ‘Some cup-and-ring marks of Western Aïr’, Amogaren, 7: 143-145).
“A ritual use is often attributed to them, in the way of offerings, libation or anointment. They may occur singly or in groups, sometimes in aligned groups reminiscent of certified mankala boards. Cupmarks are a regular feature in Neolithic and bronze age ritual contexts, where they often appear on altars or ‘libation stones’. A typical arrangement is that of a number (often seven) of smaller holes arranged around one large central hole; it is found in many parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and West Asia over a period of several millennia right into historic Ancient Greece, where it is called kérnos (Gross, W.H., 1979, ‘Kernos’, in: Ziegler, K., & Sontheimer, W., eds., Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike in fünf Bänden, München: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, vol. III, p. 202, there Gross wrote: “dat gaat wel erg snel; de kernos heeft wel formeel dezelfde structuur maar dat zijn geen cupholes in rock, maar is aardewerk!!”).”
Neandertals used to bury their dead, and that is one reason why we have more skeletal remains of them than for any other earlier hominid. The Neandertal at the cave at Shanidar was laid to rest on a bed of spring flowers, some with medical properties (Solecki, R.S., Shanidar: the First Flower People, 1971, Alfred A. Knopf, New York). Not so different than the placing of treasures in ancient Egyptian tombs, goat horns circling a Neandertal boy skull at Teshnik-Tash, in Uzbekistan; huge cave-bear skulls with a burial at Regourdou, France; a circle of stones around a skull at Monte Cicero, Italy, etc. In a cave in Iraq, archaeologists uncovered skeletons of a Neandertal male, two female and an infant buried together in soil containing pollen of flowers (Neandertal possibly possessed medical skills, practicing apothecary and aromatherapy, some skeletons display old, healed injuries, suggesting their wounds or injuries were treated). Analysis of the sediment pollen concentrated in batches, implied that flowers had been placed on the grave, which also testify of a warm climate at that time.
Another form of "art" discovered, made by a Neandertal was a pendant from Arcy-sur-Cure, France. This decoration was made out of bone and has clear markings on it. It was discovered with the Saint Cesaire Neandertal. It seems to be an amulet of some sort that could have possibly been worn around a Neandertal's neck. This same pendant was found with pierced animal teeth, in what appeared to be a hut. Some archaeologists suspect that this pendant is evidence of interaction between Neandertals and Cro-Magnons. Another intriguing evidence of Neandertal art comes from Tata, Hungary. In 1964 a carved and perfectly oval shaped section of a mammoth's molar was discovered. It was big enough to fit in the hand and at one point had been ochered red, possibly more than once (Marshack 1976, p. 278). This unique piece of art also contained evidence of extreme handling, which caused it to appear highly polished and rounded.
More recently Binsbergen with Jean-Pierre Lacroix (1999) has pursued his observations showing evidences of Neandertals as being, not only the main promoters of spiritism and other evils, but also of astrology with their work “an archaeoastronomical analysis of cupmarks as star maps and as a possible origin of mankala boardgames -- stating the case for the view that Neandertals made stellar maps (Cupmark patterns, palaeolithic star-maps, and mankala board-games: An archaeoastronomical analysis of the La Ferrassie Neandertal world-view, and its aftermath in historical times)”
Neandertals were cruel warriors and fighters, suffering and inflicting battle wounds, mutilations, torture and maiming. In France archaeologists uncovered 2 fragments of leg bones and 3 arm bones, being fractured while fresh. Another Neandertal site containing human bone fragments shows signs of cuts, burns, and chopping, which is significant since no animal makes deliberate use of fire in food preparation. These burnt and intentionally broken human bones have been interpreted as evidence of cannibalism, Neandertals eating humans.
Today, a growing evidence indicates that Neandertals were cannibals (Defleur, A., T. White, et al. "Neanderthal cannibalism at Moula-Guercy, Ardeche, France," 1999, Science 286(5437):128-31; Richards, M. P., P. B. Pettitt, et al. “Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes,” 2000, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 97(13):7663-6; White T. D., Once Were Cannibals, 2001, Scientific American, pp. 58-65).
