ARCANES V 2.1 - Jan.2024- Data Net Access

Axis:

The line through a sphere about which the solid bodies rotates. On Earth, the rotation axis passes through the North and south geographic poles.

Asean:

Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Japan and Australia-New Zealand dominate ASEAN. After Taiwan annexion and Indonesian civil war, a military alliance has also been set up.

Airships:

After the petroleum crisis and due to UNO environmental laws, new Airships lines have been lines launched by Major Corporation. Crushed between sub orbital lines and the new airships, the civilian planes are now reduced to express lines and medical evacuation.

Ali Kemal (Al Hadji):

Leader of the new jihad movement. Born in Cairo in 1980, killed in Badgad in 2020. He has united within ten years three major countries Arabic countries (Irak, Syria and Saudi Arabia) ; creating the Unified Islamic Republic. He conducted border wars against Iran, Israel and an international coalition, which stopped his expansion. His assassination left the new regional power divided and on the verge of civil war.

Active Sensor

A sensor such as radar that emits a signal that is modified when it reaches the target or decoy.

ATP

Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing. Preceded by constant sensor surveillance of an area. Acquisition occurs when a target is detected. After detection, a target is Tracked or followed by sensors. Weapons are then Pointed at the target.

Asteroids:

Orbiting bodies deriving in space. Located in two main areas in the solar systems, known as inner and external barriers. Most of them are a mixture of ice and rock but other has very valuable scarce materials in their components. First probes have already the inner region and some corporations plan exploitation of these bodies.

Asteroid Belt:

The region of space extending from 2.2 to 3.3 AU between Mars and Jupiter. Most of the asteroids orbit within this zone. Also called the Inner Belt to distinct it from the Kuiper Belt

Ares:

Mars colonization project scheduled over fifty years. Supported by UNO and the major space powers, the project plans a first phase of exploration and in a second stage a global warming, through asteroids throwing and permafrost exploitation process that should turn Mars into a blue world. Ecological movements and corporations have criticized the project for antagonist interest.

Arcology:

Immense 3-dimensional infrastructure with multi-level organization. They offer all type of services and leisure activities to their residents. Mostly developed in Japan and California.

Albedo:

The ratio of the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of incident light; a measure of the reflectivity or intrinsic brightness of an object (a white, perfectly reflecting surface would have an albedo of 1.0; a black perfectly absorbing surface an albedo of 0.0).

Alpha Centauri:

Alpha Centauri is the closest stellar system to the sun but also because it is one of the relatively few places in the Milky Way Galaxy that may offer terrestrial life conditions. If humanity looks for intelligent life elsewhere, then Alpha Centauri is an excellent candidate. Alpha Centauri lies 4.35 light-years from the Sun. But it is actually a triple star system.

The two brightest components Alpha Centauri A and B form a binary. They orbit each other in 80 years with a mean separation of 23 astronomical units. The third member of the system Alpha Centauri C lies 13,000 AU from A and B, 400 times the distance between the Sun and Neptune.

Alpha Centauri C lies measurably closer to us than the other two: It is only 4.22 light-years away, and it is the nearest individual star to the Sun. Because of this proximity, Alpha Centauri C is also called Proxima Centauri.

Armor ( spacecraft ):

Armor is generally made from a special polymer-ceramite composite with good heat conduction and limited flexibility. Sometimes, a special mesh of artificial diamond fibers is added for extra strength and durability, although this increases the cost of the material. Special care is taken to include limited radiation-absorbing elements within the material as well as making sure there are reduced possibilities of a radiation cascade should the armor be hit by high energy cosmic rays.

Atom:

The smallest indivisible unit of matter, that retains the properties of an element.

ASAT:

Anti-Satellite weapon

AKV:

Autonomous Kill Vehicle, a drone weapon.

Airbrake:

Deceleration of a vessel when entering an orbit. Instead of retro launchers, the vessel brakes entering the higher atmosphere thank to his aerodynamic effect. This maneuver allows to reduce fuel needed and increased accordingly the cargo load or the speed of the ship.

Aero shells

Crew less reentry vehicle designed to transport a cargo module from low orbit to the surface. The hull is constructed extremely light carbon composites and non-ablative ceramic heat shield.

Aerosol weapons:

The individual weapon is a short range one, it can be used to widespread chemical or corrosive agents directly on an opponent or a vehicle.

The larger versions are mass destruction weapons dropped by airplanes, missiles, and rockets or used for terrorist attacks; they are conceived to hit large civilian or military population. The third version has been developed has a defensive weapons to protect vessels under a shield of particles against energetic weapons or sensors.

Aeroponic:

Plants culture without soil. Developed to provide food and oxygen in a micro gravity environment. The plants grown on shelters and are feed by nutritive liquids.

Anti matter:

Matter constituted of particles of identical mass and of spin charge opposed to normal matter. The controlled collision of matter and anti matter could develop infinite energy.

Antarctica:

The Antarctic treaty has been renewed but restrictions have been removed on some points among others mineral resources and military presence. Several nations have claimed territories and mining bases on the white continent, which is now perceived, has a major geo strategic point.

ARG:

The triad of critical factors to survive in space: Atmosphere, Radiation, Gravity.

ACPA:

Advanced Combat Personal Armor. The most recent development in space military weapons. It combines an exoskeleton and a powered spacesuit with maneuver jets. The ACPA has been tested by USAF during combat maneuvers conducted on the ISS.

Astro biology:

Science including the study of the evolution of life, the chemistry that leads to the formation of life, and the possibility that life has evolved or may evolve on other planets. Since visits to other worlds were limited, until Mars landing, to robotic probes, most research is based on extreme environments on Earth. Antarctica has been used as an analog for Mars, and deep-sea hydro thermal vents ecosystems have been proposed as analogs for possible ecosystems on Europa.

Adhocracy:

A non-bureaucratic networked organization. This form is common in organizations such as law firms, consulting companies and research universities. Such organizations and institutions must continually readjust to a changing array of projects, each requiring different combinations of skills and other resources. These organizations depend on many rapidly shifting project teams and much lateral communication among these relatively autonomous, entrepreneurial groups

Altimetry

The measurement of elevation or altitude.

Artificial Intelligence (AI):

The first experimental AI has been created in a MIT laboratory in 2021.The concept was based on neuronal network association theory of Skinner and Fujimori. The AI has been tested for six months before showing signs of disturbance A new generation is currently being developed by a European team in Toulouse University.

