FINNISH AIR FORCE TRAINING UNITS

WINTER WAR 1939 - 1940

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Training before the Winter War in the 1930's

Finnish Air Force (FAF) personnel training centre Aviation School [Ilmailukoulu] - since 1938 Air Fighting School (Ilmasotakoulu, ISK) - was moved from Santahamina (Helsinki) to a new base at Kauhava in the summer 1929. School trained reserve officer pilots and observers and reserve NCO pilots. A large portion of reservists were further trained to cadre personnel of FAF in Cadet and cadre NCO courses. Also two to four yearly refresher courses and various number of volunteer training courses were arranged since 1935 for the reserve officer pilots and since 1937 for the reserve NCO pilots. In the 1930's the peace-time strength of the school's paid personnel varied between 88 and 153.

Before the war the compulsory service time in Finnish Defence Forces was 350 days. New conscript groups entered service after every half year so that there were all the time older and younger conscripts.
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Reserve Officer and Reserve NCO Pilot Courses

Aviation School (later Air Fighting School) gave basic aviation (elementary and extension) training for reserve NCO pilots and reserve officer pilots and observers. In the late 1930's basically every second course was for reserve NCOs and every second for reserve officers. Given flying training varied between about 50 to 80 hours in both groups.

There were eight Air Force Reserve Officer Courses (Ilmavoimien reserviupseerikurssi, Ilm.RUK) between 1931 and 1939 in which were trained 213 reserve pilots and 26 reserve observers (from courses 1, 2 and 8 only). Strengths of the courses varied between 25 and 40 trainees. Reserve NCO Pilot Courses (Reservialiupseeriohjaajakurssi, Res.AOK) started in 1934. Before the war a total of 129 reserve NCO pilots had been trained in five courses. Strengths of the courses varied between 20 and 27 trainees.

After the basic training NCO trainees were Lance Corporals [korpraali] and officer trainees became Officer Candidates [kokelas or upseerikokelas]. Lance Corporals were promoted to Corporals [alikersantti] before the end of their service time but Officer Candidates were not promoted to Second Lieutenants (in reserve) [reservin vänrikki] before they were disbanded.

About half of the reserve pilots continued to cadre NCO pilot courses or Cadet School [Kadettikoulu] which trained officers in regular service. Thus before Winter War FAF had 126 reserve officer and 53 reserve NCO pilots. They were intensively trained in refresher courses and were mobilized earlier than the Field Army since late summer 1939 and put under intensive training at ISK or in supplement and combat units. When the war finally started reserve pilots already met the same demands as pilots in regular service.
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Cadre NCO Pilot Courses and Cadet School's Aviation Courses

Earlier the majority of cadre NCO pilots had also been mechanics, but since 1930 pilot and technical training were separated. Between 1930 and 1939 a total of 107 reserve NCO pilots were trained in eight NCO Pilot Courses (Aliupseeriohjaajakurssi, AOK) at Kauhava. Courses lasted about five to ten months and flying time was about 40 hours. After the course pilots were promoted to Sergeants and appointed to the regular office of the non-commissioned officer (NCO).

Between 1930 and 1939 a total of 131 reserve officers (both pilots and observers) were trained in 11 Cadet School's Aviation Cadet Courses (Kadettikurssi, Kad.K XI - XXI). Part of the training took place in Cadet School at Helsinki and part in ISK at Kauhava. In Cadet School trainees were called Cadets [kadetti]. They were promoted to Second Lieutenants [vänrikki] in the last day of their Cadet course and at the same time appointed to the regular office of the commissioned officer.

Training of cadre personnel continued in combat units.
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Pilot Instructor Courses

New pilot instructors - both NCOs and officers - were trained at Kauhava in short special Pilot Instructor Courses [Lennonopettajakurssi] when needed. The number of trainees in each course varied from a few to about 10 to 12. Before the war a total of 51 pilot instructors had been trained. Average flying time during the courses was 18 hours. Pilot instructors trained new pilots both in Air Combat School and in combat units.
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Other Courses of ISK

Courses for (reserve) auxiliary mechanics started in 1930 and these were arranged in every flying stations (later flying regiments) and in Aviation School (Air Fighting School) at Kauhava. The number of trainees at Kauhava varied between 12 and 40. There were usually two such courses a year in every units. Course was equal to reserve NCO school. The graduated ones could continue to Mechanics School [Mekaanikkokoulu] which trained regular technical personnel for FAF.

Short telephone (later signals) courses were also arranged for 10 to 20 men of each age class. By 1939 ISK had also arranged 13 photography courses. Some of the men were trained as drivers and medics.
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Courses of Finnish Air Defence Association

Finnish Air Defence Association (Suomen Ilmapuolustusliitto, SIPL) arranged volunteer civilian elementary and advanced pilot courses (of the so called "international A class") in close co-operation with FAF. Leaders and instructors in these courses were current or former FAF officers and NCOs. Also used elementary and trainer aircraft were occasionally from FAF but mainly civilian ones.

