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While no one food, other than mother's milk, provides everything that humans need, the egg contains a wide array of necessary nutrients. It was, after all, made to supply everything for the creation and nourishment of a baby chick.
Egg protein is of such high quality that it is often used as the standard by which other protein is measured. Egg protein contains all the essential amino acids (building block of protein which the body needs but cannot make) in a pattern that matches very closely the pattern the body needs. This is why eggs are classified with meat in the food pyramid and why egg protein is called a complete protein.
A moderate amount of fat, about 5 grams is found in a Large egg yolk. About 1.5 grams are saturated and 2.5 grams unsaturated.
An egg contains varying amounts of 13 vitamins plus many minerals. An egg yolk is one of the few foods which contain vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin.
Nutrient density is the ratio of nutrients to calories and is sometimes called the nutrient-calorie benefit ratio. Foods that supply significant amounts of one or more nutrients compared to the number of calories they supply are called nutrient dense. Eggs have high nutrient density because they provide excellent protein- 10 to 13% of the Daily Recommended Value and a wide range of vitamins and minerals in proportion to their low calorie count - only 75 calories per large egg.