Anthropomorphism:

Cultural/philosophical movement claiming the Earth and human beings have a special place in the history

AU:

Standard interplanetary measurement. Astronomical Unit. 93.000.000 miles or 500 light-seconds.

Barnardís Star:

This star is the second nearest to our Solar System at 5.97 light years. From this distance, it follows that the fast apparent motion corresponds to an unusually high velocity. In addition, this star is approaching us rapidly at 87 miles per second, so that the combination of both indicates a space velocity of about 103 miles per second.

The star will reach a minimum distance of less then 4 light years in about 8,000 years, when its proper motion will have reached 25 arc seconds per year and its brightness will be about magnitude 8.6.

Big Bang:

The initial explosive event marking the beginning of the universe, and responsible for the observed expansion of the universe.

Bio engineering:

Law strictly codifies application of genetic engineering. Regulations have been passed on cloning process and DNA modification. Over the last ten years, some animals cloning have been authorized by United Nations for lost species like Tasmanian wolf. Human cloning is still a dream while tissue and organs can be reproduced on a small scale.

Bio mimetic:

Genetic technology inspired by animals and insects cover capacities. Fibers are treated with reactive cells to adapt to luminosity and dominant environment. Some Special Forces units tested them on the field during the second Cuban war.

Beacon:

Down link from a spacecraft that immediately indicates the state of the spacecraft as being one of several possible states by virtue of the presence and/or frequency of the sub carrier.

Biosphere:

Animals, Vegetal, Mineral that are constituting the life forms of a planet.

Black hole:

The end-point of a very massive starís life. Gravity acts to compress a large mass into a volume that gets smaller, eventually leaving an infinitely dense point in space or "singularity".

Border:

Limits of human exploration in the solar system. Around 2030, probes will have reached Pluto; the unknown space will be the Kuiper belt and beyond.

Beanstalk:

Carbon Diamond towers stretching from planetary surface to synchronous orbit, allowing low-cost interface transportation. A strong cable lowered from a geo synchronous satellite and anchored to the ground (often with a small asteroid at the outer end to provide some extra tension and stability).

This will provide cheap and simple access to space. The first beanstalk could be completed within the next twelve years.

Brown dwarf:

An object between 0.013 and 0.080 solar masses (13 to 80 Jupiter-masses): too small for normal nuclear fusion but big enough to fuse deuterium. Brown dwarfs are larger than planets but smaller than stars.

Cerbere:

Enhanced dog by genetic manipulation with increase strength, senses and dexterity.

Asteroid from the Inner Belt

Chondrite

A stony meteorite, composed of finely crystallized material

China:

China in the year 2024 has seen tremendous change since the last twenty years After the reunification of Taiwan in 2021 and the economic reforms that have followed, China has raised to a major regional power status.

They lack technological skills and industrial basis to challenge the United States or Japan but they present a threat for India and Russia. The military tensions are now growing in the South China Sea and along the Mongolian borders,

China major contribution in the last ten years has been their colonization program of Solar systems, their success being their lunar mission in 2018. The second mission was a tragic failure and they were then eclipsed by the Mars mission in 2021. But two new missions are planned on the moon and probes have been launched to explore Jupiter moons.

China has also been severely hit by ecological disasters. Floods, tides on the coastal areas and desert expansion in the southern provinces. The reduction in land areas, the overwhelmed urban population and the need for new political reforms have created a major turmoil.

The Chinese Popular Army has benefited from a modernization program thanks to the new economic policy and some transfer of technology. She still lacked of state of the art technology and has been more involved in security tasks than in real combat operations.

Cloning:

The application of this technology has reached the bio medical market in 2018, date of the first human organism replication in a research center of Yokohama. Despite this breakthrough human genome, the law in most countries prohibits manipulation or replication. UNO has issued restrictive recommendations on bio ethics.

Some countries allow members/organs growing and a black market of cloned parts and medical tourism has widespread in the last years. Medical corporations are still conducting research programs on full human cloning. The main obstacle is the brain tape and the neural system; it is still a science fiction dream. For a few years at least...

The animal cloning is allowed in most countries, except some fundamentalist states. The first application were to clone domestic pets like cats and dogs, then UNO under ecologist has launched large scale programs to reintroduce disappeared species by working on genes from close species. Around twenty animals have been genetically recreated after approval by international bio ethics commission.

A less known application, is the adaptation of existing species to specific functions and the creation of enhanced animals. Some very advanced projects concern the uplift of animal's intelligence to a pre-human level.

Chromosomes:

Self-replicating structures within cells on which genes are located

Cryonics:

The practice of freezing the body at Ė238įF while vital functions are set at a minimal level. Brain may be seriously damaged by such hard treatment and scientists are still working on this major defect. The cryogenics are the only current solution to long distance stellar travel.

Cryobiology:

The study of the effect of low temperatures (below the freezing point of water) on biological systems. A primary goal of this field is the preservation and long term storage of organ systems such as hearts, kidneys, etc. for use in transplantation.

This goal has not yet been reached and currently only individual cells and organisms consisting of only a very few cells (such as embryos) can be successfully treated, stored, and revived.

COMINT:

Collection and analysis of information by interception and decrypting of communication flows

COMSAT:

Communication Satellite in geo synchrony orbit which relay surface-to-surface information

Cyberdeck:

Computer console linked to a neural interface and communication network

Corporations:

Corporations have a growing influence in the nation states politics in particular due to their role in research of raw materials and for their contribution to the space programs.

The rise in power of transnational corporations added to the development of transnational states like the European Union or the Asean alliance has created new legitimate and new allegiance.

Some Corporations revenues are higher than some small states economies but lack of political representation, conducted to particular situation where some countries have sold their administration or transfer their political powers to corporations.

There exist currently six corporate states mainly in Micronesia and Africa. UNO refuse to recognize these countries but several bilateral and trade agreements has been concluded with them by member states.

Comet:

A small body of ice and dust, in orbit about the sun, which can develop a tail of vaporized ices, and a coma of dust and gas.

Coma:

A roughly spherical region of diffuse gas which surrounds the nucleus of a comet. Together, the coma and the nucleus form the comet's head

Chromosphere:

The transition region between the Sun's relatively cools photosphere, and the hot corona.