All trainees had to meet the same demands as every FAF pilot. By 1938 these courses had become nearly compulsory before continuing to Air Fighting School at Kauhava. Flying times in elementary courses were about 40 and in extension training about 20 hours. Since 1933 140 pilots graduated from the SIPL's elementary courses and 235 pilots from the extension courses. Since 1938 SIPL trained also 15 observers.
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Training during the Winter War 30.11.1939 - 13.3.1940

Air Fighting School

Air Fighting School (ISK) at Kauhava gave basic training for pilots, observers and MG gunner / radio operators. Elementary (or basic) training [alkeiskoulutus / peruskoulutus] and trainer aircraft training [harjoituskonekoulutus] for pilots consisted both of flying with elementary trainers (about 50 hours, Smolik and Viima II) and more advanced trainer aircraft (about 10 hours, Tuisku, Moth, Sääski, Klemm and/or Taylorcraft). Pilot training lasted at least two months after which pilot trainees had the basic knowledge on flying alone. Extension training was also given to selected reservists.

Six volunteer foreign pilots were given training at ISK between February and March 1940. In elementary training were Danish Cpl (Res.) Petter Pettersen and American Cpl.(Res.) Donald Willis. Their training was stopped after the Winter War and they never finished pilot training in Finland. In extension training were Norwegian pilot instructor Lt. Olav Ullestad, Danish Cornets Harald Blom and Frits Drescher and Swedish 2Lt.(Res.) Håkan Sundberg.

During the Winter War the total strength of ISK waried between about 465 to 545 officers, NCOs and men. A total of 263 pilots, 82 observers, 38 wireless telegraphs and 65 MG gunner / radio operators (wireless telegraphy) were given training in Finland. At the end of the Winter War there were still 149 pilot, 63 observer and 47 MG gunner / radio operator (wireless telegraphy) trainees at ISK.

During the Winter War ISK sent a total of 33 officer and 13 NCO pilots to front squadrons as well as 76 pilot and 20 MG gunner / radio operator trainees to supplement flying squadrons. 20 pilots (of whom six foreign volunteers) and 34 MG gunner / radio operators were in additional training at Kauhava.
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War Pilot Courses

Two special War Pilot Courses (Sotaohjaajakurssi, Ohj.K) were arranged at Kauhava for civilian pilots who had not been in reserve officer or NCO courses of ISK. These courses followed shortened training programs and especially flying hours were usually low although the quality of trainees varied a lot. Because the need for new pilots was not so severe as had been expected before the war the first course continued longer than planned. Both courses ended after the Winter War was over. Possible lacks of the rapid military training were later completed in supplement and front squadrons.
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Pilot Courses of ISK

Several pilot training courses ended before and during the Extraordinary Exercise (Ylimääräinen harjoitus, YH) in October 1939. These pilots were hastily trained either in combat or supplement units. The following pilot courses still continued or started during the Winter War:

  • Reservin aliupseeriohjaakurssi 6 (Res.AOK 6) Course Leader Lt. K. Lahtela
    (Reserve NCO Pilot Course 6)
    20.10.1939 - 25.1.1940 / 10.2.1940
    30 trainees, 15 were moved to T-LentoR 2, seven to T-LentoR 4 on 25.1. and between 10.2. - 14.2.1940.
    Five pilots stayed at ISK as auxiliary trainers. Between 9.12.1939 - 21.1.1940 course was at Menkijärvi.
    Course was altered and shortened due to war.

  • Ilmavoimien reserviupseerikurssi 9 (Ilm.RUK 9) Course Leader Capt. V. Miinalainen
    (Air Force Reserve Officer Pilot Course 9)
    6.6. - 16.12.1939 (1.2.1940)
    36 pilot and 10 observer trainees, all remained at ISK as auxiliary training personnel after the course as
    Officer Candidates for one more month. On 21.1.1940 all trainees were moved to supplement units;
    15 were ordered to T-LentoR 2. Course was altered and shortened due to the war. The most famous pilot
    graduated from this course was later Capt. H. Wind (75 kills). He flew in Flying Squadron 24 (BW, MT)
    and was awarded the highest Finnish military decoration Mannerheim Cross 2nd Class twice
    on 31.7.1943 and 28.6.1944.

