The Ilomi Language

Version 2

Last update: 2006-03-19

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Sample sentences and explanation

The vowels, semivowels, and consonants that are native to Ilomi are:

a as in father or about
e as in bet or bait
i as in machine
o as in vote
u as in zoo

w as in water
y as in yellow
f as in fan
k as in kit
l as in gallop
m as in mat
n as in not
p as in pot
s as in sad
t as in tad

The full alphabet, including allophones for these phonemes, is described in detail in the quick reference.

  1. I eat.
    ami ete

    1. ami = I; me
    2. ete = to eat
    3. Words in Ilomi are of these grammatical classes:
      • Lexicals — nouns and pronouns; verbs; prepositions; modifiers (adjectives and adverbs); numbers and quantifiers; and names.
      • Functionals — markers; prefixes and suffixes; punctuation; conjunctions; and everything else.
    4. It is preferable that a glottal stop be inserted between two words when the former ends and the latter begins with the same letter.

  2. I eat some apples.
    ami ete apomu

    1. apomu = apple
    2. Nouns begin with the letter a. Verbs begin with the letter e.
    3. The word order is subject-verb-object. Variations of this are possible with the use of some special words, described later.
    4. There are no articles (the, a, an, some), nor, aside from a handful of pronouns, any plural forms. Definiteness and number are taken from context, or established with more specific words. These samples will therefore vary in their translations of definiteness and number.

  3. You ate a big apple.
    ate ete apomu oxu

    1. ate = you (singular); thou; thee
    2. oxu = big
    3. The form of a verb does not change due to person, number, or tense. Tense is taken from context, or established with more specific words. These samples will therefore vary in their translations of tense.
    4. A modifier modifies the most recent noun or verb. This is the same as the way English verbs are usually modified, but the opposite of the way most English nouns are modified.
    5. Modifiers begin with the letter o. Adverbs, which modify verbs, are distinguished from adjectives, which modify nouns or other adjectives, with a variant form described later.

  4. The cat eats a green apple.
    apusa ete apomu oluke

    1. apusa = cat
    2. oluke = green
    3. Core lexicals make up the basic vocabulary of Ilomi. Core lexicals are always at least three letters long. They begin with a vowel, then alternate between consonants and vowels, finally ending in a vowel. The letter n can precede another consonant (other than another n), as well as stand alone between two vowels. The first vowel is a grammatical class marker, but it is intrinsic; that is, it is not separable from the rest of the word.
    4. Stress is even, with an optional de-stressing of the first vowel.
    5. Compound lexicals are described later.

  5. I am a person.
    ami eyo ata

    1. ata = person (implicitly adult)
    2. eyo = {copula}
    3. In Ilomi, the word for to be — that is, the copula — is not a verb, but a functional.
    4. Core functionals are the words that help us put together utterances in Ilomi. Core functionals can be as short as one letter, but the majority are longer, consisting of a vowel, followed by alternating semivowels (w or y) and vowels, finally ending in a vowel.
    5. Compound functionals are described later.

  6. Tammy is a person.
    itemi eyo ata

    1. itemi = Tammy {name}
    2. Names are lexicals, and begin with the letter i.
    3. Names can be capitalized or not, and the capitalization can apply to the first letter or to the first consonant. But the practice in native Ilomi is not to capitalize.
    4. Names are assumed to refer to creatures (usually people) unless context makes it clear that they don't. This is discussed more later.

  7. The apple is green.
    The green apple
    apomu eyo oluke
    apomu oluke

    1. Ilomi can often use the same construct for a complete sentence as for a noun phrase that makes up part of a sentence. If confusion would result, the copula eyo is used. Omission of the copula is never mandatory. It tends to be used more in formal or written language than in informal or spoken language. These sample sentences will vary in its usage.

  8. The cat ate a canary.
    apusa ete amalunyolo

    1. amalunyolo = canary
    2. amalu = bird
    3. olo = yellow
    4. Compounds are formed by joining core words with the compounding hyphen ny.
    5. The first core word in a compound word carries the main meaning; the other core words modify it. Thus, amalunyolo > "bird-yellow" > canary.
    6. The very first vowel determines the grammatical role of the compound as a whole.
    7. Compound lexicals are generally metaphorical to some degree. A canary isn't simply any yellow bird, which would be expressed as amalu olo; it is a specific kind of bird that, among many other characteristics, is usually yellow.
    8. In general, compounds cannot simply be created ad hoc, since their meanings need to be agreed upon. There are some exceptions to this, described below.

  9. Tammy is a female person.
    itemi eyo ata onta
    Tammy is a woman.
    itemi atakya

    1. onta = feminine; female
    2. kya = {feminine suffix}
    3. atakya = woman
    4. Suffixes are productive; they can be freely added to other lexicals to form new words, whose meanings are predictable from their components. For example, kya always constructs the feminine form of whatever lexical it is suffixed to.
    5. Some lexicals are also productive for compounding, as will be seen later.
    6. Note the omission of the copula eyo in the second sample sentence above. This has nothing to do with any difference between the sample sentences; it is simply an option that can almost always be applied.

  10. The boy is eating.
    apepyu ete

    1. apepyu = boy
    2. ape = child
    3. pyu = {masculine suffix}
    4. There is no present progressive tense; is eating is equivalent to eats.
    5. Most verbs in Ilomi are naturally transitive. There are mechanisms, described later, for conveying concepts that are expressed in other languages with intransitive verbs.

  11. The boy is eating himself.
    apepyu ewete

    1. ew = {reflexive/intransitive conversion prefix}
    2. One of the most straightforward mechanisms for marking a verb as reflexive/intransitive is with the prefix ew.
    3. Reflexive/intransitive verbs apply back to the subject.

  12. The boys are hitting each other.
    apepyu efapo anxonyanpi

    1. efapo = to hit; to strike; to slap
    2. anxonyanpi = one another; each other
    3. anxo = self
    4. anpi = other one; another one
    5. The stock phrase anxonyanpi allows us to use a transitive verb reciprocally. Note that a reflexive/intransitive verb would never be used reciprocally.
    6. When n precedes p or f, whether in a compound or a core word, it is often pronounced more like English m. When it precedes k, it is often pronounced more like English ng. This is okay; no ambiguity results.

  13. The boys are tapping each other.
    apepyu efapotwi anxonyanpi
    The boys are clobbering each other.
    apepyu efaposwe anxonyanpi

    1. efapotwi = to tap
    2. twi = {smallness suffix}
    3. efaposwe = to clobber; to smite; to deal a heavy blow to
    4. swe = {bigness suffix}
    5. The suffix twi suggests a lesser size or intensity, and may be applied to any lexical. Its counterpart is swe, which suggests a greater size or intensity.

