Paleo-Indian: 10,500 to 9,500 BP

DESCRIPTION: Crowfield points range in size from 40 to 65 mm in length, 22 to 35 mm in width, and 3 to 5 mm in thickness. Basal width is 13 to 23 mm and concavity depth ranges from 2 to 4 mm. These points lack fishtails and are very broad and thin with a flat biconvex to plano-convex cross section. They have small pointed ears and the blade expands markedly from base to mid-point. The points exhibit a collateral retouch which does not consistently terminate at any one point on the mid-line. Because of the oblique lateral basal edge orientation vis a vis the mid-line of the point, retouch tends to be somewhat oblique from each edge, almost in a chevron pattern near the base. These points are well fluted, with flutes extending from 1/2 to 3/4 of the point length. There are often two or three flutes to a face. Bases are consistently finished with a short, abrupt, parallel retouch in the basal cavity. Lateral basal edges and concavity are lightly ground.

DISTRIBUTION: The Crowfield is found throughout the central to eastern Great Lakes area. Some samples from the Reagen site in Vermont (Ritchie, 1953) may also be of this type.

RAW MATERIAL: The use of Onondaga chert was predominant at the type site, but specimens were also made from Fossil Hill chert from the Collingwood area as well.

AGE AND CULTURE: No Carbon-14 dates are available for Crowfield points, but they are believed to be the latest fluted point form in Ontario and date to about 10,500 or 10,400 B.P.

REFERENCES: London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society. B. Deller and C. Ellis, 1984 Crowfield Fluted Points. KEWA 84-5.5. Justin, 1995, pp. 18-20. Overstreet, 2003, p. 113.