  • Aliupseeriohjaakurssi 9 (AOK 9) Course Leader Capt. V. Miettinen
    (NCO Pilot Course 9)
    1.9.1939 - 4.2.1940
    14 trainees of whom 13 graduated. Course stayed at Kauhava for one more week acting as pilots in
    observer and MG gunner courses after which 10 trainees were ordered to T-LentoR 2 and three to
    T-LentoR 4. Flying training was sped up since 14.10.1939 and even more after the war started.
    The best known pilots graduated from this course were later WO U. Lehtovaara (44.5 kills) and
    M.Sgt A. Tani (21.5 kills). Both of them flew in Flying Squadron 28 (MS) and since 1943 in
    Flying Squadron 34 (MT). Lehtovaara was the top Finnish Morane-Saulnier ace with 15 kills and
    he was awarded the highest Finnish military decoration Mannerheim Cross 2nd Class on 9.7.1944.

  • Kadettikurssi XXII, Ilmasotaosasto II (Kad.K XXII)
    (Cadet Course XXII, Air Fighting Detachment II)
    1.8. - 6.12.1939
    17 trainees of the 2nd (senior grade) Cadet class. All were moved to front units on 9.12.1939 as
    Second Lieutenants; six were ordered to LentoR 2. Course was shortened due to war.

  • Kadettikurssi XXIII, Ilmasotaosasto I (Kad.K XXIII)
    (Cadet Course XXIII, Air Fighting Detachment I)
    4.12.1939 - 15.2.1940
    18 trainees of the 1st (junior grade) Cadet class. All were ordered to Observer Course 1 because their
    pilot training was already completed but they needed more flying hours. During the observer course on
    31.12.1939 Cadets were promoted to Second Lieutenants. On 15.2.1940 all were ordered to front units;
    fighter regiment LentoR 2 received 12 of them. Course was much altered and shortened due to the war.

  • Sotaohjaajakurssi 1 (Ohj.K 1) Course Leader Capt. H. Huhtinen
    (War Pilot Course 1)
    Koulutusryhmä I (Training Group I) Lt. P. Käär
    Koulutusryhmä II (Training Group II) Lt. O. Wickstrand
    5.12.1939 - 18.3.1940
    84 trainees; 72 of them had graduated from the basic course of SIPL, 18 also from the extension course.
    More than half of the men were young conscripts without military training which was given together with
    flying training. Training Group I was training at Menkijärvi between 22.1. - 28.2.1940 and Training Group II
    between 28.2. - 13.3.1940. Flying training was completed on 15.3.1940 after which trainees were ordered
    to supplement units on 18. and 19.3.1940. Four trainees were moved to T-LentoR 1, 30 to T-LentoR 2,
    10 to T-LentoR 4 and 40 were to be sent to England for an extension course and fighter training but
    these were cancelled on 13.3.1940 when the Winter War ended.

  • Sotaohjaajakurssi 2 (Ohj.K 2) Course Leader Capt. K. Ritjärvi
    (War Pilot Course 2)
    Koulutusryhmä I (Training Group I) Lt. K. Lahtela, ?.3.40- ?
    Koulutusryhmä II (Training Group II) Lt. H. Pursiainen
    1.2. - 21.4.1940
    65 (84) trainees; 49 civilian conscripts and 35 volunteers from units. Flying training was started on
    12.2.1940. Ten trainees were straight away selected for training in Sweden. They left in mid-February 1940.
    At the end of February nine trainees were selected for training in Norway. A total of 65 trainees continued
    at Kauhava but since 13.3.1940 Training Group II was moved to Menkijärvi. Training was completed on
    21.4.1940. 57 trainees graduated from the course and nine of them were moved to LLv.16,
    11 to T-LentoR 1, nine to LentoR 4 and 28 to a new Supplement Flying Squadron 35 (T-LLv.35).

In addition to pilot trainees mentioned above in January and February 1940 three reserve officers and one NCO were in special extension training at ISK.
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Observer Courses

During the Winter War ISK trained a total of 82 observers. The courses during the war were as follows:

  • Tähystäjäkurssi 1 (Täh.K 1) Course Leader Capt. V. Savolainen
    (Observer Course 1)
    1.12.1939 - 15.2.1940
    18 Cadets from Cadet Course XXIII. Two weeks training and gunnery camp at Laajalahti in turn
    January / February 1940. Also pilot training was given. Four trainees were ordered to T-LentoR 1,
    12 to T-LentoR 2, and two to T-LentoR 4 as Second Lieutenants.

  • Tähystäjäkurssi 2 (Täh.K 2) Course Leader Capt. V. Miinalainen
    (Observer Course 2)
    11.12.39 - mid-3.1940
    30 reserve officers. Because of the lack of suitable trainer aircraft course lasted one month longer than
    planned. 12 trainees were ordered to T-LentoR 1, 13 to T-LentoR 4 and four to T-LLv.39.