  14. The woman sees an unusual, happy child.
    atakya esi ape oxememwa e ofi

    1. esi = to see; to look at; to watch
    2. oxememwa = strange; unusual
    3. oxeme = usual; standard
    4. mwa = {opposition suffix}
    5. e = and
    6. ofi = happy
    7. The opposition suffix mwa, like all suffixes, is productive — it can be appended to lexicals freely.
    8. Multiple modifiers can apply to the same noun or verb if they are separated by a conjunction, usually e, and.

  15. The woman saw an unusually happy child.
    atakya esi oyose ape ofi oxememwa

    1. oyose = earlier; in the past; already; before; {past tense marker}
    2. The tense of a verb can be indicated, if desired, with time-related modifiers like oyose.
    3. Adverbs are distinguished from their adjective equivalents by the adverbial prefix oy.
    4. When one modifier — either adjective or adverb — immediately follows another of the same type, it modifies the former; the two together then cumulatively modify the noun or verb headword.
    5. Hence, ofi oxememwa literally means happy-unusual; which then cumulatively modifies the headword ape to yield unusually happy child.
    6. A series of cumulating modifiers can be of any length, but it is highly unusual to encounter more than two in a row.

  16. Three big women see twelve children.
    ay'si atakya oxo esi ay'me'tu ape

    1. ay' = {number subclass marker}
    2. ay'si = 3
    3. si = "3" morpheme
    4. ay'me'tu = twelve
    5. ay'me = 1
    6. me = "1" morpheme
    7. ay'tu = 2
    8. tu = "2" morpheme
    9. Numbers are a special subclass of noun lexical. A number always begins with ay' followed by one or more numeric morphemes. The morphemes represent tens-positions, in the order of highest to lowest.
    10. A number always precedes the noun that it quantifies (if any — otherwise it is just a pure number). It functions like a noun, and is considered a kind of appositive to the quantified noun.
    11. By convention, number morphemes that are written out are separated from each other by an apostrophe, for visual recognition. Of course, usually they are written simply as numbers.

  17. I saw my child's bird.
    ami esi amalu u ape u ami

    1. u = {special particle}
    2. u has several special, though related, functions. They will be explained as they are encountered in these examples.
    3. When u separates two nouns (ignoring any modifiers that follow the first noun), it functions as an associative of.
    4. The sample could be more literally translated as I see the bird of the child of me. These associated pairs can be strung along as they are in the Romance languages (or, occasionally, in English).
    5. Note that the tense of the verb is usually left to context. Adverbs of time, which are used in lieu of tense markers, are described later.

  18. I put the cat on the table.
    ami epu apusa uta amesa

    1. epu = to put; to place
    2. uta = on; on top of; atop
    3. amesa = table
    4. A preposition relates the noun that follows it to the most recent noun or verb headword.
    5. In Ilomi, all prepositions begin with u.
    6. The direct object, if any, must precede any prepositional phrases.

  19. I see the cat (that is) on the table.
    ami esi apusa u uta amesa

    1. It's usually clear from context whether a preposition relates back to a verb or a noun. But in case of confusion, we can make the preposition explicitly refer back to the most recent noun headword by preceding the preposition with the particle u. In English we do something similar by preceding the preposition with a phrase like that is.

  20. The cat is on the table.
    apusa eyo uta amesa

    1. A prepositional phrase can stand as the complement to the the subject noun, across the copula eyo.

  21. I put the cat in a basket on the table.
    ami epu apusa umi asetu uta amesa

    1. umi = inside; within
    2. asetu = basket
    3. Frequently it doesn't much matter whether a prepositional phrase is modifying the verb or a noun. umi asetu = in a basket, which describes the action of putting, could as easily have been u umi asetu to describe the location of the cat. The difference in meaning between the two is slight, and such distinctions are dispensed with unless needed for clarity.

  22. I put the cat in a basket.
    ami epu apusa uka asetu

    1. Any preposition can be replaced by uka, which also serves as a generic preposition when no other preposition is appropriate.

  23. The woman helps the cat eat.
    atakya elu apusa ete

    1. elu = to help
    2. A verb can take an entire sentence as an object.

  24. The woman can eat the cat.
    atakya epo ete apusa

    1. epo = can; to be able to
    2. An auxiliary verb takes a verb phrase as its object.

  25. The woman helps eat the cat.
    atakya elu ete apusa

    1. Some transitive verbs can serve as auxiliaries.

  26. The woman helps the cat that is eating.
    apusa ete a atakya elu
    apusa ete a atakya elu axa

    1. a = {clause division marker}
    2. axa = he; she; it; (this) animate thing
    3. a separates clauses, whether they are dependent, independent, or interjectional.
    4. Regardless of its specific use, a always creates a grammatical break while retaining the theme of the sentence.
    5. Clauses can include an explicit reference to the headword that they relate to, usually using a pronoun like axa.
    6. A verb without a subject is assumed to take the most recent noun phrase as its subject, even if that noun is in a different clause. A verb with a subject but no object is assumed to take the most recent noun clause as its object. If the verb is followed by a preposition that has no noun clause, the most recent noun clause is assumed to be governed by the preposition.

  27. She sees her and her.
    axa esi axakwi e axakwo

    1. e = and
    2. axakwi = that animate thing; the second-mentioned one; that one there
    3. kwi = {secondary proximity suffix}
    4. axakwo = the other animate thing; the third-mentioned one; that one over yonder; one that is neither here nor there
    5. kwo = {tertiary proximity suffix}
    6. Multiple direct objects are permitted if they are separated by e or some other conjunction.
    7. The suffix kwi indicates a greater degree of distance in space or time than an unsuffixed word would otherwise have. The suffix kwo suggests a still greater degree.
    8. These suffixes are also used to suggest something like first alternative and second alternative. But the precise meaning can be influenced by context.
    9. These suffixes are usually applied to third-person pronouns but can be applied productively to other words as well.

  28. The woman who helps the cat that is eating likes me.
    apusa ete a atakya elu a emolu ami
    apusa ete a, atakya elu axa a, axakwi emolu ami
    apusa ete a, atakya elu a, axa emolu ami

    1. emolu = to like
    2. A series of specifying clauses in Ilomi is presented in small chunks, each expanding on the previous one. The sample sentence could be translated as: You know the cat that's eating, eh? You know the woman who helps it, eh? She likes me. This structure is referred to in Ilomi as a clause chain, and it gives the listener and the speaker a chance to digest the development of the utterance along the way.
    3. The second version of the sample sentence uses pronouns axa axakwi to refer to the cat and the woman, respectively. Either or both are optional.
    4. The third version of the sample sentence omits the pronoun in the second clause, so the pronoun in the third clause, though it could be axakwi, is more likely as simply axa.
    5. Ilomi doesn't make as clear a distinction between main and subordinate clauses as English does. For translation purposes, however, the last clause in a clause chain can usually be considered the main clause.
    6. It is typical, but not required, to pause in speech after a. It's also acceptable, though not necessarily common, to use a comma in written Ilomi after a — this is shown in the second and third versions of the sample sentence above.

