FIELD ARTILLERY WEAPONS

IN WINTER WAR 1939 - 1940

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Field Gun Designation in Finland

Field artillery pieces were designated in Finland with calibre (in full millimeters), gun type, [back-slash (optional)], model year and additional attributes. Gun type was indicated with the following shortenings:

K - Kanuuna = cannon, gun
H - Haupitsi = howitzer
M - Mörssäri = mortar
LK - Lyhyt kanuuna = short(-barreled) cannon
VK - Vuorikanuuna = mountain cannon
RK - Rykmentinkanuuna = regiment cannon (= infantry gun)

Most designations are universal or otherwise understandable but there are also "home-made" ones indicating a year obtained or a year a model has (presumably) originally entered service for the first time.
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Field Gun Models in Winter War

Before Winter War the most common Finnish field gun model was still a rather good but ineffective Russian 76.2 mm light howitzer m1902 (76 H/02). Another common model was short-barreled 76 LK/13. At the beginning of Winter War of all the 412 field guns and 73 guns without recoil system issued to artillery units only less than 11% were classed as heavy. That was typical in most European countries.

The amount of long range ammunition was minimal and in many cases guns capable of ranges over 10 km in paper could in reality reach only 3 km with obsolete shells. The need for long-range artillery pieces was really urgent. Even the old French de Bange cannons helped a lot because their ammunition was modern with excellent ballistic characteristics and ranges much longer than of those models mainly used.

New Finnish 105 mm howitzer model (originally a Swedish Bofors design) had not yet entered service and modern artillery pieces were hard to find anywhere. Finnish Army managed to buy field guns from France, USA, Sweden, UK, Belgium, Spain and Norway but got mostly secondhand or obsolete models - and too late: the main part didn't arrive in Finland until after the Winter War. France, UK and Norway donated older field artillery pieces and US prices were only nominal. All countries mentioned before also delivered ammunition.

Difficult transport conditions (by ship to Norway, through Norway and Sweden by train to Tornio; Finland and moving there to Finnish gauge trains) meant very long shipping times. In April 1940 Germans captured lots of Finnish weapons in Norway but delivered some of the material to Finland later in 1940. All artillery pieces, ammunition and equipment were classed, tested, inspected, modified and/or repaired in Finland before issuing to troops and that took time too.

Certain models have been added to the following list although they have not been used in Finland during the Winter War. Newly formed artillery units had these weapons already during the war but they were not yet combat ready (were under training, lacked personnel, horses or necessary equipment like vehicles for moving their artillery pieces). For example 12 75 K/97, 20 90 K/77 de Bange and British 84 K/18 cannons and four super heavy 210 H/17 howitzers were that kind of weapons.
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In the following list the country of origin is either a country where guns were produced, modified and/or obtained:

Aut = Austria
Bel = Belgium
Cze = Czechoslovakia
Fin = Finland
Fra = France
Ger = Germany
Jap = Japan
Nor = Norway
Pol = Poland
Rus = Russia
Swe = Sweden
SU = Soviet-Union
UK = United Kingdom (Great Britain)
USA = United States of America

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Winter War 1939 - 1940
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Finnish
Designation/
Name:
Range:
[km]
Pcs:
1939/40/
(after war)
Country
of Origin:
Original Name, Notes:
         
Guns Without Recoil System (Jäykkälavettiset tykit):
(All de Bange guns were donated from France and most of them arrived in Finland after the Winter War.)
 
87 K/77

87 K/95,
87 K/95-R

90 K/77

107 K/77
107 K/77-piirk.

.

120 K/78

152 K/77-120 p

152 K/04

155 K/77
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6,5

6,5
?

9,7

5,3
8,3

.

12,4

9,3

11,2

12,3

32/32

18/53
4/=

-/20/(100)

41/?
=/=

.

-/-/(72)

12/?

2/2

-/-/(48)

Ger/Rus

Rus
.

Fra

Ger/Rus
.
.

Fra

Rus

Rus

Fra

Training and depot gun, never used in combat.

Equipment of separate batteries formed in 1940.
R = cavalry version, shorter barrel. Also training guns.

Materiel de 90 de campagne, Mle 1877 (de Bange).

Made by Krupp and Obuhov.
piirk. = siege cannon; version with longer barrel
and
taller carriage.