  • Tähystäjäkurssi 3 (Täh.K 3) Course Leader Capt. V. Savolainen (?)
    (Observer Course 1)
    2.3. - 20.5.1940
    34 reserve officers. Training consisted of 50 flying hours as observers; more than in previous courses.

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MG Gunner and Telegraphy Courses

During the Winter War a total of 38 wireless telegraphy and 65 combined MG gunner and wireless telegraphy (radio operator) trainees graduated from ISK or were in training there. Courses arranged during the war were as follows:

  • Radiosähköttäjien täydennyskurssi 1 Course Leader Capt. T. Vasamies
    (Telegraphs' Supplement Course 1)
    4.12. - 27.12.1939 / ?.1.1940
    19 trainees in three training groups. Entrance requirement was telegraphy skill which actually varied a lot.
    Six of the trainees were from ISK, four from T-LentoR 1, three from both T-LentoR 2 and 4 and one
    from LLv.16. Initially they returned back to the units they had come from.

  • Radiosähköttäjien täydennyskurssi 2 Course Leader Capt. T. Vasamies
    (Telegraphs' Supplement Course 2)
    14.12. - 17.2.1940
    19 trainees ordered from units. Entrance requirement was telegraphy skill. After the course trainees
    returned back to the units they had come from.

  • Konekivääriampuja ja -sähköttäjäkurssi 1 Course Leader Capt. N. Ilkka
    (MG Gunner and Telegraphy Course 1)
    11.12.1939 - 5.2. / ?.2.1940
    20 reservists from LentoR 4. Gunnery camp at Lappajärvi in January 1940. The five first graduated
    on 5.2.1940 and were sent to T-LentoR 4. The other 15 graduated about week later.

  • Konekivääriampuja ja -sähköttäjäkurssi 2 Course Leader Capt. V. Miettinen
    (MG Gunner and Telegraphy Course 2)
    4.2. - 31.3.1940
    16 reservists; 14 from LentoR 4. Similar to previous course except contained more training for the use
    of bombing and photography equipment.

  • Konekivääriampuja ja -sähköttäjäkurssi 3 Course Leader Capt. N. Ilkka
    (MG Gunner and Telegraphy Course 3)
    27.2. - 25.4.1940
    29 trainees. Similar to previous course.

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Training in Sweden and Norway

Before the war Academic Air Protection Association (Akateeminen Ilmasuojeluyhdistys, AISY) had collected money for training Finnish reserve pilots. After the war started Sweden was asked to arrange elementary pilot training. On 27.12.1940 a positive answer was received from Sweden and a group of ten trainees from the War Pilot Course 2 was selected for a course which started on 11.2.1940 at Ekeby airfield near Eskilstuna. Training was officially arranged by Kungliga Svenska Aeroklubben with 20 swedish trainees as well. Finnish liaison officer was P. Virkki from AISY.

Trainer aircraft used were Klemm 35 B, Bücker Jungmann and Götaverken GV-28. Training ended on 10.4.1940 after which trainees had flown in average about 31 hours, slightly less than was planned. After the course in Sweden trainees were ordered to continue their training in Pilot Course 3 of ISK at Kauhava. Another similar course in Sweden was cancelled before it started.

Pilot course of AISY started also in Norway on 13.3.1940. It was actually financed by the Norwegians. Nine selected trainees from the War Pilot Course 2 as well were trained at Oslo by Wideröe's Flyveselskap AB (led by Lt. V. Videröe). Trainer aircraft type used was Klemm 35. Training lasted only less than a month because Germans' attack against Norway started on 9.4.1940. All trainees returned back to ISK on 29.4.1940 and they were ordered to Pilot Course 4 at Kauhava.
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Training in Supplement Units

After ISK training continued in training squadrons of supplement flying regiments where trainees were given extension or combat training [jatkokoulutus / taistelukoulutus]. Planes used were mainly obsolete but more demanding than they had been in basic training. After this period trainees knew the basics of air combat and learned flying various aircraft types. Pilot training lasted again at least two (usually three to five) months after which pilot trainees either stayed as auxiliary personnel in some of the training units (during which they gained more experience on flying) or were sent to combat squadrons for further training.

Training Squadron / T-LentoR 1 had initially 63 pilot and observer trainees. By the beginning of February 1940 60 of them had been moved to other training units. Squadron received more trainees at the end of January and in mid-February 1940 (three NCO pilots and four artillery observer officers). During the Winter War T-LentoR 1 sent 12 NCO pilots to LentoR 1: five cadre NCOs on 1.1.1940 and one on 2.2. and six reserve NCOs on 29.1.1940.

T-LentoR 2 trained fighter pilots at first in Flying Squadron 29 (LLv.29) and since 25.1.1940 in two training squadrons. The number of trainees varied between about 60 and 80. During the Winter War T-LentoR 2 sent a total of 94 fighter pilots to front squadrons: 41 officers, 34 NCOs and 19 foreign volunteer NCOs and officers. The total flying time of the regiment during the Winter War was 1.070 hours.