  29. The woman helps the eating cat.
    atakya elu apusa oyete
    The woman helps the eaten cat.
    atakya elu apusa owete

    1. oyete = eating {active participle}
    2. oy = {active participle marker}
    3. owete = eaten {passive participle}
    4. ow = {passive participle marker}
    5. The usage of these participles is parallel to that of English. And, as in English, care must be taken in their pronunciation. However, they are used less in Ilomi than in English.
    6. Note that oy also serves to distinguish adverbs from adjectives. But no confusion results since the full marker for an adverb is oyo, while that for an active participle is oye.

  30. Eating cats is unusual.
    To eat cats is unusual.
    ete apusa a, antisa oxememwa

    1. antisa = it {abstract non-noun pronoun}
    2. antisa is used as an anaphor to refer to grammatical constructs other than nouns or names. This includes, for example, verbs, clauses, conditions, and situations.
    3. Ilomi doesn't have a true gerund or a personal infinitive. Instead, the verb is used in its natural form, and antisa is used as the grammatical noun to refer back to the verb clause.
    4. The use of a to separate the clauses is not mandatory in this example, because antisa can only be referring back to the verb ete. But clauses are so often necessarily separated by a that it just "feels" right in this context as well.

  31. Cats eating is unusual.
    apusa ete a, antisa oxememwa

    1. Note the important difference between this example and the previous one. Ilomi handles the distinction in a manner parallel to that of English.

  32. If one eats cats, that's unusual.
    Eating cats is unusual.
    To eat cats is unusual.
    iyu ete apusa eye oxememwa

    1. iyu = if
    2. eye = consequently; then; therefore
    3. Many utterances that are not considered if / then statements in English may nevertheless be cast into that form in Ilomi.

  33. It's unusual to eat cats.
    It's unusual, eating cats.
    oxememwa iyu ete apusa

    1. Just as in English, the two phrases in an if / then sentence can be inverted.
    2. When the if clause follows the then clause, the word eye can be omitted.

  34. The cat bit the man on the leg.
    apusa emaxu axami u atapyu

    1. emaxu = to bite
    2. axami = leg
    3. u loosely corresponds to of in this context, but it is generic. Other words can be used to be more specific about the nature of the association or relationship between nouns. This issue is discussed in more detail later.
    4. Note that we could have treated this expression with a prepositional phrase, as English does, if we had wanted to emphasise that it was the man who was bitten, providing the information about his leg as incidental. The generic preposition uka generally suffices in this situation.

  35. The student learns.
    atanyemu emu

    1. atanyemu = student
    2. emu = to learn; to study; to find out about
    3. ata is used often in compounds, like the English suffixes -ist or (one of the meanings of) -er. It does not necessarily imply professional status but does imply at least avocation.

  36. I teach.
    ami enyemu

    1. enyemu = to teach
    2. eny = {verb conversion prefix}
    3. The prefix eny converts a natural verb into a causative transitive verb. Morphemically, enyemu means to cause to learn.

  37. The teacher learns.
    atanyenyemu emu
    ansonyemu emu

    1. atanyenyemu = teacher
    2. ansonyemu = teacher
    3. anso = causer
    4. anso is parallel to ata, but rather than mean one who does, it means one who causes. The concept occurs frequently, so there is a separate core word for it.

  38. I give a basket to the cat.
    I give the cat a basket.
    ami enyeku asetu utu apusa

    1. enyeku = to give; to donate; to cause to receive
    2. eku = to receive; to acquire
    3. utu = to
    4. The words for to receive and to give parallel those for to learn and to teach.
    5. Some verbs in English are ditransitive — taking an indirect object followed by a direct object, neither governed by a preposition. In Ilomi all objects except direct objects are governed by prepositions.
    6. The generic preposition uka could have been used instead of utu, since it's clear from context that the cat is a recipient.

  39. The student learns the lesson from the teacher.
    atanyemu emu akunyemu ufe ansonyemu

    1. akunyemu = lesson; subject
    2. aku = thing; matter; material; substance; stuff
    3. ufe = from; delivered from; issued from; yielded from
    4. The order of core words in compounds is usually the same as what it would be if the compound were expressed as a multiword phrase instead.
    5. Note the semantic distinctions between ata, anso, and aku at the head of a compound. The first suggests the one who does; the second the one who causes; the third the thing that is acted upon.

  40. The learner learns.
    afenyemu emu

    1. afenyemu = learner
    2. afe = abstract thing; unknown thing; one
    3. afe can be used similarly to ata in compounds, but it is more ad hoc, and does not necessarily refer to a professional, or even a person or being.

  41. The boy is sleeping.
    The boy is asleep.
    The sleeping boy.
    apepyu omoka

    1. omoka = asleep
    2. Many concepts that are intransitive verbs in other languages are handled with modifiers in Ilomi.

  42. The boy makes the cat sleep.
    apepyu enyomoka apusa

    1. enyomoka = to cause to sleep
    2. The verb conversion prefix eny can be applied to any kind of lexical. It converts a noun or modifier into a causative transitive verb, and a preposition into a simple transitive verb.
    3. The exact semantics of the resultant verb are somewhat dependent on the nature of the original lexical. Two typical meanings of such a causative verb would be "to cause something to be X" and "to cause X to exist with respect to something".

  43. The boy is meditating.
    apepyu ewekesita

    1. ewekesita = to meditate
    2. Ilomi tends to use a modifier to describe a state where many languges would use an intransitive (static) verb. However, foreign intransitive verbs can be adapted into Ilomi as true intransitives, using the reflexive/intransitive prefix ew.

  44. Learn the lesson!
    o emu akunyemu

    1. o = {imperative marker}; {vocative marker}
    2. The imperative verb in Ilomi is marked by a preceding o.

  45. Girl, learn the lesson!
    apekya o emu akunyemu

    1. When o follows a noun or name, it marks the noun or name as a vocative.
    2. If an imperative verb follows a vocative, a single o serves as both the vocative and the imperative markers.

  46. Let's learn the lesson!
    amite o emu akunyemu
    o emu akunyemu
    afe o emu akunyemu

    1. amite = we (you and I)
    2. The pronouns ami and ate are specifically singular. Each has, therefore, a number of plural forms.
    3. Some core words are inspired by combinations of other core words. For example, amite is inspired by ami = me and ate = you. Such combined words are not true compounds, and are relatively rare (mostly involving numeric morphemes).
    4. A suggestion in the first person also uses the combined vocative / imperative o.
    5. Frequently the vocative target of an imperative is left to context, or is replaced by afe, which does double duty as an impersonal pronoun.