Neandertals extended from Wales in the northwest and Spain in the southwest right across central and southern Europe, through the Near East and Iran to the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains in central Asia. Early Neandertals favored sheltered valleys in rolling hill country, such as the Dordogne region of France, southern Germany, and central Europe and were able to spread into the windswept Russian and central Asian steppes. In Western Asia mixing was prevalent at the time of the Neandertals and humans as a migration route. It has yielded some of the earliest remains of anatomically modern humans - almost as earlier as most of the ones found in sub-Saharan Africa (older than Neandertal bones):
The older human bones (three skulls of H.s. idaltu, being idaltu an Afar word for “elder”), thus far, have been found near Herto, about 140 miles northeast of Ethiopia’s capital, Addis Ababa, un-hearted and reconstructed by researchers from de University of California at Berkeley. The skulls are clearly human with slight differences. The male skull is long and rugged, with heavily worn upper teeth. The skull itself is slightly larger than the largest modern human skulls, and the cranial capacity slightly larger. An anthropological reconstruction of the face looks very much like a modern human. The skulls do not have prominent brow ridges. Tim White was also the lead author of these findings, published in two separated papers in Nature (AP, June 12, 2003, describing the papers: White TD, et al, Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, 2003, Nature, 423(6941):742-747; Clark J. D., White T. D., et al, Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioral contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, 2003, Nature, 423(6941):747-752).
Relationship between Neandertals and early modern humans in Western Asia can be observed in the skull from the Zuttiyeh site in Israel, associated with an industry of the Levant region, eastern Mediterranean (Acheulo-Yabrudian). Zuttiyeh has been seen as an early member of a single, diverse population that included both the alleged "moderns" and the so-called "Neandertals" of the region. Neandertals from the north may simply have moved into the Levant at this early time and coexisted there with a separate modern human population. There is a cumulative evidence of groups of Neandertals living side by side with humans, and increases with new discoveries.
Europe’s Neandertals were the first ones to move into truly cold climates, enduring miserable winters and short summers as they pushed north into tundra country. Is like if they were running to escape the persecution launched originally by Israel after the commandment of God to exterminate them.
Neandertals often lived in caves. Out of the plain they built huts like one which has been excavated at Molodova in the Ukraine which had foundations built of mammoth bones. In those caves and rock-shelters Neandertals took refuge.
The large quantities of stone tools and weapons are known as of a Mousterian style (from Le Moustier, France, a major Neandertal site). In the Israeli caves of Qafzeh and Skhul were found remains of modern humans using Mousterian tools. In the southwestern France in 1979, Bernard Vandermeersch found Neandertal bones with stone tools not Mousterian but pertaining to modern humans.
These evidences show specific sites of contact between humans and Neandertals. Neandertal tools are fine and carefully shaped, much more skilled than the archaic Homo sapiens. Possibly the last groups of Neandertals roaming on the surface of the earth held out in Spain.
“We have instances in which Neanderthal types are found intermixed with, and quite clearly contemporaneous with, men of completely modern type. This is true of the discoveries on Mount Carmel in Palestine, which revealed a mixed population that made any clear distinction between the two types impossible in this instance” (Howells, William, Mankind So Far, 1945, Doubleday Doran, NY. Howells refers to the findings in the following terms: "It is an extraordinary variation. There seems to have been a single tribe ranging in type from almost Neanderthal to almost sapiens")".
Alfred Romer observed, in commenting on the collection of fossil findings from Palestine (Mugharet-et-Tabun, and Magharet-es-Skuhl): "while certain of the skulls are clearly Neanderthal, others show to a variable degree numerous neanthropic (i.e., 'modern man') features" (Romer, Alfred, Man and the Vertebrates, 1948, University of Chicago Press, pp.219, 221). Subsequently, Romer identified such neanthropic skulls as being of the general Cro-Magnon type in Europe and proposed that the Mount Carmel skulls "may be considered as due to interbreeding of the "dominant race" (the Cro-Magnon Man) with its "lowly predecessors" (Neanderthals), according to him. “As an extraordinary example of the tremendous variability, which an early, small isolated population at the periphery can show, one cannot do better than refer to the finds at Choukoutien in China, from the same locality in which the famous Pekin Man was found. The fossil remains came from what is known as the Upper Cave, and consist of a group of seven people who appear to be members of one family: an old man judged to be over 60, a younger man, two relatively young women, an adolescent, a child of five, and a newborn baby. With them were found implements, ornaments, and thousands of fragments of animals.