Training Squadron / T-LentoR 4 trained personnel for twin-engine bomber squadrons. During the Winter War front squadrons received a total of 10 officer and 6 NCO pilots, 36 (officer) observers and 20 MG gunner / radio operators.

Supplement Flight / T-LLv.39 was for training personnel for maritime reconnaissance duties. During the war flight trained 7 officers and 11 NCOs of which 7 NCO pilots and 5 (officer) observers were sent to front units.

During the Winter War supplement units trained a total of 140 (NCO and officer) pilots, 50 (officer) observers and 20 MG gunner / radio operators to front squadrons.
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Training in Combat Units

In combat squadrons newcomers received type training [tyyppikoulutus] and were trained to fly combat aircraft type(s). At the same time named pilot instructors gave the latest tactical and practical information needed in aerial combat. Training contained usually only a few flying hours. Depending on the situation and the need of pilots trainees started very soon flying together with the most experienced pilots of the squadron. After gaining some experience and proving ones' skills trainees were accepted to participate in more demanding combat missions.

In total pilot training lasted more than four months but its duration depended strongly on the trainee's initial skills and experience. Usually it took much longer. Any immature, reckless and irresponsible behaviour was not accepted. Many new pilots noticed that their promising career had ended rather shortly after the start and they were returned back to training units. In the worst case they anyway would have soon got killed in accident or in combat. Flying personnel and aircraft were too valuable to be wasted!

Especially fighter squadrons selected their personnel very carefully. Pilots with little or no talent for flying fighters in combat or shooting enemy planes down were soon replaced with more eager, able and competent ones. The most experienced ones were also temporarily moved to training or test duties. Many fighter pilots noticed that their career continued in some reconnaissance squadron or in more demanding twin-engined bomber squadron. Only a few bomber pilots could later became fighter pilots. Reconnaissance pilots were more successful because during the Winter War fighter flights were formed in two reconnaissance squadrons and numerous pilots succeeded in moving to fighter squadrons later.

Also many observers had received at least some pilot training and could serve as auxiliary pilots if needed. During the war the need for bomber pilots with good orientation skills was so high that some of the observers became pilots later.

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Training Units of the Finnish Air Force
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Total Strength of Elementary, Trainer and Liaison Aircraft
(Non-combat units had also combat planes which are not included in these two tables.)
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1.12.1939 Planes in
Working Order
Under Overhaul /
Repairs in Units

Total Number
of Planes

Front units 007 02 0=9
Supplement units 034 05 039
Air Fighting School (ISK) 056 06 062
Air Defence Staff (IPE) 005 - 005
Total Number of Planes 102 13 115

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15.3.1940 Planes in
Working Order
Under Overhaul /
Repairs in Units

Total Number
of Planes

Front units (2x MO, 2x ST, KA, 2x ?* ) 05 02 007
Supplement units 29 14 043
Air Fighting School (ISK) 54 13 067
Air Defence Staff (IPE) (JUj) - 01 001
Aviation Depot (Ilm.Var.) (MO) 01 - 001
Total Number of Planes 89 30 119
* Probably Waco and Raab-Katzenstein of Swedish volunteer unit F19.

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Ilmasotakoulu (ISK)
(Air Fighting School)

Kauhava

Koulun johtaja / School Leader
Lt.Col. 
R. Ahonius

.
Elementary and supplementary training of pilots, pilot instructors,
observers, radio operators and MG gunners.

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Esikunta (E/ISK)
(Headquarters)
.
Komentotoimisto (Tsto I)
(Command Office)
General Staff Officer
Capt.
Capt.
L. Larjo
P. Halonen
(16.1.40-)
Koulutustoimisto (Tsto II)
(Training Office)
Higher Training Officer
Maj.
Lt.Col.
R. Vainio
P. Waris
(23.12.39-)
Teknillinen toimisto (Tsto III)
(Technical Office)
Technical Supply Chief
Maj. M. Sainio
Taloustoimisto (Tsto IV)
(Household Office)
Household Chief
Capt. J. Nurmi
Lääkintätoimisto (Tsto V)
(Medical Office)
Physician
Capt.(Med.Res.) Y.-P. Karhunen

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During the Winter War ISK had the following airfields under its disposal:
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Kauhava
-
Laajalahti (Kokkola)
-
Vaasa (Mustasaari) (under construction)
-
Menkijärvi (Mänkijärvi) (camp airfield)
-
Lappajärvi (Karvala) (temporary camp ice airfield)

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Finnish Name (and Abbreviation)
(Name in English),
Notes
Unit Commander / Chief / Leader
.
.
Rank Name
Esikuntakomppania (EK/ISK) (HQ Company)

Opetusosasto (Teaching Department)
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- kurssit (courses)

- opettajat ja ohjaajat (teachers and instructors)

Huoltolaivue (Supply Squadron)
For maintaining and repairing aircraft used in the school.