  47. Learn, Tammy.
    o emu itemi o
    Learn Tammy.
    o emu itemi

    1. As in English, a vocative can appear following a verb. But note that if the vocative marker o is left off the vocative target, it then simply becomes the object of the verb.

  48. The lesson is learned by the student
    akunyemu u emu atanyemu

    1. u emu = to be learned by
    2. When u precedes an active verb, it converts the verb into a passive verb. The subject and object exchange places, in effect.

  49. The girl ought to learn the lesson.
    apekya u exo emu akunyemu

    1. apekya = girl
    2. u exo = to be obliged; ought
    3. exo = to oblige
    4. An indirect imperative can be constructed with the auxiliary passive verb u exo.

  50. The lesson is learned.
    afe emu akunyemu

    1. The impersonal pronoun afe can be used as the subject, as another way to form the equivalent of a passive voice.
    2. More literally, the sample could be translated as one learns the lesson.

  51. the learned lesson
    akunyemu a afe emu aso

    1. aso = it; they {inanimate}
    2. We see here how the impersonal pronoun afe is used to construct a passive participial phrase.
    3. A more literal translation of this example sentence would be The lesson, eh? One learns it. or The lesson that one learns.

  52. the learned lesson
    akunyemu a afe emu

    1. Note the alternative form without aso.
    2. Because afe occupies the subject place, it is assumed that the headword, akunyemu, is the object of the verb emu.
    3. A more literal translation of this example sentence would be The lesson, eh? One learns. This form is often used simply to move an object to the head of the sentence for emphasis.

  53. The table "is being-ed on top of" by the cat.
    amesa u enyuta apusa

    1. The passive construction can be used with converted verbs. In this sample, the meaning of the Ilomi sentence is clear in Ilomi, but is difficult to express in English (except as the simple active The cat is on the table.

  54. The boy is sleeping.
    apepyu u enyomoka
    apepyu ewenyomoka

    1. u enyomoka = to be caused to sleep; to sleep
    2. ewenyomoka = to sleep
    3. eweny = {intransitive verb conversion prefix}
    4. When a causative verb is rendered passive, it becomes, effectively, an intransitive verb.
    5. Intransitives can also be created using the intransitive verb conversion prefix.

  55. The boy falls asleep.
    apepyu enti omoka
    apepyu epyomoka

    1. enti = to become
    2. epy = {state-change prefix}
    3. We can convey a change in the state of something either with the verb enti, or with the state-change prefix epy.
    4. Contrast epyomoka and enti omoka, to become asleep; to fall asleep, with enyomoka, which means to cause to sleep, and with u enyomoka and ewenyomoka, which mean to be asleep.
    5. In this sample, omoka is describing apepyu, not modifying enti. That is why it is an adjective rather than an adverb. In fact, enti is actually an auxiliary verb, in this case helping the unexpressed copula eyo.

  56. Tammy Smith helped.
    itemi isamita elu

    1. Multi-part names are constructed simply by juxtaposing individual names. There are no rules governing which part of a multipart name is the family name, given name, etc.
    2. It's common to familiarize longer names of people by using only the first two syllables: ime for imelani (Melanie), for example.

  57. My mother and I are eating apples.
    amokya u ami e ami ete oyoto apomu

    1. amokya = mother
    2. amo = parent
    3. oyoto = now; right now
    4. Multiple subjects are separated by e, and.
    5. Adverbs modify verbs or other adverbs, never nouns or adjectives. Adjectives modify nouns or other adjectives, never verbs or adverbs.

  58. Mom and Dad ate them.
    ima e ipo ete oyose aso

    1. ima = Mama; Mommy; Mom
    2. ipo = Papa; Daddy; Dad
    3. Some words have familiar forms as well as more formal ones. This can even be true of phrases; for example, ima, Mama; Mom, is a familiar form for amokya u ami; my mother. Without a possessive to identify whose mama she is, it is assumed to be the mama of the speaker.
    4. Note that endearments and diminutives that are usually used in place of names are, grammatically, names in Ilomi.
    5. Note also that dimunitives of proper names can result in the same forms as familiar forms. These are either avoided or left to context to sort out.

  59. The teacher he sees the boy.
    ansonyemu axa esi apepyu

    1. A noun, pronoun, or name that follows another noun, pronoun, or name functions as an appositive.
    2. Note that the English sample, though common in its structure, is non-standard. Not so the equivalent Ilomi. This structure is frequently used to associate pronouns with their referents, a most useful artifice if the pronoun is going to be used later in the conversation.

  60. The man, a carpenter, spoke.
    atapyu atanyakalu epa oyose

    1. atanyakalu = carpenter
    2. akalu = wood
    3. epa = to say; to speak about; to talk about; to tell about
    4. Appositives don't require an aural pause in Ilomi.

  61. We are going.
    ami e ate enyutu
    amite enyutu

    1. enyutu = to go to
    2. Although enyutu is transitive in Ilomi, its object — the destination — need not necessarily be expressed.

  62. My mom is a bad swimmer.
    ima eyo atanyekaku ofomwa
    My mother swims poorly.
    amokya u ami ekaku oyofomwa

    1. atanyekaku = swimmer
    2. ekaku = to swim
    3. oyofomwa = badly; poorly; maladroitly
    4. ofomwa = bad; poor; unskilled; maladroit
    5. ofo = skilled; adept
    6. As in English, sentences can be structured in various forms, some more concise than others.
    7. Remember that, although English adjectives (almost always) precede their nouns and English adverbs (usually) follow their verbs, in Ilomi all modifiers follow their headwords.

  63. My mother is a bad swimmer.
    amokya u ami eyo atanyekaku okemwa

    1. okemwa = bad; incorrect; of poor quality
    2. oke = good; correct; of good quality
    3. Many antonyms — not all, but more than in English — are formed with the opposite suffix mwa.
    4. There is not always a one-to-one correspondence between English words and Ilomi words. For example, ofomwa means bad in the sense of bad at something. okemwa breaks down to the more general anti-good.

  64. My mother is good. She works hard.
    amokya u ami eyo oke. i axa ekoto oyotule

    1. i = {sentence division marker}
    2. ekoto = to labour; to work
    3. oyotule = hard; effortfully
    4. otule = hard; effortful
    5. i provides a grammatical and minor thematic break. It is similar to a full stop (period) or a semicolon, and a full stop often precedes it (at the writer's option) in written Ilomi.
    6. i is often used as a placeholder word, like um... or eh... in English.