A study of these remains has produced some remarkably interesting facts, the most important of which in the present context is that, judged by cranial form, we have in this one family a representative Neanderthal Man, a "Melanesian" woman who reminds us of the Ainu, a Mongolian type, and another who is rather similar to the modern Eskimo woman. In commenting on these finds, Weidenreich expressed his amazement at the range of variation:
"The surprising fact is not the occurrence of paleolithic types of modern man which resemble racial types of today, but their assemblage in one place and even in a single family, considering that these types are found today settled in far remote regions" He then proceeded to point out that the upper Paleolithic melting pot of Choukoutien "does not stand alone." In Obercassel in the Rhine Valley were found two skeletons, an old male and a younger female, in a tomb of about the same period as the burial in Choukoutien, of them Weidenreich had said: "The skulls are so different in appearance that one would not hesitate to assign them to two races if they came from separate localities", so confused is the picture that he observed (Weidenreich, Franz, "Homo Sapiens at Choukoutien", News and Notes, 1939, Antiquity, p.87)," excerpts and quotations found in the book: Custance, A. C., Genesis and Early Man, Online edition.
“Although modern humans were clearly established in Eurasia, Neanderthals also continued to live in the region during, and even after, that time” (Brown, S. J., 2003, Neanderthals and Modern Humans -- A Regional Guide, Online).
“Skull Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, is considered to be a burial site of anatomically modern Homo sapiens individuals. Yet, Skhul IV and Skhul IX fossil skulls are closer to the Neandertal configuration than they are to modern humans. Jebel-Qafzeh, Galilee, Israel, is also considered to be an anatomically modern burial site. However, Qafzeh skull 6 is clearly Neandertal in its morphology Corruccini, RS, Metrical reconsideration of the Skhul IV and IX and Border Cave 1 crania in the context of modern human origins, 1992, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 87(4):433-445)”.
“Tabun Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, is one of the classic Neandertal burial sites. But the Tabun C2 mandible is more closely aligned with modern mandibles found elsewhere (Quam, R.M. and Smith, F.H., Reconsideration of the Tabun C2 'Neandertal', 1996, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 22, p. 192)”
“The Krapina Rock Shelter, Croatia, is one of the most studied Neandertal burial sites. At least 75 individuals were buried there. However, the remains are fragmentary making diagnosis difficult. The addition of several newly identified fragments to the Krapina A skull (also known as Krapina 1) reveals it to be much more modern than was previously thought, indicating that it is closer in shape to modern humans than it is to the Neandertals (Minugh-Purvis, N. and Radovcic, J., Krapina A: Neandertal or Not?, 1991, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 12, p. 132)”
- "Living with Neanderthals" by James Shreeve, Discover Magazine September 1995: “Thick boned, barrel-chested, a healthy Neanderthal male could lift an average NFL linebacker over his head and throw him through the goalposts. Combining enormous strength with manifest intelligence, the Neanderthals appear to have been outfitted to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path. Neanderthals and modern humans have been sharing Spanish soil… Neanderthals and moderns managed to coexist through long millennia….Of course, if the Neanderthals were a biologically separate species, something must have happened to cause their extinction. After all, we are still here, and they are not”
- National Geographic January 1996, where it is stated that the deposit of some of the Neanderthal fossils could have been the result of a "catastrophic flood". [“In Israel, on the southern edge of the Neanderthal range, a wooded rise of limestone issues abruptly out of the Mediterranean below Haifa, ascending in an undulation of Hills. This is the Mount Carmel of the Song of Solomon, where Elijah brought down the false priests of Baal, and Deborah laid rout to the Caananites, It is also the EXACT geographical area where the bible says was the home of Og king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, that dwelt at Ashtaroth and at Edrei”, Bible Trek Ministries, Scott Barkley, Online Edition].
“Neandertal, the fossil find [that originally was] hailed as proof of human evolution from primates… point in the opposite direction. Analysis of Neandertal DNA leads researchers to conclude that homo sapiens, the human race, is neither descended from nor related to the Neandertal species (Kim A. McDonald, "Are Neandertals Losing Their Grip on the Human Family Tree?," 1998, The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 16, pp. A18-A19).”
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- Mertens S. B., The Middle Paleolithic in Romania, 1996, Current Anthropology, 37: 515-521.