Esikunta (HQ)
Mechanical Engineer

Koulukoneryhmä
(Elementary Trainer [Aircraft] Group)

Harjoituskoneryhmä
(Trainer [Aircraft] Group)
..

Lt.

Maj.
Lt.Col.

-

-

Maj.
.

.
Capt.(Eng.)

Lt.(Eng.Res.)
.

Lt.(Res.)

R. Väistö

R. Vainio
P. Waris
(23.12.39-)

(several)

(several)

M. Sainio
.

.
E. Östring

R. Ajo
.

H. Bergring

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Aircraft Used by ISK 1939 - 1940 1.12.39 15.3.40
Aero A-32GR (AEj) 1 -
VL Sääski I, II (SÄ) 8 11
VL Tuisku (TU) (pilot trainer) 4 5
VL Tuisku (TU) (observer trainer) 5 8
VL Viima II (VI) 17 17
Letov S 218 Smolik (SM) 17 16
de Havilland D.H.60X Moth (MO) 3 4
Gloster Gamecock II (GA) 1 -
Junkers K 43 (JU) 1 -
Junkers A 50 Junior (SK-1) 1 1
Expropriated aircraft:
Taylorcraft BC-12D (OH-KLA, OH-KLB -> TA-1, TA-2)
Taylor J-2 Cub (OH-SNA, OH-SNB -> CU-1, CU-2)
Junkers A 50ce Junior (OH-ABB -> JUj)
Klemm KL 25 d VII R (OH-?, OH-?)
.
2
2
-
-
.
2
1
-
2
Planes in Working Order + Out of Order 56 + 6 54 + 13

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Täydennyslentorykmentti 1 (T-LentoR 1)
(Supplement Flying Regiment 1)

Jämijärvi, ?.12.39- Kankaanpää

Komentaja / Commander
Lt.Col. 
L. Schalin

Subordinated to Flying Regiment 1 (LentoR 1) for training pilots and observer / MG gunners for the
liaison / short-range reconnaissance squadrons.

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Flying Unit
Finnish Name (and Abbreviation), Air-Bases, Notes
(Name in English)
Squadron Commander
.
.
Rank Name
Koulutuslaivue (Koul.Lv./T-LentoR 1)
(Training Squadron / Supplement Flying Regiment 1)
Karvia, occasionally also Jämijärvi and Parkano

Short-range reconnaissance and dive bomber training squadron.
.

Capt.
Maj.
U. Toivonen
A. Nisonen
(17.1.40-)

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Aircraft Used by T-LentoR 1 1939 - 1940 1.12.39 15.3.40
Aero A-32 (AEj) 3 7
VL Sääski (SÄ) 5 2
VL Tuisku (TU) 1 2
VL Kotka II (KA) 2 1
VL Viima II (VI) - 1
Blackburn Ripon IIF (RI) - 1
Fokker C.X (FK) 1 -
Fokker C.VE (FO) (20.2.1940-) - 1
Unknown planes (probably civilian D.H. Moths) 2 -
Planes in Working Order + Out of Order 10 + 4 7 + 8

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Täydennyslentorykmentti 2 (T-LentoR 2)
(Supplement Flying Regiment 2)

Parola

Komentaja / Commander
Maj. 
E. Nuotio

Subordinated to Flying Regiment 2 (LentoR 2) for training fighter pilots to its fighter squadrons.
The number of trainees varied between 60 and 80 officers and NCOs.
T-LentoR 2 and its training squadrons were suspended on 29.3.1940 -> LentoR 3 and T-LLv. 35.

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Flying Unit
Finnish Name (and Abbreviation), Air-Bases, Notes
(Name in English)
Squadron Commander / Flight Leader
.
.
Rank Name
Lentolaivue 29 (LLv.29) (-25.1.1940)
(Flying Squadron 29)
-25.1.40 Parola

Fighter training squadron. Squadron was suspended on 25.1.1940
and its personnel and planes were given to two new fighter
training squadrons.

I Lentue (I Flight)
Parola (southern side of the field)

II Lentue (II Flight)
Parola (northern side of the field)

III Lentue (III Flight) (?.12.1939-)
Osasto [Detachment] Tyrväntö
12.39- Tyrväntö (temporary ice airfield)
Became new II Squadron on 25.1.1940.
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I Laivue (I/T-LentoR 2) (25.1.1940-)
(I [Flying] Squadron / Supplement Flying Regiment 2)
25.1.40- Parola

Fighter training squadron. Formed on 25.1.1940.
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II Laivue (II/T-LentoR 2) (25.1.1940-)
(II [Flying] Squadron / Supplement Flying Regiment 2)
25.1.40- Tyrväntö

Fighter training squadron. Formed on 25.1.1940.
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Capt.
.
.