  65. The woman who likes me left.
    atakya uye emolu ami uyemwa enyufe oyose

    1. emolu = to love; to like
    2. enyufe = to go away from; to go from; to depart from; to leave from; to come from
    3. uye = {subordinate / parenthetical clause marker}
    4. uyemwa = {subordinate / parenthetical clause end marker}
    5. Ilomi does have provision for subordinate clauses, though they are less often used than clause chains.
    6. uye is also used for parenthetical clauses.
    7. Note the permitted omission of a subject in the subordinate clause. It's assumed that atakya is the subject of the subordinated verb emolu because there is no other subject within the subordinate clause.

  66. The woman whom I like left.
    atakya uye ami emolu uyemwa enyufe oyose

    1. The subject of a subordinate clause is not necessarily the subject of the sentence overall. In this example, ami is the subject of the subordinate clause, but atakya is the subject of the sentence even though it is the implied object of the subordinate clause.
    2. Ilomi does not distinguish between prescriptive and descriptive clauses in the way the English does with that and which.

  67. The woman whom I like left.
    atakya a ami emolu amwa enyufe oyose

    1. amwa = {clause end marker}
    2. a and amwa, though less precise as to exact meaning, can also be used to mark clauses in general. They usually suffice in colloquial speech.

  68. Yes, Melanie is sick.
    awa imelani osantemwa

    1. osantemwa = sick
    2. osante = healthy
    3. awa = yes; indeed
    4. awa functions as an interjection. It can occur anywhere within an utterance, without causing a grammatical break.

  69. No, Melanie was not sick.
    iye a imelani eyo oyose osantemwa iye

    1. iye = no
    2. An interjection applies most specifically to the word that it immediately follows.
    3. Interjections do not serve as headwords.
    4. Although it's usually possible to omit the copula without ambiguity, it is usually retained if it is to be modified with an adverb of time or an interjection, simply for clarity's sake.
    5. Inclusion of the copula brings a slight degree of emphasis to it that is lacking in the English equivalent.
    6. In this sample, the first iye is separated from the sentence that follows it with a. This ensures that the whole utterance is not interpreted as It is not true that Melanie was not sick.

  70. Yes, Melanie herself was sick indeed.
    awa imelani awa eyo osantemwa awa

    1. awa is also used to emphasize or dispel doubt about the use of a particular headword.
    2. The leading interjection awa could have been followed by a as was done in the preceding sample, but since no confusion could result, it was omitted.
    3. Note the omission of the time modifier oyose in this sample. Ilomi is really quite lax about such things when there is no need to be more specific or when context provides sufficient clarity.

  71. No, Melanie wasn't sick; but she is now.
    iye a imelani eyo oyose iye osantemwa ewo oyoto awa

    1. iye = negation
    2. ewo = but; except; however
    3. Utterances are presumed to be affirmative unless otherwise indicated.
    4. Not every phrase within a sentence must be fully grammatically expressed. oyoto awa is enough to convey the idea that what was not true before (whatever it may have been) is true now.

  72. Melanie was sick, though I didn't know it.
    imelani eyo oyose osantemwa ewo ami eke iye antisa

    1. eke = to know (about)
    2. Once the time frame of an utterance is established ("was sick"), it is even more likely that other verbs will be used without time referents.

  73. Melanie is sick, the doctor told me.
    imelani osantemwa a atanyamate epa antisa utu ami

    1. atanyamate = doctor
    2. amate = medicine
    3. In this case antisa is used to clarify that the doctor gave the specific information that Melanie was sick.
    4. Remember that a serves to separate coequal clauses without ending the utterance. There is, therefore, an implicit relation between the two clauses.
    5. In this sample the sequence of clauses could have been reversed without any significant change of meaning.

  74. Melanie is sick. The doctor was talking to me.
    imelani eyo osantemwa. i atanyamate epa utu ami

    1. Here, the use of i suggests a less-firm connection between the two utterances; perhaps that the doctor mentioned Melanie's health during conversation.

  75. Melanie is sick. I like apples.
    imelani eyo osantemwa oya ami emolu apomu

    1. oya = {spoken paragraph/theme break}
    2. oya indicates the beginning of a new topic. It is used frequently as a colloquial one-word greeting, meaning roughly what's new?. It is often preceded by a paragraph break in written Ilomi.

  76. please / thank you / you're welcome
    oxe a
    regret / apology
    enfe a

    1. oxe a = you're welcome; please; thank you
    2. oxe = gracious; kind; gentle
    3. enfe a = I'm sorry; I apologize
    4. enfe = to regret; to accept blame
    5. Interjections are readily constructed from any type of lexical, usually just by separating them from adjoining clauses with a.

  77. Thank you, Tammy
    oxe a itemi o

    1. The vocative marker o is still used with interjections, though generally no harm comes from omitting it, especially at the end of an utterance.

  78. I want to make you happy.
    ami efulu eme ate eyo ofi

    1. efulu = to want; to desire
    2. eme = to cause
    3. As noted earlier, an entire sentence can be the object of a verb.
    4. eyo could have been omitted here without a change in meaning. In that case, the parallel to the structure of the equivalent English sentence would be exact.

  79. I want to "happify" you.
    ami efulu enyofi ate

    1. enyofi = to make happy
    2. Ilomi speakers take some pleasure in coining or deriving new words.

  80. Make him leave!
    o eme axa enyufe

    1. A command to cause someone else to act is constructed parallel to the English model. Unlike many European languages (but like English), Ilomi does not need to use a subordinate clause for this purpose.

  81. Keep him from leaving!
    o eme axa enyufe iye

    1. These kinds of indirect commands often take a preposition in English, but not in Ilomi.

  82. Melanie is not tall. She is of average height.
    imelani otile iye. i axa otilefyo

    1. otile = tall
    2. otilefyo = neither tall nor short; of average height
    3. fyo = {neutrality suffix}
    4. fyo conveys the idea of neither X nor its opposite. Contrast this with mwa, which clearly indicates opposition.

  83. I ate too much. You ate just enough.
    ami ete oyoma. i ate ete oyomafyo

    1. oyoma = too much; excessively
    2. oyomafyo = just enough; neither excessively nor insufficiently
    3. oyoma, or its adjective equivalent oma, conveys the idea of excess when applied to any headword.

  84. It is too short.
    aso otilemwa oma
    It isn't tall enough.
    aso otile omafyo iye
    It is insufficiently tall.
    aso otile omamwa

    1. omamwa = too little; insufficient
    2. As in English, the same idea can be expressed in multiple ways.