- Kozlowski J. K. and Otte M., The formation of the Aurignacian in Europe, 2000, Journal of Anthropological Research, 56: 513-534.
Between 1890 and 1892, Eugene Dubois (member of the Dutch colonial army) found pieces of "Java Man" (later named Homo erectus) that everyone agreed was more apelike than the Neandertal. The importance of H. erectus was vastly increased from 1927 to 1937 as more than 40 similar fossils were found in limestone caves at Zhoukoudian, outside of Beijing. Also found were thousands of stone tools and evidence that H. erectus used fire. "Beijing Man" was somewhat like the Java erectus. Homo erectus and Neandertals were more manlike than apelike (the apelike ater termed Australopithecus). Then, in South Africa, in 1924, Raymond Dart discovered an apelike. It was followed by the discovery of similar apelike creatures in Africa, with a brain only slightly bigger than a chimpanzee's. The nose was flat. The jaw dominated the face and the mouth thrusted forward. But the teeth were human like and it had a bit of a forehead. Most importantly, it walked upright. Its spinal cored entered the brain not at the back of the head, like a gorilla's, but at the bottom of the skull, suggesting bipedalism. Although that didn't make it human, it allowed it to fall into the broader category of "hominid."
Also Ross et al, in their "response" to a Time article stated that:
“Bermudez de Castro, et al, are suggesting that Homo erectus is no longer part of the evolutionary pathway leading to modern man and Neandertals, but rather is a side lineage [another!] without descendents”, “Homo antecessor [instead] hominid… has been proposed as an ancestor species for both Neandertals and modern humans [and]... designated as a new species and as a key transitional fossil based on very limited data, namely, the partial face of a juvenile, the likelihood of delayed dental maturation and the crudely estimated brain volume from a single cranial fragment”, “the designation as species is based on a single partial skull… based on a juvenile specimen”, “the possibility remains that this sample is a Homo erectus specimen” (J. M. Bermudez de Castro et al., " A Hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible Ancestors to Neandertals and Modern Humans," 1997, Science, 276, pp. 1392-1395; Ann Gibbons, "A New Face for Human Ancestors," 1997, Science, 276, pp. 1331-1333).
Other hominid fossils have been found, some of them having only one specimen. At least some of these findings can been explained as “human degeneration”.
There is a great variety of Apes, for example chimpanzees have genomes highly similar to that of humans. As we have seen, the Bible remarks that one of the practices of the nations surrounding the Israelites was having sex with animals: “Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself” (Lev. 18:23, 20:15-16,25). So, the Bible opens an explanation to human-ape interspecie hybrids, at least for some of the hominid fossils discovered and sculptures of ancient civilizations, like the Olmeca faces that are “ape-human” like (called “human-jaguar”). Here we can locate also the elusive, if real, appearances of “bigfoot” and all its “associates”, living in remote areas and in caves.
“Dr. John Richers, in his work on the Creation, Paradise, and Deluge, infers from the words in Gen. 6. 12, “All flesh had corrupted his way on the earth,” that the unnatural intercourse of different kinds of creatures, in the antediluvian period, was not confined to angels and human beings, but took place in the brute creation also (forbidden, Lev. 19. 19) - a view which has the support of Jewish tradition, and which, he thinks, can be established on the ground of the revelations of Palaeontology. He refers especially to the evidence afforded by the remains in the Kirkdale Cave, described by Ruckland, in his Reliquiae Diluvianae, and to the light thrown on the subject by anatomical investigations” (S. besonders auch K. v. Raumer’s Allgemeine Geogr. 2 Anfl., s. 395-431 und A. Tholuck’s vermischte Schriften, Bd. I., s. 177-230; Die Schöpfungs-Paradieses- und Südfluthgeschichte, u. s. w., p. 402, as quoted in German in: John Freming’s “Fallen Angels and the Heroes of Mythology”, Note K, 1879, Hodges, Foster, and Figgis, Dublin; scanned, edited and freely made available Online by Arthur McBryan).
