bifurcate points


Early Archaic: 8,900 to 8,000 BP

DESCRIPTION: Because of their distinctive basal characteristice, bifurcate forms were the first Early Archaic points noted in Ontario (Noble 1975b). Since that time, numerous finds of these points have been made, but with few exceptions remain under reported. These finds include forms reminiscent of all types in the Southeast, despite the fact that they have often been treated as synonymous with the "Lecroy" point type.
Components of this horizon have been extensively investigated in the southeastern USA, and a major diagnostic is the presence of point forms with deeply notched bifurcated bases. Some of the extreme variation is due to heavy reworking and resharpening. However, others may reflect hafting design changes through time. As many as four time-sequential bifurcate point types can be recognized in the Southeast.

DISTRIBUTION: Various styles of bifurcate points have been found throughout southern Ontario, but all are positively dated as Early Archaic.

RAW MATERIAL: Bifurcate points are known to be made of materials such as Kettle Point, Onondaga and Haldimand. Use of certain outcrops of the latter two cherts has been documented respectively at the Slack-Caswell (W.A. Fox) and Allan (R.Parker 1986a) sites. Interestingly enough, no exotic cherts such as those from Ohio sources appear to have been used, as they were on earlier components.

AGE AND CULTURE: Bifurcate points occur in the same stratigraphic sequence at numerous sites and are firmly dated by C-14 to between 8900 and 8000 B.P. The earliest point forms such as such as the St. Alban's type are corner-notched as well as bifurcated, indicating continuity from the preceding horizon. Later types, such as LeCroy and Kanahwa are stemmed, and begin a sequence of stemmed points which continue into the later Middle Archaic.

REFERENCES: The GREEN BIBLE ////////////////////////////////.