.
.
..

Lt.
.

Capt.
.

Capt.
.
.
.
.

Lt.
.
.

.
.

Capt.

K. Lejon (-25.1.40)
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P. Ervi (-25.1.40)
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K. Lejon (-25.1.40)
.

B. von Willebrandt
(?.12.39-25.1.40)
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P. Ervi (25.1.40-)
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B. von Willebrandt (25.1.40-)

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Aircraft Used by T-LentoR 2 1939 - 1940 1.12.39 31.1.40 2.40 15.3.40
Gloster Gamecock II (GA) 5 4 3 2 + 1
Bristol Bulldog IIA (BUj) (15.12.39-) - 1 2 0 + 1
Bristol Bulldog IVA (BU) - 1 8 5 + 1
Polikarpov I-15bis (VH) - - 2 2 + 0
Gloster Gauntlet II (GT) - - - 2 + 0
Asja J6A/B Jaktfalken (JF-219 / JF-224, 228) - 2 2 2 + 0
VL Pyry (PY-1) (20.12.39-) - 1 + 0 1 + 0 1 + 0
VL Kotka II (KA-145, 12.1.-13.1.40 KA-148) 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1
VL Tuisku (TU-156, 158, 162, 171) 4 3 + ? 3 + 0 3 + 0
de Havilland D.H.60X Moth (MO-102) 1 1 1 1 + 0
Planes in Working Order + Out of Order 10 + 1 total 15 total 24 19 + 4
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Detachment Tyrväntö (III Flight / Flying Squadron 29, later II Training Squadron / T-LentoR 2) operated at least with the following planes:
- Gloster Gamecock II
(one plane)
- Bristol Bulldog IVA (BU-70, 72)
- Gloster Gauntlet II (GT- 395, 396) *
- Polikarpov I-15bis (VH-11) *
- Asja J6B Jaktfalk (JF-228)
- VL Tuisku (TU-158)
- VL Kotka II (KA-145)
- de Havilland D.H.60X Moth (MO-102)

* It is unclear if belonged to flight / squadron but at least have temporarily been at Tyrväntö (there were only six light aircraft sheds).
.

T-LentoR 2 had the following individual planes in its disposal (in addition to those mentioned above):

Gloster Gamecock II

GA-43
Damaged in forced landing before the Winter War on 20.10.1939. Sgt N. Satomaa was not injured.
Plane was removed from FAF inventory in 1941.

GA-44
Damaged in forced landing before the Winter War on 20.10.1939. Cpl M. Aalto was injured.
Plane was removed from FAF inventory in 1939.

GA-45
On 24.2.1940 stalled and damaged. Cpl R. Liikola was not injured.
Plane was removed from FAF inventory in 1940.

GA-46
On 13.12.1939 damaged slightly in a collision with another plane at Parola airfield (pilot Cpl J. Dahl).
On 18.12.1939 "ran away" prior to take-off and damaged. Cpl H. Ketola was not injured.
On 31.1.1940 plane was relieved to State Aircraft Factory (VL) for repairs.

GA-49
On 11.12.1939 crashed and destroyed completely at Parola airfield during firing exercise.
Cpl (Res.) V. Snellman was killed.

GA-50
On 12.1.1940 landed at too slow speed. Plane was slightly damaged, pilot Sgt L. Lehtonen was not injured.
On 12.1.1940 plane was relieved to State Aircraft Factory (VL) for repairs.

GA-55
No damages during the Winter War.

GA-58
On 10.3.1940 crashed in a spin probably after flying in formation at too slow speed with another GA at 50 m high.
2Lt. P. Linnala was seriously injured and died on 13.3.1940.

Bristol Bulldog IIA

BUj-214
Arrived from Sweden on 15.12.1939. On 2.3.1940 crashed in a spin and destroyed completely.
Cpl (Res.) J. Liikola was killed.

BUj-216 (later BU-216)
Arrived from Sweden on 15.12.1939. On 7.2.1940 damaged in landing at Parola airfield.
2Lt. U. Sarjamo was not injured.

Bristol Bulldog IVA

BU-61
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. Damaged in forced landing on 7.2.1940.
Cpl H. Ketola was injured. Plane was removed from FAF inventory in 1940.

BU-63
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. Damaged when taxied off the end of the airstrip after landing on 17.2.1940.
Cpl L. Narkaus was not injured.