Corona:

The outermost region of the solar atmosphere, consisting of ionized gas at temperatures of several million degrees Kelvin.

Charon:

The moon of Pluto. It is considered as a transneptunian. In Greek mythology, ferryman of the River Styx, who carried the dead to the underworld.

Conjunction

An inferior planet is said to be "in inferior conjunction" when it is directly between the Earth and the Sun. It is "in superior conjunction" when it is on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth.

A superior planet is "in conjunction" when it is on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth. A superior planet obviously cannot have an inferior conjunction.

When the Earth is at inferior conjunction with respect to an observer on a superior planet we say that planet is "in opposition" from Earth's perspective

Centrifugal force:

The outward-tending apparent force of a body revolving around another body.

Centripetal acceleration:

The inward acceleration of a body revolving around another body.

Coriolis Force:

The force generated by a rotating body to "bend" normal currents in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geo sphere.

Cryptography

Techniques and systems of encrypting and decrypting communications and information

Cyclers:

Massive open structure which permanently cycle between two planets, one set in motion a cycler needs very few energy to maintain orbital position allowing large amount of cargo.

Specialized OTV intercept them as they pass near the planet and transfer cargo and passengers to surface. The first cyclers are planned to be operational between Mars and Earth in the year 2030.

Data:

By 2010, new diamonds disks were used to store data. Such cube of 1-cm square can store up to 100 gigabyte of data or several hundred files and images.

Density:

A measure of how much matter is contained in a volume. The density of an object is defined as its mass divided by its volume. A neutron star, in which a solar mass is confined to a sphere whose radius is roughly the size of Manhattan, is a very high-density object.

DIA

Defense Intelligence Agency. Department of Defense combat support agency and an important member of the United States Intelligence Community. It manages foreign military intelligence.

Djin

Familiar name for a data information agent. Low level Artificial Agent

Demography:

In the first half of the new century, the increase of Earth population has seriously endangered Earth natural resources. A major characteristic of Earth demographic were the disparity between the developed countries, with an aging or declining population, and the under developed countries, with a growing youth population.

This was leading to increase pressure of migrants from Africa, Asia and South America on the borders of Europe, Russia and North America.

Another factor was the exodus from rural to urban areas, ten cities are now above 15 millions, none of them being located in Europe or in the States. By 2025 Earth population reaches 8.0 billions, and projections indicate 9.0 billions in 2050.

United Nations has promoted an enforcement of birth control but they had to face major cultural and political obstacles in particular in Asia, Africa and Brazil.

Deep Space Objects Tracking:

Program launched by NASA, ESA and NASDA in 2010. The main objective was establishment of a 3D mapping and tracking of major objects of the inner system. It relays mainly on multi-mirrors ground and orbital telescopes and sensors.

During the last years, after the construction of the lunar observatory, the mission was extended to the inner asteroid belt. Major corporations started financing the program to detect raw materials on these bodies.

DSCC

Deep Space Communications Complex, composed of three sites at Goldstone, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia; spaced about equally around the Earth for continuous tracking of deep-space vehicles.

Delta-V:

Velocity change, the maximum speed a spacecraft can attain before exhausting his reaction mass

Delta

A sub orbital fighter develop to attack satellites, orbital stations and others manned vehicles

Drake's Equation

Drake's Equation allows researchers to determine the number of intelligent extra-terrestrials in our galaxy that would be able to communicate with us. In order to determine the chances, radio astronomer Frake Drake came up with an equation that estimates the number of civilizations in the galaxy which might be capable of interstellar radio communication

Dark Nebula:

Term used for cosmic gas and particles that have no near stars to light them up.

Deep Space Object:

An object such as nebula, galaxy, star cluster that is beyond our solar system.

Drugs:

A new generation of synthetic drugs reached the streets in the years 2010. They were developed on basis of the last DNA findings, and allowed mental and physical enhancements. The bad side were the dependence effects and psychic distress. Rumors mention military laboratories had developed and spread in the population some drugs...

Unlike Europe where tolerance regulation was passed during the last years, the United States reinforce prohibition laws. The drug war conducted to the American intervention in the years 2020; which degenerates in long and painful guerrilla warfare.

DNA:

Complete mapping of the human genome was completed in the early 2020's. These leads to a genetic revolution where direct applications were eradication of several genetic malfunctions and scanning programs of embryos.

In the near future, we expect enhancement programs of physical and mental capacities and life length extension will overset this prevention aspect.

Doppler:

Distortion of the waves due to the movement between two stellar objects

Dyne

A unit of force equal to the force required to accelerate a 1-g mass 1 cm per second per second. Compare with Newton

Ecopoesis:

Creation of an ecosystem on a previously lifeless world.

Event horizon:

The distance from a black hole within which nothing, not even light, can escape

Electronic Warfare

Each modern fighting vehicle carries a host of built-in defensive electronic modules. Some break up their radar signature, while others interfere or lurk with the opponent's targeting equipment. They are also combined with deflective and ablative armor materials.

As a result, the vehicles have a much smaller sensor signature that expected , and combat is once again short-ranged; weapons that could hit a target thousands of kilometers ahead are used almost at visual range.

ECM:

Electronic Counter Measures. Electronic warfare techniques and systems

Equator

An imaginary circle around a body which is everywhere equidistant from the poles, defining the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres.

Encryption:

The government allows Civil and commercial programs, as long as their surveillance computers can handle the keys. The military programs have grown in importance and sophistication along the computer age.

The major recent wars have seen attacks and counter strikes on computer networks and data links where the encryption programs were the last lines of defense. There is an important black market for illegal multi-key coded encryption programs.

Earth:

The home of humanity. Third planet of the solar system

Name

Earth

Primary Star

Sol

Orbit

1.00 AU

Diameter

12.700 KM

Satellites

The Moon

Density

5.520 kg m≥.

Gravity

1.00 G

Atmosphere

Nitrogen, Oxygen.

Pressure

1.00 atmosphere at sea level

Population

8,055,000,000;humans. Other sentient races: dolphins, whales

 

Electromagnetic spectrum:

The entire range of electromagnetic waves, from radio to gamma rays.

Electron:

A subatomic particle possessing negative charge.

Equinox

The equinoxes are defined as the time when day and night are of equal length. The vernal equinox marks the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, and the autumnal equinox marks the beginning of autumn in the northern hemisphere.

