|Early Dynastic I & II|
|Ancient Sumerian boat|
The Sumerians compiled a list that purported to show all the kings who ruled Sumer from Creation to the final Semitic conquest. The Sumerian Kings List covers both mythical and historical times. The first kings reigned in pre-historic times and lived for unbelievably long periods of time. These ancient kings ruled successively from the five original pre-flood cities. This article is a political history, a kings list, and so I have chosen to list the "mythical" kings instead of describing the Ubaid and Uruk periods.
|Map of Ancient Sumer|
According to some Sumerian traditions, Eridu was the first city built by man. It was the home of Adapa, the so-called Babylonian Adam. If it is not the oldest city, it does contain the oldest known temples. The oldest temple level dates from the mid-sixth millennium. Eridu was dedicated to Enki, the god of water and of wisdom. While it is an ancient city, this is the only time it was ever in a position of power, and was probably a part of the city-state of Ur in historical times.
Alulim-Reigned 28,800 years.
Alialgar-Reigned 36,000 years.
Then Eridu was abandoned and the kingship carried off to Badtibira.
A city located on the Sumerian Plain roughly between Ur and Lagash. Dumuzi was it's tutelary deity. It was unimportant in historical times.
Enmenluanna-Reigned 43,200 years.
Enmengalanna-Reigned 28,800 years.
Dumuzi-Called the shepard. Reigned 36,000 years.
Then Badtibira was abandoned and the kingship carried off to Larak.
The location of Larak has not been positively identified, but is believed to have been on the Tigris, east of Kish. The city was dedicated to Pabilsag, the god of trees.
Ensipazianna-Reigned 28,800 years.
Then Larak was abandoned and the kingship carried off to Sippar.
The most northern of the Sumerian cities. Sippar's tutelary deity was Utu (Semitic Shamash), the sun-god and the god of justice.
Enmeduranna-Reigned 21,000 years.
Then Sippar was abandoned and the kingship carried off to Shuruppak.
The home city of Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah. He was a prince or noble of the town, possibly the son of Ubartutu. It is also possible that he did rule as king. Shuruppak was dedicated to Ansud, the goddess of grain. She was also known as Sud and as Enlil's consort, Ninlil.
Ubartutu-Reigned 18,600 years.
Then the flood swept over the land. After the flood, Kish became the seat of government.
There are two other versions of the Kings List, both from later dates. Both have ten kings instead of eight, and both insert their respective cities into the equation. The Larsa version dates from the Gutian or Ur III Period. The last version was written by a Babylonian priest named Berosus during the Seleucid Period (c.250 BC) and uses Greek-like names for the kings.
|Alulium of Eridu||Same||Aloros of Babylon|
|Alialgar of Eridu||Alalmar of Eridu||Alaparos of unknown|
|Enmenluanna of Badtibira||Enmenluana of Badgurgurru||Amelon of Pautbiblon|
|Kichunna of Larsa||Ammenon of Pautbiblon|
|Enmengalanna of Badtibira||Enmengalanna of Badgurgurru||Amegalaros of Pautbiblon|
|Dumuzi of Badtibira||Dumuzu of Badgurgurru||Daonos of Pautbiblon|
|Ensipazianna of Larak||Sibzianna of Larak||Euedorachos of Pautbiblon|
|Enmeduranna of Sippar||same||Amempsinos of Laragchos|
|Ubartutu of Shuruppak||Ubarratum of Shuruppak||Otiartes of Laragchos|
|(Ziusudra of Shuruppak)||Zinsuddu of Shuruppak||Xisouthros of unknown|
The Larsa version is a rather faithful copy of the original with a couple of exceptions: Larsa was added so as to bring prestige to that city and Badtibira is called Badgurgurra. Some scholars believe that Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah, was the son of the last king of Shuruppak. Zinsuddu is probably Ziusudra. The Babylonian version is worthless from an historical prospective. Not only is Babylon the first city, but the other cities and the rulers are unrecognizable in their Hellenized names.
|Ruler being granted kingship by his god|
All the kings of the period from the flood to the historical age ruled in Kish. About half of them have Semitic names, meaning that Semites were established in Sumer, or at least the northern part, even at this ancient date and that not all interaction between the two groups was hostile. There is reason to believe that the kings were at least partly historical.
Gaur-reigned 1200 years.
Gulla-Nidaba-Annapad-Reigned 960 years.
Pala-Kinatim-Reigned 900 years.
Nangishlishma-Reigned an unknown period, because the tablet is damaged.
Bahina-Reigned an unknown period, because the tablet is damaged.
Buanum-Reigned 840 years.
Kalibum-Reigned 960 years.
Galumum-Reigned 840 years.
Zukakip-Reigned 900 years.
Atab-Reigned 600 years.
Mashda-Son of Atab. Reigned 840 years.
Arurum-Son of Mashda. Reigned 720 years.
Arurum was followed by Etana.
|Early Dynastic I & II|