BU-66
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 7.2.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

BU-67
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 31.1.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

BU-68
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. Landed hard in too steep angle to Parola airfield with minor damages.
Danish volunteer pilot Lt. C. Kristensen was not injured.

BU-70
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 after the Winter War on 16.3.1940.

BU-72
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

BU-73
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. On 5.2.1940 stalled in landing at Parola and damaged.
2Lt. V. Taina was not injured. On 5.3.1940 plane was relieved to State Aircraft Factory (VL) for repairs.

BU-74
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 2.2.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

Polikarpov I-15bis

VH-10 (later VH-1 -> IH-1)
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 23.2.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

VH-11 (later VH-2 -> IH-2)
Relieved to T-LentoR 2 on 26.2.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

Gloster Gauntlet II

GT-395
Relieved toT-LentoR 2 on 10.3.1940. No damages during the Winter War.

GT-396
Relieved toT-LentoR 2 on 10.3.1940. No damages during the Winter War.
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Täydennyslentorykmentti 4 (T-LentoR 4)
(Supplement Flying Regiment 4)

Luonetjärvi

Komentaja / Commander:
Capt. 
A. Eskola (-30.12.39, 29.1.-16.2.1940)
Lt. Y. Malmari (acting 1.1.-29.1.40)
Lt.(Res.) O. Vasamies (16.2.40-)

Subordinated to Flying Regiment 4 (LentoR 4) for training twin engined pilots, observers and MG gunners.
T-LentoR 4
was formed from Flying Squadron 42 (LLv.42) which was initially without planes.
In January 1940 Capt. A. Eskola was in Great Britain receiving new BLs for the bomber squadron.
LLv.42 was re-formed in February 1940.

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Flying Unit
Finnish Name (and Abbreviation), Air-Base, Notes
(Name in English)
Squadron Commander
.
.
Rank Name
Koulutuslaivue (Koul.Lv./T-LentoR 4)
(Training Squadron / Supplement Flying Squadron 4)
Luonetjärvi

Twin-engined bomber training squadron. For advanced training
squadron loaned BLs of LLv.44.

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Capt.
.
Lt.
Lt.(Res.)
A. Eskola (-30.12.39,
29.1.-16.2.1940)
Y. Malmari (acting 1.1.-29.1.40)
O. Vasamies
(16.2.40-)

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Aircraft Used by T-LentoR 4 1939 - 1940 1.12.39 15.3.40
Avro Anson I (AN) 3 1
VL Viima II (VI) 1 2
VL Kotka II (KA) 1 1
Junkers K 43 (JU) - 2
de Havilland D.H.89A Dragon Rapide (OH-BLA, OH-BLB) * 2 1
Planes in Working Order + Out of Order 7 + 0 8 + 1
* Civilian passenger planes of the Finnish airlines Aero. Planes were occasionally in use of
Supreme HQ (PM) and Finnish Government.

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.
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Separate Supplement Flying Squadrons
30.11.1939 - 13.3.1940
.
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Flying Unit
Finnish Name (and Abbreviation), Air-Bases, Notes
(Name in English)
Squadron Commander /
Flight Leader
.
.
Rank Name
Täydennyslentolaivue 39 (T-LLv.39)
(Supplement Flying Squadron 39)
Ruissalo (Turku), 1.40- Pori

Maritime supplement training squadron. All planes were initially
equipped with floats and later with skis or wheels. Under the command
of Air Commander / Naval Forces Staff. Squadron was suspended after
the Winter War.

1. Lentue (1st Flight) (LK-2, LK-3, Waco, 20.2.40- RI)
Fjärrsund (Åland Islands)
Subordinated to Flying Squadron 36 (LLv.36) / Naval Forces Staff.

2. Lentue / Koulutuslentue (2nd / Training Flight)
Ruissalo (Turku), 1.40- Pori
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Capt.
Capt.
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Capt.
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Lt.(Res.)

L. Collin
L. Bremer
(1.1.40-)
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O. Malinen
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K. Lehmus

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Aircraft Used by T-LLv.39 1939 - 1940

1.12.39

15.3.40
VL Tuisku (TU) 2 -
Blackburn Ripon IIF (RI)

2

1
Junkers K 43 (JU) - 1

de Havilland D.H.60X Moth (MO)

1 1
Waco YKS-7 (OH-AFA -> later WA-1) 1 -
Cessna C-37 Airmaster (OH-VKF -> later CE-1) 1 -
Fairchild 24 J 60 De Luxe (OH-RIM -> later FD-1) 1 1
Planes in Working Order + Out of Order 7 + 1 1 + 3

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Sources: PELMA1, KESTE33, PAJRI1, PERVE1, SAAAH2, HAAAT1, HAAAT2, TERIS1, ANTOS3, TALHI
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© 2002 - 31.1.2005 Harri Anttonen