ESA

European Space Agency. It was formed in 1975 to coordinate and develop civilian space programs of the member states. It counts today 20 members and operates two space facilities in Guinea and in Senegal. ESA is the major commercial operator in the satellites market and plans to increase its domination with the new Ariane 6 high capacity modular space launcher.

ESP

Extra-Sensory Perception. General term of art for what was classically called clairvoyance and now called "remote sensing" by para psychologists. The term ESP was coined as a term of art by early para psychologists at the Rhine Institute and also included telepathic and empathic ability.

ELINT

Electronic intelligence. All means of collecting information through electronic systems

Engineering:

Eugenic genetic engineering, the selection of specific genetic traits to improve or correct defects. Since 2020, the new eugenic science has widespread among the developed countries. Almost every embryo is now scanned for genetic defaults (legal) and some are improved (illegal)

Environment:

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased the last ten years and every major city in the developed world has now alert system and safety measures in place when pollution caps are reached.

The global warming hits severely the coastal regions; flooding and tropical hurricanes devastated Caribbean, Florida, Bangladesh, south China, Japan and Mexico. Due to unusual climatic conditions much of Asian and African agricultural areas are affected by food shortages and are destabilized by massive migration of population to the urban areas.

European Union:

First world power in terms of economy and demography and second in terms of political and military influence. The Union encompasses thirty countries with borders from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean area. It has gone through several reforms to reinforce his structure despite economic crisis and internal tensions.

By 2010, the Union has adopted a federal constitution and elected his first president. The reinforcement of cross border cooperation and the reforms of the union military forces have allowed the Union to acquire a regional power status in the Balkans and in Africa.

The Union has also established a buffer zone along his borders with cooperation and development agreements with non-members in order to restrain the migration movements. The associated states include the Magrehb, Turkey, Ukraine and Albania, which have trade and military treaty with the EU.

Extrasolar planet:

A planet orbiting a star other than the sun.

Exo-Armors:

The exo-armors (armored exo-skeleton) are the ultimate evolution of the personal combat suit of the early twenty-first century. They combine advanced sensors and weapons, reflective composite armor and enhanced movement capacities. Due to their cost and their autonomy limitation they are currently confine to strike mission and fire-support roles.

Fermi Paradox:

"If there are other intelligent beings in the Universe, why aren't they here?". Since it appears to be quite possible for a technological species to spread across the galaxy in less than 10 million years (using replicating machines) or otherwise change things on such a large scale that it would be very visible, and that such civilization should have developed for several centuries in other parts of the galaxy .

The lack of such evidence is puzzling or implies that other technological civilizations doesn't exist or that we are the most advanced or the most older.... There have been other attempts to explain this; that older civilization don't want to interfere with younger civilizations, that they transcend and become incomprehensible, that they hide and are actually here but not seen; and the Hunter theory where the most older have destroyed the other before they reach space age...

FTL:

Faster Than Light. A propulsion system that should break the Einstein barrier.

Fuel:

By 2020, fossil fuel becomes very expensive due to production shortage. The crisis caused by the short-term penury devastated the oil producers economies in Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

Governments have launched intense research programs for alternative energy means like gas combustion, nuclear and hydrogen, or solar energy cells. This leads to a major industrial and technological evolution with billions of vehicles and generators to be upgraded or replaced.

Food:

A growing part of the food is genetically engineered today. By genetic engineering foods, the reliance on chemical pesticides and herbicides has been reduced. Therefore, less forests and green lands are put under cultivation.

Frequency:

A measurable property of light; the number of waves that pass through a point in one second.

Fission:

Nuclear reaction that create energy by breaking heavy nucleus into light nucleus

Fusion:

Nuclear reaction that create energy by forming heavy nucleus from light nucleus

G:

Measure of acceleration. One G is equal to Earth gravity acceleration

Gaia Hypothesis:

Named for the Greek Earth goddess Gaea, holds that the Earth as a whole should be regarded as a living organism and that biological processes stabilize the environment. First advanced by British biologist James Lovelock in 1969.

Gamma:

High-energy electromagnetic radiation generated by a nuclear explosion

Gamma ray:

Region of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond X-ray, where photons possess the greatest energies.

Galilean satellites

The four large satellites of Jupiter so named because Galileo discovered them when he turned his telescope toward Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Geomorphology

The study of the external structure, form, and arrangement of rocks in relation to the development of landforms

Geosynchronous

A direct, circular, low inclination orbit about the Earth having a period of 23 h 56 m 4 seconds.

Gravitational potential well:

The deformation of space that surrounds a massive object. In Einsteinís Theory of General Relativity, it is the space deformation which gives rise to closed orbits about massive objects.

Giant:

A star whose outer atmosphere has expanded to fill a large volume.

GMT:

Greenwich Meridian Time; universal time also called "Zulu hour "

GPS:

Global Positioning System. Navigation system based on geo synchronized satellite network

GRU:

Glavnoï Razvedyvatelnoï Upravlenyïe. Russian military intelligence service

Ghost:

Experimental. Load an Artificial Intelligence through neural implant in a human brain or process of the reverse operation. This technology is violating genetics laws of most governments.

Genetic engineering:

Human improvement through manipulation of DNA and genes to alter someone genome

Gene:

A sequence of DNA nucleotides, located in a particular spot on a chromosome that encodes a specific instruction to a cell

Gene Therapy:

Genetic engineering performed on a fetus or an adult to repair defective genes

Genetics:

Study of the patterns of heredity, traits that an organism inherits from its ancestors

Genome:

Sum of all genetic material carried by the chromosomes of a particular organism

Gene fixed:

Someone whose genes were manipulated at conception to fix genetic defects

Gene mod:

Genetically modified. Someone that has undergone genetic modifications

Gigabyte:

Unit of computer data storage. 1 billion bytes or 1 thousand megabyte

Glass steel:

Flexible composite glass reinforced by metallic alloys

Gravity:

The attractive force at work between any two objects in the universe, proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance.

Gravity assist

Technique whereby a spacecraft takes angular momentum from a planet's solar orbit (or a satellite's orbit) to accelerate the spacecraft, or the reverse.

Greenhouse effect
Increase in temperature caused when incoming solar radiation is passed but outgoing thermal radiation is blocked by the atmosphere (carbon dioxide and water vapor are the major factors). This phenomenon is very important on Earth but very weak on Mars.