Custance points out: “Before man's evolutionary origin was proposed, it was generally agreed that the Cradle of Mankind was in Asia Minor or at least in the Middle East area. Any evidence of primitive types elsewhere in the world, whether living or fossil, were considered proof that man had degenerated as he departed from the site of Paradise,” “the most degraded specimens, both of individuals or whole tribes, are representatives of this general movement who were driven into the least hospitable areas where they suffered physical degeneration as a consequence of the circumstances in which they were forced to live, and usually results in the establishment of a general pattern of cultural relationships” (Part I. Chapter 4. Where Did Man First Appear?), “individuals might become degenerate at any period in history and leave behind them a cemetery of the most deceptive fossil remains” (Part IV: Chapter 1 The Supposed Evolution of the Human Skull).
“If one believes that man was created, human degeneration is as likely as human improvement”, “perfectly valid alternatives are ignored”, “the evidence amply supported by comparatively recent historical events, is that primitivism and barbarism are not necessarily the earliest stages of man's condition that are more probably the result of degeneration. Indeed, the evidence indicates that the higher a civilization, the greater the degeneration is likely to be when it breaks down. It is no longer safe, then, to assume that primitive society provides us with a picture of the earliest condition of man, or to put it in a slightly different form, that our primitive contemporaries are our contemporary ancestors” (Preface); “assumptions of “the degeneration theory”, first, that the history of culture began with the appearance on earth of a semi-civilized race of men, and second, that from this stage culture has proceeded in two ways, backward to produce savages, and forward to produce civilized men,” “Niebuhr, in attacking the progressionists of the 18th century, had been one of the first to make the point "that no single example can be brought forward of an actually savage people having independently become civilized” (Tylor, Edward B., Primitive Culture, Vol. I, Murray, London, 2nd ed., Tylor, E. B., Anthropology, Hill and Co., N.Y., 1904, pp. 14, 15, a seminal work on it: Whately, Archbishop of Dublin, "On the Origin of Civilization," Exeter Hall Papers, 1854, 55, Nisbet, London, p. 23. This whole essay is still well worth reading in spite of its date).
“The difference between savagedom and civilization is not organic (i.e., it is circumstantial)... the oldest human remains and the tools associated with them indicate a brain capacity which is not markedly, if at all, inferior to that of existing races” (Briffault, Robert, "The Evolution of the Human Species," in The Making of Man, ed. by Calverton, Modern Library, N.Y., 1931, p. 763.), “Degeneration became a naughty word. But two devastating world wars forced us all to take a fresh look at the course of human history. Was it, after all, a record of progress from primitive to civilized, from simple to complex, from superstition to pure worship, from savage to refined? A few who suggested that perhaps we should reexamine primitive cultures with a view to understanding how they came to be what they are, found it unwise to propose forthrightly that they might be degenerate, because the climate of opinion was against any concept which reflected in any way the idea of a Fall of man,” “the Bible emphasis is on the natural tendency of man to degenerate” and “to the final and utter corruption of all things pertaining to the cultures of the world,” “there is no law of evolution which would guarantee that each succeeding generation will inevitably improve upon the techniques of their forebears,” “is necessary to produce a balanced view of history” (Part II: Primitive Cultures, A Second Look at the Problem of their Historical Origin).
“Degeneration tends always to accompany migration, especially when it is under pressure from behind and even more particularly when the new environment is harsher than the old,” “How far can man degenerate? How much further could some of these tribes conceivably go? How long is the process likely to take? In some of the more recent historically attested cases it was a matter of one or two generations only. Is it likely that useful arts will be lost? It seems so: indeed, in a few instances almost the only thing left to distinguish man from the lower animals has been the retention of the powers of speech, since no tribe has ever been known to lack a full and sufficient means of verbal communication,” “It is difficult in the first place to understand why any people should choose to settle in some parts of the world where the environment is so hostile. The Eskimo in the Arctic, the Ona and Yaghans in Tierra del Fuego, the Semang of the Malay Peninsula, the Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, or the Ituri Pygmies in the hot humid forests of the Congo--these would surely not choose such a habitat unless some circumstance had forced their ancestors into doing so, their descendants thereafter becoming accustomed to it accepting it as normal for themselves. In many of these cases the margin of survival is so small that once a safe pattern of living has been established such societies cannot permit the slightest deviation (Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., Andaman Islanders, Cambridge, 1922, illustrates this point in pp. 37 and 302)” (Part II. Chapter 3, Cultural Degeneration).