  85. Hello, Mr. Shen and Mrs. Shen.
    exi a axupyu ixena o axukya ixena o

    1. exi = to greet
    2. axupyu = sir; mister; gentleman
    3. axukya = ma'am; miss; missus; mizz; lady
    4. axu = sir/madam; honoured one
    5. A lexical preceding a name functions as a title to that name. This is the basically the same thing as an appositive.

  86. Mr. Paul is at the lake.
    axu ipola eyo uma aleki

    1. uma = at
    2. aleki = lake; pond; body of fresh water
    3. Nouns do not have to be rendered gender-specific just because they can be. For example, axu is perfectly acceptable as a non-gender-specific, general-purpose honourific, and is in fact more commonly used than axupyu or axukya.

  87. Dr. Paul is at Klaus Lake.
    atanyamate ipola eyo uma aleki ikalusa

    1. Titles can also be applied to inanimate objects.

  88. Hello, Doctor.
    exi a inyatanyamate
    I see Mother.
    ami esi inyamokya

    1. inyatanyamate = Dr.
    2. inyamokya = Mother
    3. iny can be prefixed to a lexical to convert it into a name. It's often used to address or refer to someone by title only.

  89. I know Jerry Greenberg.
    ami eke idjeri igrinberga

    1. Foreign letters, and even consonant clusters, may be used in foreign names and words. There is no expectation that "native" speakers will pronounce them well.

  90. I know Rebecca Wong.
    ami eke iwo Rebeka Woq iwomwa

    1. iwo = {foreign name marker}
    2. iwomwa = {foreign name end marker}
    3. Completely foreign names — that is, those that are of a foreign form — are enclosed between iwo and iwomwa. Completely foreign words are enclosed between owo = {foreign word marker} and owomwa.
    4. Alternatively, speakers can simply pause significantly before and after foreign names and words, and perhaps also change their vocal tone.
    5. Foreign names and words that cannot be misinterpreted as collections of Ilomi words may dispense with their foreign markers.

  91. X

    1. aw'xay = x; X
    2. aw' = {glyph subclass marker}
    3. Letter names are a special subclass of noun lexical. A series of letters always begins with aw' followed by one or more letter name morphemes.

  92. ABCUXW

    1. aw' is only used at the outset of one or more glyphs in sequence.
    2. When written out by name, letters in a sequence are joined by apostrophes for visual recognition. Of course, usually they are written simply as letters.
    3. Note the form of the letter morphemes. They are an exception to the rule that morphemes begin with a vowel. Though the forms of letter names are such that, when prefaced with aw, their boundaries are still unambiguous, it doesn't hurt to pronounce them carefully. A glottal stop is often added at the end.

  93. Aa32m

    1. The case of letters is generally left to context. However, if necessary, the size suffixes swe and twi can be applied to the names of uppercase and lowercase letters, respectively.
    2. Strings of letters can also include numeric glyphs. Numbers in this context do not take an ay' prefix, because they are not functioning as quantifiers.

  94. the third man
    atapyu onyay'si

    1. onyay'si = third (in sequence)
    2. ony = {modifier conversion prefix}
    3. Ilomi converts a word to an adjective by prefixing it with ony.
    4. When a number is converted to a adjective, using the ony prefix, it functions as an ordinal. It follows the noun that it modifies.

  95. the thirty-second man
    atapyu onyay'si'tu

    1. onyay'si'tu = thirty-second (in sequence)
    2. Multidigit ordinal numbers are analogous to multidigit cardinal numbers.

  96. one-third of a man
    ay'me uxe ay'si atapyu
    u uxe ay'si atapyu

    1. uxe = divided by
    2. A fraction is like a cardinal number. In English the ordinal numbers and fractional numbers are mostly identical, but they are actually very different constructs. In Ilomi, this distinction is clear.
    3. The numerator of a fraction is separated from the denominator with the adjectivial preposition uxe. Similarly, multiplicand and multiplier are separated by ufa = multiplied by; times.
    4. The entire fraction (or product) then quantifies any following noun.
    5. ay'me is optional when it is the numerator of a fraction.

  97. negative twenty degrees / twenty degrees below zero
    ay'tu'lo olilo aselu

    1. aselu = degree Celsius
    2. olilo = minus; negative
    3. olilo is inspired by oli = less combined with the numeric morpheme lo = zero.
    4. Numbers can be modified like any nouns. The modified number as a whole then quantifies any following noun.

  98. forty-five point six seven

    1. ay'fa = four
    2. ay'po = five
    3. npu = {decimal point}
    4. ay'xe = six
    5. ay'su = seven
    6. The phoneme n in npu is usually pronounced as the end of the previous syllable. But it can become quasi-syllabic in its own right if the speaker prefers.

  99. eighty-nine one-hundredths of a litre
    ay'ki'ta uxe ay'me'lo'lo alita

    1. ay'ki = eight
    2. ay'ta = nine
    3. ay'lo = zero
    4. ay'me'lo'lo = one-hundred
    5. alita = litre

  100. eighty-nine thousandths of a litre
    ay'npulo'ki'ta alita
    ay'ki'ta'nke alita
    eighty-nine thousand litres
    ay'ki'ta'lo'lo'lo alita
    ay'ki'ta'nko alita

    1. ay'npu = decimal point
    2. ay'nke = thousandth; thousandths (roughly)
    3. ay'nko = thousand; thousands (roughly)
    4. For convenience, Ilomi has power-of-ten number words.

  101. 2000 grams
    ay'tu'nko akema
    2 kilograms
    ay'tu akilokema

    1. akema = gram
    2. akilokema = kilogram
    3. Ilomi uses metric prefixed measurements. However, it treats them as core words, not compounds (because they are adapted whole cloth from other languages).

  102. thousands of apes
    ay'nko axupinyata

    1. axupinyata = ape
    2. axupi = beast; animal
    3. Order-of-magnitude approximation is indicated by using a power-of-ten word without preceding it with any of the digits 0 to 9. It simply stands in apposition to the enumerated noun.

  103. tens of thousands of apes
    ay'nfo'nko axupinyata

    1. ay'nfo' = ten(s)
    2. ay'nfo'nko = ten(s) of thousands
    3. When appropriate power-of-ten words do not exist, they can be constructed by compounding, using the smaller value first in the compound word.

  104. ten thousand apes
    ay'me'lo'nko axupinyata

    1. A (relatively) precise number using a power-of-ten word must begin with at least one digit 0 to 9.

  105. about two thousand apes
    ay'tu'nko oso axupinyata

    1. oso = approximately; about
    2. More precise approximation (?!) is done by modifying the number with the modifier oso.