Gauss Rifle:

These weapon shoots high density darts at greater velocity than bullets

Galilean Moons:

The four largest moons of Jupiter. Io, Europa, Callisto, and Ganymeade.

Galaxy:

An organized system of many hundreds of millions of stars often mixed with gas and dust. The universe contains billions of galaxies.

Hydrogen:

The lightest element in the universe, composed of one proton and one electron.

HLLV

Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle - a space booster that would be able to place in orbit a payload

Holography:

This technique has come into production by 2010. Most projection screens are now displaying realistic 3-D image. Some cyber decks and phones are also equipped with holography screens.

Homes:

Intelligent houses are common since 2010. The access are secured and the maintenance and mundane tasks are automated and managed by computers, from operation of surveillance, monitoring of calls and visitors to motion controls of the light, the temperature-control system, the storage of food and beverage and the windows open-close when sun rises or lays.

Heliopause

The boundary theorized to be roughly circular or teardrop-shaped, marking the edge of the sun's influence, perhaps 100 AU from the sun.

HTSC:

High Temperature Super Conductors. They have been developed during the technological revolution of the years 2020 and make cheaper power cells available.

Hohmann orbit:

Solar transfer orbit. Such orbit based on the solar gravity minimizes the fuel needed.

Hadley Cell:

Vertical air circulation pattern due to temperature differential between planetís pole and equator

HMRI:

Hypersensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Humanity:

Main sentient species on Earth. The definition of humanity has raged for the last hundred years and has been complicated by the recent development in genetics and artificial intelligence.

Hormone:

A protein that acts as a chemical messenger within the body

HUD:

Head Up Display. Holographic reticule displayed on special goggles or built in helmet visor. It shows the gunner exactly where the gun is pointing.

HEO:

High Earth Orbit

HLV:

Heavy Lift Vehicle. A single stage rocket deigned to transport a load of cargo

IFF:

Identification Friend or Foe. Electronic system allowing the automatic identification of a potential target by sending and receiving a coded signal.

IRV:

Infra Red Visor

Infrared:

Region of the electromagnetic spectrum just past the red side of visible, where lower energy photons radiates.

Implant:

Neural interface between nervous system and cybernetic equipment.

Islamic Califate:

Islamic State formed during the second jihad by unification of Irak, Saudi Arabia, Syria

Ionosphere:

Higher lay of the atmosphere composed of ions reflecting the radio waves

Improvement:

Common term for genetic or cybernetic enhancements

ISS:

International Space Station. Achieved in 2004; to be disabled in 2029.

Interoperable Objects:

Mandatory for all software and hardware of space vessels to avoid incompatibility problems. All technical devices rely on embedded systems that must be composed of interchange parts.

Information Agent:

The amount of data stored in the net is immense and it is extremely difficult to gather information. To handle these functions of cross-reference research and compile information specific programs have been developed. This software assists human user to gather information from databases and analyze it in regard to the questions and criteria of the user. The user interface program is also used for personal data storage, mail server and navigation interface.

Jovian

Of or relating to the planet Jupiter

Jupiter

Planet fifth in order from the sun. In Roman mythology, ruler of the gods.

Kuiper belt

A disk-shaped region about 30 to 100 AU from the sun considered to be the source of the short-period comets.

Kinetic Kill Weapons

These weapons are based on magnetic acceleration technology and cause damage by kinetic energy. They are divided in two general classes: railguns and massdrivers. A railgun uses a single projectile and accelerates it via twin rails supplying the necessary current along the length of the barrel.

Massdrivers use the same principle, but employ a series of magnetic rings instead of rails' current to fire a hail of smaller shells. Each impact causes less damage, but the attack is spread over the whole of the target instead of just a spot. It also allows a greater rate of fire.

Kardaschev Types:

A classification of possible civilizations after energy usage. Type I civilizations control all available energy on a single planet. Type II civilizations control all available energy in a solar system. Type III civilizations control use all available energy in an entire galaxy. We are currently moving towards a Type I civilization

Lagrange points:

Lagrange showed that three bodies can lie at the apexes of an equilateral triangle which rotates in its plane. If one of the bodies is sufficiently massive compared with the other two, then the triangular configuration is apparently stable. Bodies at such points are referred to as Trojans.
The leading apex of the triangle is known as the leading Lagrange point or L4; the trailing apex is the trailing Lagrange point or L5. Collinear with the two large bodies are the L1, L2 and L3 unstable equilibrium points.

Laser:

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Light. First used as cutting and medical tools. Now developed and employed as weapon technology

LEO:

Low Earth Orbit. A 300 to 600 km high, near-circular orbit with a period of about ninety minutes

LSS:

Life Support System

Language Scanners:

Used by information agents, language scanners pick up keywords or defined sequences out of communication traffic and analyze their meaning and their sources.

Lander:

Orbital Entry Vehicle conceived to land astronauts and cargo loads on the surface

Life Zone:

The approximate area around a star where a world can sustain liquid water and moderately advanced life. The life zone used here is pretty wide.

Lunar Colonies:

Following lunar expedition of 2019, several missions have landed on Earth moon and have established two small scientific settlements, Tsiolkovsky and Amstrong stations.

LZ

Acronym for Landing Zone

Light Year:

Distance crossed by the light in one year or 9.46 billions kilometers

Light speed:

The speed of light, a natural limit on how fast anything can travel.

Matrix:

Slang term for Info Net. Inter connection of all private and public date networks

Magnetosphere

A region of a planet's atmosphere that is dominated by the planet's magnetic field so that charged particles are trapped in it.

Mass Driver:

Heavy weapon that fires solid projectiles at very high-speed velocity thanks to an electromagnetic acceleration

Mars:

Mars is the fourth planet of the system and the seventh largest. Mars has 2 moons: Demos and Phoebes. Mars' orbit is significantly elliptical. One result of this is a temperature variation of about 30 C at the sub solar point between aphelion and perihelion.

This has a major influence on climate. While the average temperature on Mars is about 218 K (-55 C, -67 F), Martian surface temperatures range widely from as little as 140 K (-133 C, -207 F) at the winter pole to almost 300 K (27 C, 80 F) on the day side during summer. Though Mars is much smaller than Earth, its surface area is about the same as the land surface area of Earth.