Materiel de 120 Long, Mle 1878 (de Bange).

p = pud (barrel weight); with light barrel.

Made by Obuhov, with heavy barrel.

Canon de 155 Long, Mle 1877 (de Bange).

Light Cannons/Guns (Kevyet kanuunat):
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75 K/97

75 K/01

75 K/02
.
.

75 K/17

75 K/40 A

76 K/00

76 K/02

76 VK/04

76 LK/13,
76 LK/10/13

76 K/22

76 K/23

76 RK/27,
76 RK/27-39

76 K/36

84 K/18

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7,9

9,6

9,3
.
.

10,7

11,8

8,75

10,6

5,5

7,0
.

10,6

10,6

8,1
.

13,6

10,7

-/12

-/12

12/36/(60)
.
.

-/-/(200)

-/8

18/21

192/180

4/9

71/?
.

4/4

4/4

-/?/(54)
.

-/?/(36)

-/?/(30)

Fra

Ger/Nor

Swe
.
.

UK/USA

Swe

Rus

Rus

Rus

Rus
Rus/Fin

Fra

Fra

SU
.

SU

UK

Materiel de 75, Mle 1897, bought from France.

7,5 cm feltkanone L/31M/01, donated from Norway.

Licence-built Krupp model, 24 guns were only loaned
from Sweden (returned in April 1940) of which 12 pcs
were used by Swedish volunteer group SFK in 1940.

75 mm Gun M1917, bought from USA.

Bofors 7,5 cm FK 38, made originally for Argentina.

Made by Putilov.

The most common field gun model during Winter War.

4 guns in armoured train, five captured at Suomussalmi.

Made by Putilov.
76 LK/10 gun with Finnish-made LK/13 carriage.

Bought from France for trials in 1924.

Bought from France for trials in 1924.

War booty, a few pieces used already during
Winter War
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76 mm F-22, war booty, many used during Winter War.

Q.F. 18 pdr Field Gun M II, bought from UK,
not used in combat during Winter War.

Light Howitzers (Kevyet haupitsit):
.
105 VH/10
.

114 H/18

120 H/13

122 H/09

122 H/10
.

7,6
.

7,5

6,7

7,7

7,6

-/4
.

-/24

-/12

31*/29

39*/35

Swe
.

UK

Ger/Bel

Ger/Rus

Fra/Rus

10,5 cm materiel M/10, made by Bofors,
bought from Sweden.

Q.F. 4.5 inch. Howitzer Mark I, donated from UK.

Bought from Belgium.

Made by Krupp and Putilov. * One gun left for trials.

Made by Schneider and Putilov.

Heavy Cannons/Guns (Raskaat kanuunat):
.
105 K/13
.

105 K/34

107 K/10,
107 K/13
.

12,0
.

16,3

13,6

-/12
.

-/4/(12)

9/9 *
2/2

Fra
.

Swe

Fra/Rus

Canon de 105 L 15 H Mk 1913 TR L 13 S,
bought from France.

Made by Bofors, bought from Sweden.

107 mm Canon, Mle 10/12 and 10/12 S, made
by Schneider and Putilov, *
one gun left for trials.

Heavy Howitzers (Raskaat haupitsit):
.
150 H/06

150 H/14 J

152 H/10

152 H/15,
152 H/17

155 H/15
.
.

6,5

7,2

8,0

11,2
.

9,0

-/12

12/1

8/8

4/4
8/8

-/12/(24)

Swe

Jap/Rus

(Fra/)Rus

Fra
.

Fra

Made by Bofors, bought from Sweden.

Russia probably bought these from Japan in 1914.

A Schneider design made under licence by Putilov.

Made by Schneider, horse-drawn version.
Vehicle-drawn version.

Materiel de 155 C, Mle 1915, by Saint-Chamond,
bought from France during Winter War.

Super Heavy Howitzers (Järeät haupitsit):
.
210 H/17
.
.
10,2 -/4 Ger/Swe Made by Krupp, bought from Sweden, not used
in Winter War because unit was without vehicles.

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Sources: PAUJY1, PAUJY2, PAYJY3, PARUN1, TALHI
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© 2000 - 24.9.2003 Harri Anttonen

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