  106. You are 180 centimetres tall.
    ate eyo ay'me'ki'lo asentimeta u anyotile
    ate eyo ay'me'ki'lo asentimeta

    1. asentimeta = centimetre
    2. ameta = metre
    3. Measurement is done using the copula.
    4. A more literal translation of the first example would be you are 180 centimetres of tallness. The second would be you are 180 centimetres; it's understood that a person is not "equal" to 180 centimetres any more than she is "equal" to "tall" or "tallness".

  107. X men
    ay'xay atapyu

    1. ay'xay = X of
    2. Letters can be used as numerics (as in algebra) simply by using the numeric subclass marker ay' instead of the glyph subclass marker aw'.
    3. Every individual letter that stands for a numeric value must have the ay' prefix. Letters that stand for numbers do not automatically combine with letter or number lexemes that precede or follow them. But this is a highly unusual situation anyway.

  108. the X'th man
    atapyu onyay'xay

    1. onyay'xay = X'th
    2. When a letter-as-number is then converted to a modifier, it functions as an ordinal.

  109. the x'th woman and X'th man
    atakya onyay'xaytwi e atapyu onyay'xayswe

    1. onyay'xaytwi = x'th
    2. The same mechanisms for marking letters as specifically uppercase or lowercase apply in all contexts.

  110. You saw me yesterday.
    ate esi ami uma akinyose

    1. akinyose = yesterday
    2. aki = day
    3. Most adverbs of time ("yesterday"; "soon") can be handled with prepositional phrases.
    4. Again, tense is usually not specified when the context makes it clear.
    5. Note that within the compound akinyose, oyose loses its adverbial prefix.

  111. You saw me yesterday.
    ate esi oyonyakinyose ami
    ate esi ami oyonyakinyose

    1. oyonyakinyose = "yesterday-ly"
    2. Alternatively, adverbs of time can also be handled as modifiers of the verb; that is, simply as adverbs.
    3. Note that, because the adverb is clearly marked as such, there is some flexibility in its placement. It modifies the most recent verb even if that verb does not immediately precede it.

  112. You saw me before yesterday.
    ate esi ami unyose akinyose

    1. unyose = before {in time}
    2. uny = {preposition conversion prefix}
    3. uny converts a word into a preposition.

  113. You saw me four days ago.
    ate esi ami upe ay'fa aki

    1. upe = ago
    2. Ago (upe) is a preposition in Ilomi, and so precedes the noun that it governs.

  114. You will see me before four days from now.
    ate esi ami unyose upemwa ay'fa aki

    1. upemwa = from now
    2. Prepositions can be adjoined for greater specificity.
    3. In this example, the word order is rather different from that of English, simply because upemwa, like upe, is a preposition.

  115. She sees this.
    axa esi alo
    She shows this to you.
    axa enyesi alo uka ate

    1. alo = the; this; this one; the one previously mentioned
    2. enyesi = to show something; to cause to see something
    3. Note that causative verbs are not interpreted merely as a literal mapping of non-causative to causative meaning. There is a degree of generalisation that occurs.
    4. Note also that the direct object of the non-causative verb remains the direct object of the causative verb.

  116. She sees herself.
    axa ewesi alo
    She looks good.
    axa enyewesi oyoke

    1. ewesi = to see oneself
    2. enyewesi = to cause to see oneself; to show oneself; to look (appear)
    3. Reflexive/intransitive verbs can also be rendered causative. Note the use of the adverbial form oyoke, because it modifies the verb (literally we are saying "she shows herself well"), whereas in English we use a predicate adjective because it is modifying the subject noun.

  117. an unusual sight
    anyesi oxememwa
    an unusual appearance
    anyewesi oxememwa

    1. anyesi = sight (a seen thing)
    2. anyewesi = appearance; look
    3. Note the distinction in meaning when we convert a transitive verb and its intransitive counterpart into nouns. The latter tends to suggest a quality while the former is more concerned with an action.

  118. I need any blue car.
    ami efo anli akoxo osu
    ami efo akoxo anli osu
    ami efo akoxo osu anli

    1. efo = to need
    2. anli = a; any one; no particular one
    3. akoxo = car; coach
    4. osu = blue
    5. Demonstrative pronouns, like anli, are used in apposition to the nouns that they govern. They can precede or follow the nouns, or even the entire noun phrases. The first noun in an appositive phrase is considered to be somewhat more "primary" than the others, so usually the demonstrative pronoun is not first; the third sample above would be the most common configuration.
    6. The demonstrative pronoun anli is similar to one of the meanings of the English indefinite article a. Ilomi tends to leave this kind of specificity to context, but this pronoun is used from time to time.

  119. I need a car.
    ami efo akoxo anli
    I see a car.
    ami esi akoxo anla
    I see the car.
    ami esi akoxo alo

    1. efo = to need
    2. anla = a; a certain one; one that is particular but newly-mentioned
    3. Note the distinction between anli and anla. This is a distinction that English does not readily express.

  120. I need this blue car and that red one.
    ami efo u akoxo osu alo e alokwi omi

    1. omi = red
    2. alokwi = that one; "not this one"
    3. alo is seldom used with the sense of the, but is more frequently used with the sense of this; that.
    4. Demonstrative pronouns can be used as nouns in their own right. Any modifiers must follow them, as usual.
    5. kwi and kwo can also be suffixed to the demonstrative pronouns, with the same resultant effects on meanings as were seen with axa and aso.

  121. Which car do you want?
    ate efulu akoxo anke

    1. anke = which
    2. "Which one" questions are usually not inverted as in English, but simply include anke as a demonstrative pronoun in apposition to the noun in question.

  122. I don't know which car you want.
    ami eke iye akoxo a ate efulu

    1. Many varied English constructions break down to straightforward sentences with chained clauses in Ilomi.
    2. anke does not function as a relative the way it does in English. It is strictly interrogative.

  123. Where do you eat?
    ate ete uma anke
    You eat somewhere (and I know where).
    ate ete uma anla
    You eat somewhere (but I don't know where).
    ate ete uma anli

    1. These samples illustrate the distinctions that we can make with anla and anli.

  124. Is it the cat that is sick?
    apusa uwe eyo osantemwa
    Is the cat sick?
    apusa eyo osantemwa uwe

    1. uwe = {question marker}
    2. uwe calls into question whichever headword it modifies. Whereas anke requests identification ("which one"), uwe requests confirmation ("yes or no", or "is it true that...").

  125. Is the cat sick?
    uwe apusa osantemwa

    1. Often it's difficult or unnecessary to determine just which word is in question. An entire utterance can therefore be called into question by prepending uwe to it.

  126. I would leave if the cat were sick.
    ami enyufe iyu apusa eyo oyu osantemwa

    1. oyu = {doubtful attitude marker}
    2. Ilomi has a handful of functionals to indicate the speaker's attitude towards what is uttered. The attitude implied when no such marker is used is one of simple affirmation.
    3. In this context, oyu does what a conditional mood does in English. Because it follows (and therefore modifies) eyo, it indicates that the speaker doubts that the cat is sick at all.