Mass (kg)............................................		6.42 x 10.23
Diameter (km)........................................		6787
Mean density (kg/m3) .........................		3940
Escape velocity (m/sec).........................		5000
Average distance from Sun (AU)...........	1.524
Rotation period (length of day in Earth days)........1.026
Revolution period (length of year in Earth days)...686.98
Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees)..................	25
Orbit inclination (degrees)..........................	1.85
Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular).........	0.093
Maximum surface temperature (K)......................	310
Minimum surface temperature (K)......................	150
Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)...............	0.15
Highest point on surface.............................	Olympus Mons 
Atmospheric components..............................	95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen,1.6% argon
Surface materials....................................		basaltic rock and altered materials

 

MIRV

Multiple Independently Targetable Re-entry Vehicle. Multi heads Missile type

Magnitude:

The degree of brightness of a celestial object, ranked on a numerical scale on which the brightest star has magnitude -1.4 and the faintest visible star has magnitude 6, Nebulae don't have magnitude because they are mainly lit up by surrounding stars, and may not be seen with out a clear night.

Mangala:

Large Sand Wind Martian Storm. They complete a circle over the planet in a few weeks from South to North Pole and may reach a speed of several hundred km/h. they can whip large amounts of surface dust and cause severe erosion.

Magnetic Levitation Trains:

"Maglevs", Magnetic Levitated high speed trains. These trains have come in use around 2012. With the fuel crisis and the environment restrictions, travel by train has grown for the last ten years. The Maglev high-speed railways connected now most cities in EU, Japan and US.

Magnetic Sail:

Experimental. A thin ring-like device that generates a magnetic field that can be pushed by the solar wind and the magnetic field of planets.

It is a somewhat slow propulsion system, but it requires no propellant and is thus very economic. Magnetic sails have low field density but will occupy a large volume of space (in excess of 60 km for the smaller ships).

Mercury:

The closest planet to our sun, it has no moon.

Meteorite:

An extraterrestrial rock that has fallen to Earth. Most meteorites are pieces of asteroids; a few meteorites are known to come from the Moon or from Mars.

Mod:

A genetic or cybernetic enhancement

Micro Ware:

Software to be connected to a neural implant.

Marineris:

Region of Mars, eastern of Tharsis Ridge and North of Mariner canyon

Microbiological:

A single cell organism like alga or bacteria. In general, microscopic but colonies of single cell organisms can be large enough to be seen

MW:

Abbreviation of megawatt. Main measure of energy consumption

Main sequence:

The normal course of evolution for a star. Main stars are in main sequence stage.

Maser:

Microwave Amplification Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Artifact or stellar object that stimulate radiation emission and can creates a specific radio wave.

Micro Gravity:

Environment of very low gravity likes on orbital stations.

Mind Emulation:

Digital copy of a human mind. Also called Ghost. Experimental.

Metamorphosis virus:

A nano virus capable of performing radical changes in a living beingís organism.

Meme:

Analogy to Gene in the social-cultural field. A concept that propagates from one mind to another

Mono molecular:

A string of "mono filament". It has the highest known resistance factor to torsion and stress. In use for spatial industry projects like interplanetary vessels and the future orbital elevator. Development is expected in other fields like hand weapons and armors.

Monocrys:

Advanced flexible armor material woven from two phases, single crystal metallic fiber.

Mass:

A measure of the quantity of matter in a body.

Meteorite:

A particle of rock/dust that comes in contact with earth, and makes it through the atmosphere and actually contacts the surface of Earth.

MLRS:

Multiple Launch Rocket System

Nuclear fusion:

A thermonuclear reaction in which nuclei fuse together to form a more massive nucleus. Since the resulting nucleus is less massive that the sum of the initial nuclei, energy is released.

Neuronaut:

A person who explores their own neural functioning and internal mentational processes by various means, including deep introspection and meditation, psychoactive drugs, mind machines, and scientific understanding.

Neptune:

A large planet, eighth from the sun, which has the famous Dark Spot, has 8 moons, and 3 rings.

NORAD:

The North American Aerospace Defense Command is a United States and Canadian organization charged with the missions of aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America.

Aerospace warning includes the monitoring of objects in space, and the detection, validation, and warning of attack against North America whether by aircraft, missiles, or space vehicles, utilizing mutual support arrangements with other commands. Aerospace control includes ensuring air sovereignty and air defense of the airspace of Canada and the United States.

NASA:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Federal agency in charge of civilian space science and aeronautical research. Main contributor to space and orbital development programs

NSA:

National Security Agency established as a separate agency within the Department of Defense under the authority of Secretary of Defense.

The NSA has two main missions; information systems security (INFOSEC) seeks to protect national information systems against intrusion and interception; foreign signals intelligence (SIGINT) seeks to coordinate and control the foreign signals collection and analysis.

NASDA:

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) was established on 1st of October 1969, under the National Space Development Agency Law, to act as the nucleus for the development of space and promote the peaceful use of space.

NASDA is responsible for development of satellites (including space experiments and the space station) and launch vehicles, launching and tracking the craft.

Needler:

General term for a weapon analogous to a firearm (usually a handgun) that fires needle-like projectiles, usually by magnetic acceleration.

Nano Virus:

A self-replicating form of virus designed for biological or neural engineering. Experimental

Nano technology:

Technology pertaining to molecular circuits, computers, engineered life forms. In development

Neutrinos:

Particles with no electric charge and very Low Mass issued from nuclear fusion reaction.

NMCC:

National Military Command Center. Nervous center of the Pentagon

Nucleotides:

The basic molecular units of DNA. Thousands of nucleotides make up DNA molecules, their sequence determines the genetic code and the function of each gene.

Nucleus

The frozen core of a comet which contains almost the entire cometary mass and is located in the comet's head.

Nukes:

Slang term for nuclear weapons, by extension nuclear submarines and nuclear spacecraft's

Neutron star:

End point of a massive starís life, in which a great deal of mass is compressed by gravity into a very small volume, such that individual protons and electrons in the original material fuse to form neutrons.

Orbital Weapons:

Weapons in space may be fired against ground targets, these include laser, particles or missiles

Orbital Strike:

Massive killing weapon like asteroids or rocks may be used to crash on ground targets

Orbital Elevator:

Also called a skyhook Orbital platform in GEO at 36.000 km height connected on one side to the ground by a highly stress resistance cable in carbon nano tubes, and on the upper side to a counterweight. Cargo and passengers are moved along the cable by pressurized elevators.