“Where complete isolation of adult individuals occurred, it is probable that extreme physical degeneration was experienced, accounting for some exceptionally primitive fossil remains (Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, etc.). In more recent times where complete isolation in childhood (feral) has occurred, all cultural elements are lost including language,” “there is neither automatic cultural evolution nor automatic cultural devolution. The deciding factor is whether vital contact has been retained with the main stream which is only so by reason of the fact that it represents a composite of [first and most important] spiritual, intellectual, and technological enlightenment…in the absence of any one of these essential components of truly human, as opposed to animal, society, man must inevitably suffer degeneration… this circumstance did not arise by chance evolution, but by the direct creative activity of God at the beginning. Civilization is a phenomenon which arose at the very beginning only because man was not evolved but was created by God with the necessary endowment, an endowment which even in his fallen state is still permitted to find expression according to the forbearance of God in very remarkable ways” “only so long as the light of true spiritual faith, the basis of which is the Word of God, forms an essential element of a culture can it lay any claims to being or becoming a part of the main stream; and only so can it hope, therefore, to preserve itself against or recover itself from, the incidious processes of degeneration. The main stream is only "main" so long as the Christian faith is contributing to its current in a vital way. This may not always engender its advance, indeed it probably never does specifically, but it does prevent its degeneration. In this sense, the church of God in so far as it supports this true faith, has the preservative qualities and function of "salt" (Matt. 5:13),” “man realizes his superiority only if he is willing to listen to a superior Teacher. By nature he no longer has any claim to this higher status, it being a potential rather than a real one. At the very beginning it was entirely real, but because of his fallen condition he has continually tended to lose it by degeneration. At the first the Creator gave him sufficient instruction to provide the initial impetus for him almost immediately to take steps towards achieving his appointed dominion over the earth. His brain could easily have been capable of receiving such instruction in spite of the simplicity which must have characterized his culture at first,” (Part II. Chapter 4. Some Considerations, Some Causes, and Some Conclusions), excerpts and quotations found in the book: Custance, A. C., Genesis and Early Man, Online edition.
“"A genetic abnormality may predispose a man to antisocial behavior, including crimes of violence..." A normal male baby has an XY chromosome pattern, but occasionally one is found with an XYY pattern. According to an all-woman team of researchers in Scotland, this "may be a supermale, over aggressive and potentially criminal." It was further noted that "the XYY (males) averaged 6 ft 1 inch tall whereas the average for (others tested) was 5 ft 7 inches"” (Found in Time Magazine by Stedman, R. C., and presented in his speech “Signs Of Collapse”, Online Edition).
The inherited diseases can be also attributed to the extreme degeneracy that every nation surrounding Israel was experiencing (sex with animals, homosexuality, bisexuality, sex with close relatives or ‘consanguinity’, sex with the influence of evil spiritual beings, etc.), according to the faithful description of that times provided to us by the Bible. The homosexual-bisexual ‘modern’ movements of today are only mimicking the worst of the human past. So, shame on them, shame on the Politicians promoting homosexuality, shame on the TV or Movie "Stars" promoting homosexuality, shame on the religious leaders promoting homosexuality.
1) A Mule's Mule (A horse has 64 chromosomes and a donkey has 62, so a mule is left with 63). There, see also the bottom links related to this story: 2) Female shetland pony x male zebra (A horse has 64 chromosomes; the zebra has 44. The zorse that results from cross breeding will have a number of chromosomes that is somewhere in between... "The smaller number of chromosomes has to be on the male side," Lesley Barwise-Munro, a veterinary surgeon in Alnwick...) 3) The ram (sheep) had 54 and the dam (goat) had 60 chromosomes, the hybrid had 57 chromosomes, grew faster than the kids and lambs born in the same month. It also had a very high libido. This earned the hybrid the name Bemya, or rapist, the hybrid was infertile and with resilience to disease.
To see the flood in a Biblical depth: http://www.oocities.com/fdocc3/waterout.htm
To see other related studies: http://www.oocities.com/plin9k/indexbr.htm
Tasters of the Word (YouTube), videos recientes: "Astronomía y Nacimiento de Jesucristo: Once de Septiembre Año Tres A.C.", "Estudio sobre Sanidades" (en 20 episodios), "Jesus Christ, Son or God?" and "We've the Power to Heal":
Tasters of the Word (the blog, with: "Astronomy and the Birth of Jesus Christ"):