Ökwe'ôwékhá' > The Mingo/Seneca Language

("Natively")

The
Mingo / Seneca Language

utényô 1/2003

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Contents

  1. Characteristics of Mingo/Seneca
    (and North-Iroquoian Languages in General)

  2. Writing and Pronunciation

  3. Grammar

  4. Phrasing
    [under construction]
    Ways to phrase things in Mingo

  5. How Would You Express ... ?
    [under construction]
    The Mingo/Seneca way of saying some common expressions

    Featuring:

  6. Linguistic Phenomena
    [under construction]
    Phenomena which, once you are aware of them, help you understand what's going on and use the language yourself.

    Featuring:
    Where are the «R»'s ?
    The complete absence of the letter «r» from the Mingo/Seneca language (compared to its [partial] presence in the other North-Iroquoian languages). The remaining effects of omitted «r»'s, including how to recognize where an original «r» has been omitted.

    Contageous Nasalization
    The way the letter «n» and nasal vowels affect the vowels that follow them.

    The Weak «H»'s
    The mysterious disappearing of (some but not all of) the «h»'s between vowels.


  7. Vocabulary Development
    Learn new words in Mingo

  8. Glossary
    A local glossary of terms, whether cultural and historical (such as "the Iroquois League") or language related (such as "pronomial-prefix", "Stative", and "aspect").

    The glossary can be useful in (at least) the following ways:
    1. Explain Unclear Terms
      Use the glossary to clarify the meaning of terms, which are unfamiliar, or my usage of them seems strange.

    2. Navigate throughout the Site
      You might find it easier to navigate this site (i.e. find what you are looking for) through the Glossary; just find what you are looking for in the Glossary, and then follow any additional links listed there (if available).

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Vocabulary

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Translations
Kányö'ökhá'   Tekawënötenyô



Kányö'ökhá' -- Whitely, Englishly (i.e. in English))
ka- :   it (Agent pronomial prefix); the vowel is lengthened by the following verb-stem (type LX)
-nyö'ö :   to be a white person.
Verb stem, in the Stative aspect; the verb root is -nyö'ö- (in this case there is no special ending for the Stative aspect).
-khá' :   characterizer suffix (such as "-ly" in English)

ökwe'öwékhá' -- (1) Natively (2) The name of any Irroquoian language (all the North-Iroquoian languages call their language "Ökwe'öwékhá'").
The word should be capitalized («Ökwe'öwékhá'») when it is used to mean the name of the language. Otherwise («ökwe'öwékhá'»), it would be understood as the adverb "natively".
ökwe'ôwe : a native person, an Indian. Literally: "authentic person".
            ökwe : person
            -'öwe : authenticator suffix (the "ö" is long if this suffix is the last in the word)
-khá' : characterizer suffix ("-ly")

tekawënötenyô -- It is translated
te- : dual (verb prefix of «te-...-wënötenyô»)
ka- : it (Agent pronomial prefix: 3rd person, neutral [i.e. inanimate -- neither feminine nor masculine], singular)
te-...-wënötenyô :  
  1. to be translated (when used with Agent pronomial prefix);  
  2. to have translated (when used with Patient pronomial prefix).
Verb stem, in the Stative aspect; the verb root is «te-...-wënöteny-», to translate something (literally: "to change one word for another").
te- :   dual (verb prefix); in this case: "one for another"
-...- :   this is where the pronomial-prefix is placed
-wën- :   sound, word
This is an incorporated noun; it serves as the object of the verb (i.e. to change words)
-ö- : linking-vowel
This linking vowel is actually an «a» nasalized to «ö» because of the preceding «n» (in other languages, e.g. Mohawk, this assimilation does not happen, and the linking vowel is actually «a»; for example, compare the Mohawk word «owëna'» for "word" to the Mingo/Seneca equivalent, «owënö'»).
-tenyô :  
  1. to be changed (when used with an Agent pronomial-prefix);  
  2. to have changed (when used with a Patient pronomial-prefix)
Verb stem, in the Stative aspect. the verb root is «-teny-», to change.

utényô -- It has changed
u- :   it (Patient pronomial prefix: 3rd person, neutral [i.e. inanimate -- neither feminine nor masculine], singular)
-tenyô : to have changed
Verb stem, in the Stative aspect; the verb root is «-teny-», to change.

wásé' -- new;   it is new
w- :   it (Agent pronomial prefix; 3rd person, neuter [inanimate, i.e. neither feminine nor masculine], singular)
This is the form before a vowel (other than «æ»). The "normal" form is «ka-»
-asé' :   to be new
Verb stem, in the Stative aspect; the verb-root is «-ase-», to be new.
The penultimate vowel («a») is lengthened according to the vowel-lengthening rules.
This is Agent-State verb. It describes a state of being (rather than, say, an action), and appears only in the Stative aspects. Nevertheless, it takes Agent pronomial prefixes (the Stative normally requires Patient pronomial-prefixes).


wa'tsi -- recently, not long ago

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