There are currently two projects; the Azores elevator sponsored by corporate firms and a join project of ESA-NASA-Brazil, which should be built in Khuru on the former space facility. This will be the highest permanent structure; used for near space research platform, space vessels docking, astronomy research, small rocket launcher, telecommunications, and long-range radar.

Orbit:

Path that one body follows about another, due to mutual gravitational attraction between the two.

Outer System:

The solar system beyond the orbit of Mars out to the Oort Cloud

OíNeil Colony:

A concept developed by the scientist Gerard OíNeil. Built along a cylindrical plan, the colonies are between six and nine kilometers wide and around twenty kilometers long.

The entire inner surface will be covered with earth and rocks to allow cultures and radiation protection; the station will be equipped with solar panels to provide energy and recreate the day-night cycle.

Aerospace Consortium has launched an ambitious ten years plan to establish a first colony in one of the Lagrange point by the mid 2030í.

Oort Cloud:

Cloud of comets orbiting the sun at a distance ranging from 30.000 to 100.000 UA

Opposition:

Orbital alignment of two stellar bodies with Earth.

Orbit:

Path followed by a stellar object turning around another because of the effect of gravity

OTV:

Orbital Transfer Vehicle

OEV:

Orbital Entry Vehicle

Particle Cannon:

Particle cannons are magnetic acceleration devices designed to shoot high energy ions instead of a solid projectile. Particle cannons cause damage through a combination of kinetic energy, heat and electrical induction.

Often more powerful than lasers, they cause a lot of collateral damage by shorting electronic circuitry in the target.

Photosphere:

The bright, thin layer of the Sunís atmosphere from which we receive the most visible radiation.

Planetesimal:

Chunk-like proto planet-bodies which later form terrestrial planets and larger chunks. Exist in a young systems survivors will be asteroid-like remnants of decent size .

Pulsar:

A rapidly rotating magnetized neutron star that gives off radiation in a beam, like a lighthouse.

Parsec:

3.26 light years

Pantropy:

Reshaping of life forms to adapts to adapt them to other environments

Proton:

A subatomic particle possessing positive charge.

Permafrost:

Material, which covers the Mars soil. Some areas may contained raw materials

Pluto:

The planet that is farthest from our sun, usually, sometimes is not considered a planet has one moon, Charon, which is about the size of Pluto its self

Prions:

Pathogenic proteins linked to brain and aging diseases

Prokaryotes:

Single-celled organisms with little internal complexity

Point Defense System:

High rate multi weapons fire conceived to saturate an area against multiple targets attacks

Photon:

A discrete amount of electromagnetic energy, the smallest indivisible amount possible. Photons can behave like both particles and waves. The energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength. It reacts like a particle with no mass and travels at light speed.

Planet:

An object orbiting a star that is not a brown dwarf but bigger than an asteroid. This is somewhat ambiguous. In our solar system it is really an historical definition which boils down to "a planet is a member of the set {Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto}".

Plasma:

Ionized gas, mixing ions and electrons, reacting to electromagnetic fields once in motion.

Proton:

Nuclear particle which mass is 2000 times higher than the electron

Quasar:

An extremely energetic object located at the very edge of the observable universe, implying they existed in the early universe.

Quantum Computation

Quantum computers are used for cryptography and data analysis. They are able to perform operations not possible with classical computers, but are limited by thermal problems.

REM:

Radiation Measure Unit; quantified damage to human tissue caused by radiation.

Regolith

Any solid material lying on top of bedrock, including soil and rock fragments.

Relativity, Theory of:

Describes the motions of bodies in strong gravitational fields or near the speed of light . All experiments done to date agree with relativity's predictions to a high degree of accuracy.

Reflec:

Light high reflective armor of polished metallic fibers that reflect radar and laser waves

Roche limit:

The closest a fluid body can orbit to its primary without being pulled apart by tidal forces. A solid body may survive within the Roche limit if the tidal forces do not exceed its structural strength. For example Phobos is within Roche limit of Mars.

RAM:

Radar Absorbing Material

RPV:

Remotely Piloted Vehicle

RKA:

The Russian Space Agency (RKA) was formed after the breakup of the former Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Soviet space program. The RKA uses the technology and launch sites that belonged to the former Soviet space program.

Currently, the RKA has centralized control of Russia's civilian space program, including all manned and unmanned nonmilitary space flights.

RSV:

Remote Survey Vehicle.

RNA:

Ribonucleic acid. A chemical founds inside cell that is similar in structure to DNA. Different structures exist such as messenger RNA, which relays the orders from genes to the cells.

Retrograde:

Clockwise motion. It is not the normal motion a body in retrograde orbit moves in the wrong direction.

Sensor Drones

Multi-heads, mirrors; detectors and spectrometers. Remote COM links to human operator.

Space Syndrome:

Space adaptation syndrome is a form of motion sickness. About half of the people arriving for the first time in space suffer from it. Symptoms are nausea, loss of appetite and disorientation.

Sapient:

Capable of reasoning thought like humans or dolphins

Solar system:

Our sun, and the nine planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and minor bodies that orbit the Sun.

Solution:

Military term to design identification of a target and fire coordinates

Solar Sail:

An extremely thin, highly reflective panel of solar cells that is pushed by light beams (either solar wind energy or laser-generated). It is a slow propulsion system, but it requires no propellant and is thus very economic. Solar sails are extremely fragile and occupy a large area of space

Solar Wind:

A tenuous flow of gas and energetic charged particles, mostly protons and electrons -- plasma -- which stream from the sun; typical solar wind velocities are near 350 kilometers per second.
The solar wind is composed of ions, hydrogen atoms, protons, & electrons. They range in size from 10 -7 centimeters in diameter with a mass of 10 -21 grams to protons & electrons.

Solar cycle:

The approximately 11-year periodic variation in frequency or number of solar active events.

Solar Power:

Efficient photo voltaic converters were developed by 2020 thanks to research in orbital station The Solar panels combined with high-level converter are in wide use for orbital and space design

Solution:

Military term to design identification of a target and fire coordinates.

Slow hauler:

A deep space vehicle designed for slow interplanetary transport. Unmanned vessel

Slink:

Sensory link implant. Experimental

Sky hook:

A kind of "space elevator" that allows cargo to be hoisted up into orbit. It consists of a long tether extending from a low orbit station down into the upper atmosphere and up into space.

Hypersonic sub orbital planes can match velocities with the lower end of the tether to hook up their cargo rather than spend the energy to go up to a full orbit.

Specific impulse:

A measure of the performance of rocket engine, the number of seconds an engine operates on one pound fuel while producing a thrust of one pound

Stellar classification:

Stars given a designation consisting of a letter and a number according to the nature of their spectral lines which corresponds to surface temperature. The classes are: O, B, A, F, G, K, and M; O stars are the hottest; M the coolest.

The numbers are simply subdivisions of the major classes. The classes are oddly sequenced because they were assigned long ago before we understood their relationship to temperature. O and B stars are rare but very bright; M stars are numerous but dim. The sun is designated G2.

Syrtis Major:

Region of Mars stretching northeast from the Hellis region to Valles Marineris

Spin:

A measure of the magnitude and direction of angular momentum in an atom.

Saturn:

The second largest planet, has 18 moons, and has the largest ring complex in the solar system.

Space Probe:

An unmanned structure that orbits space objects, such as planets and asteroids, for studying.

SETI

The SETI project stands for the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence. SETI is conducting a great deal of research geared towards the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. The sorts of research that the SETI conducts related, in one way or another, to Drake's Equation.

Supernova:

The catastrophic explosion of a star, during which the star becomes millions of times brighter.

Stratosphere

An upper portion of a planetary atmosphere, above the troposphere and below the ionosphere, characterized by relatively uniform temperature and horizontal winds

Tectonic

Relating to the deformation of the crust of a moon or planet, the forces involved in or producing such deformation, and the resulting forms.

Trans humanism:

Philosophy of life concerned with acceleration and enhancement of human body and mind beyond its current form by scientific and technological means.

Transnat

Transnational Corporation. Corporation comparable in power to the smaller nation-states.

Tachyon:

Theoretical particle which could move above speed light

Taser:

A flash light unit ends in two metal prongs. If you press the prongs to flesh and the subject will take a powerful and stunning shock there is also a version firing probes on the end of a thin trailing wire up to 5 meters.

Tac Ops:

Tactical Operations. By extension center for tactical command and information

Tharsis:

High Martian plateau containing several of the largest volcanoes

TAV:

Trans atmospheric vehicle. Sub orbital planes or Military Delta are TAV

Tennin:

Slang term for astronauts derived from Japanese for "angels".

Terraformation:

General term for the art of modifying planetary surface conditions to resemble those of Earth, including both macro engineering (such as the diversion of comets to provide water and volatile gasses) and seeding the soil with tailored organisms.

Terabyte:

1000 gigabyte; one trillion bytes

Tissue engineering:

Design of artificial organic tissue. Experimental

Transgenic:

A transgenic organism is one that has genes added to it from outside its original species

Topography

The shape and form of the surface of a planet.

Titan:

The largest moon of Saturn

Titania and Miranda:

The two largest moons of Uranus

Tidal Heating:

Frictional heating of a satellite's interior due to flexure caused by the gravitational pull of its parent planet and possibly neighboring satellites.

Tidal Lock:

Situation for a planet or moon when it rotates so it always shows the same side to the primary. Moons are generally tidally locked to the planets they orbit, and planets close to their primaries are often tidally locked to. This is a form of regular rotation.

Transponder

Electronic device which combines a transmitter and a receiver.

Triton:

The largest moon of Neptune.

Uplift:

The process of modifying a non-sapient animal to enhance its intelligence or communication capacities. Some civilian and military projects have been launched with Wales and Dolphins.

USAF:

United Space Aerospace Forces

UV:

Region of the electromagnetic spectrum just past the blue side of visible, where higher energy photons radiates.

United States:

The dominant power in the years 2020, the States have seen major evolution during the last twenty years; in terms of external policies they are focused on the transpacific area including the Indian Ocean, they have left the Atlantic area to their allies Russia and Europe.

They helped Japan to establish closer links with Russia and create a regional alliance with Australia-New Zealand, Korea and Philippines to counter threads of China, Indonesia and India.

The US has been involved in successive international crisis. The creation of the Islamic Republic and the second Gulf war, where they saved Egypt and Jordan from Islamic revolution.

The Indian Ocean war, where they intervene after tactical nuclear strikes between India and Pakistan. The Central and the sea of China where they send a mediation mission and interposition forces to avoid a direct confrontation between China fleet and a Japan-Korean alliance.

The Central American war started as an anti drugs operation, which degenerated in a large-scale intervention involving Mexican and allied forces, and creates unexpected tensions with Brazil and Argentina.

In terms of internal politics, the US has faced a severe economic crisis a few years ago with social unrest, political scandals and ethnical tensions. The country, which is now counting a very important Hispanic minority is still recovering and try to sustain a new period of growth with important industrial projects.

USV:

Utility space vehicle, a multipurpose spacecraft

Uranus:

A large blue planet, that was once hit by a great object and had its axis tilted parallel to its orbit, has 15 moons and small rings.

Virtual interface:

An environment simulation collecting real time data from multi sensor systems connected through a neural implant to the brain. This new tactical system allowed controlling and guiding weapons and drones. The US Navy has experienced it for the first time in 2021.

Volatiles:

Chemicals necessary to sustain life including nitrogen, carbon, oxygen

Virus:

A non-cellular biological organism that can reproduce only within a host cell. Virus consists of RNA and DNA covered by protein.

Venus:

A very bright planet that is closer to the sun than Earth

Waldo:

Walking Automated Robot Remote Control Operations. Remotely operated machine that allows mechanical handling by a human operator. First prototypes have been tested for Mars's missions

White dwarf:

A whitish star of high surface temperature and low intrinsic brightness with a mass approximately equal to that of a sun but with a density many times larger.

Wormhole:

A postulated topological structure in general relativity, where a space-time "tunnel" links two distant points with a shortcut. Whether they can be physically realized is not known, and they seem to require exotic matter to be stable. If they can exist, and can be built, they could provide a possible way to travel faster than light ( while the travelers would move slower than light).

X Ray:

Region of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond ultraviolet, where photons possess greater energy

Zero G:

Usual term for micro gravity. Resulting from the distance of any significant mass or from a free fall situation within a gravitational field. The effects of zero G on a human body range from the dehydration, lost of calcium in bones, affection of hearth rhythm and lost of muscle tonus.