  127. I doubt that I will leave if the cat is sick.
    ami enyufe oyu iyu apusa eyo osantemwa

    1. Note the important distinction between the wording of this sample sentence and the preceding one. In this sample it is the resultant action that is in doubt, rather than the premise.

  128. Really? / Pardon? / What? / Is it true?
    I don't believe it. / No way. / That isn't true. / No.
    I doubt it. / I question that. / Probably not.
    It may be. / Possibly.
    I believe so. / Probably.
    I'm certain. / That's right. / It's true. / Yes.

    1. iwa = {possible attitude marker}
    2. owi = {probable attitude marker}
    3. The attitude markers can be used as one-word utterances.
    4. Note that belief and probability are not distinguished in Ilomi. To say that something is probable is to say that one believes it to be so.

  129. The man ate, I believe, a cat.
    owi atapyu ete apusa

    1. Interjections usually lead or follow an entire sentence, rather than occurring within the sentence, unless it is important to zero-in on a specific word.

  130. It's raining.

    1. ewepulu = to rain
    2. anyewepulu = raining; an occurrence of rain
    3. any = {noun conversion prefix}
    4. It's common simply to utter a single verb, or a single noun or noun phrase, in order to make an impersonal observation. In this case, the observation is "raining" or "rain".
    5. A noun that is a conversion from a verb sometimes functions like an English gerund, but is better thought of as an instantiation of the verbal concept.
    6. Note that prefixes like ew can be retained when words are converted to other classes if the are important to the derived meaning of the converted word. This is not an ad hoc choice, however.

  131. There's a man.
    atapyu eyo

    1. "There is..." utterances can also sometimes be cast as impersonal phrases, when they convey the sense of existence rather than location.

  132. It was raining; then it stopped.
    aka ewepulu oyose oyopi ewa aso ewematamwa
    ewepulu ewa ewematamwa

    1. aka = water
    2. oyopi = continuously; in ongoing fashion
    3. ewa = then; afterward
    4. ewematamwa = to stop; to cease
    5. ewa is a conjunction, like e (and); it also conveys a sense of sequence, though not causality.
    6. The second of the two sentences uses less verbiage and more context to convey the same message as the first.

  133. The time is eleven-thirty.
    atimo eyo ay'me'me asi upu ay'si'lo amintu
    ay'me'me asi upu ay'si'lo

    1. atimo = time
    2. asi = hour
    3. upu = plus
    4. amintu = minute
    5. Time reports, like weather reports, often drop words that can be understood from context. atimo and amintu are often omitted.
    6. Note that the preposition upu relates the two nouns asi and amintu (even when they are implied). It therefore has adjectivial prepositional form.

  134. It's half-past eleven.
    ay'me'me upu uxe ay'tu asi
    ay'me'me upu ay'nlu asi

    1. ay'nlu = one-half
    2. Fractions of hours can be used in time reports.
    3. Ilomi has a few separate words for common fractions.

  135. It's a quarter to twelve.
    ay'me'tu unsi ay'nka asi

    1. unsi = minus
    2. ay'nka = one-quarter
    3. Times can also be expressed in terms of hours minus a fraction.

  136. There's no time.
    ay'lo alenyatimo

    1. alenyatimo = time-span; duration; time allotment
    2. ale = set; group; collective
    3. "There's no..." utterances usually use ay'lo, zero; because they are focused on the quantity — or lack — of something.
    4. atimo is not used by itself here, because it refers to a specific point in time, not a span of time.

  137. the girl's location
    alu ufo apekya
    alu u apekya
    the girl's toy
    axuki unxa apekya
    axuki u apekya
    a girl of the group
    apekya umu ale
    apekya u ale
    a group of girls
    ale u umu apekya
    ale u apekya

    1. ufo = possessed by; held by; related to
    2. unxa = owned by; belonging to
    3. umu = contained by; comprised by
    4. u umu = containing; comprising; consisting of
    5. axuki = toy; plaything
    6. The various concepts expressed by of in English are expressed in a variety of ways in Ilomi, most of them using one of these related words.
    7. u can be used for any of these purposes, at the cost of some precision. ufo is used specifically to indicate a general relationship and nothing more.
    8. Some usages of of in English do not translate to u or its more specific associative prepositions. For example, the town of Smallville is simply asiti isumalefila.

  138. She likes guy cars.
    axa emolu akoxo onyatapyu

    1. onyatapyu = guy-like; manly
    2. In English it's common to modify one noun with another. Not so in Ilomi. The modifying noun needs to be converted into a modifier with the conversion prefix ony.

  139. She likes guys' cars.
    axa emolu akoxo u atapyu

    1. If the relationship between the nouns is one of association rather than modification, then u is the word to use.

  140. She likes the guy's car.
    axa emolu akoxo u unxa atapyu

    1. Compare the previous sample, where car is generically associated with guy, and this sample, where the association is definitely one of ownership.

  141. She likes "guy" cars.
    axa emolu akoxo uya atapyu uyamwa

    1. uya = {figurative phrase marker}
    2. uyamwa = {figurative phrase end marker}
    3. uya begins a phrase that is not meant to be taken literally. It is used where English would use ironic quotes (also called scare quotes).
    4. uyamwa ends an uya phrase.

  142. She invented a "cat-car".
    axa epensonyefa uya akoxonyapusa uyamwa

    1. epensonyefa = to invent
    2. epenso = to think
    3. efa = to create; to make
    4. uya also marks ad hoc constructions, including compound words. It can be loosely translated as so-called.

  143. She likes "guy" (but not green) cars.
    axa emolu akoxo uya atapyu uyamwa uye oluke iye uyemwa

    1. Recall that uye and uyemwa are used for parenthetical phrases as well as for subordinate clauses. However, in spoken Ilomi, such constructions are usually avoided in favour of clause chains.

  144. He said, "I agree".
    axa epa uyu ami etako uyumwa

    1. etako = to agree with
    2. uyu = {literal quote begin}
    3. uyu marks a literal quotation. uyumwa ends an uyu phrase, but can often be omitted due to its position at the overall end of an utterance.

  145. I speak Ilomi.
    ami epa ula alosa ilomi
    I speak English.
    ami epa ula alosa inli
    This is England.
    alo anta inli

    1. ula = with; by means of; using
    2. alosa ilomi = Ilomi language
    3. alosa inli = English language
    4. alosa = language
    5. anta inli = England
    6. anta = nation; country
    7. "Names" include not only people's and animals' names, but names of organizations, landmarks, cities, countries, and so on. These names are preceded by classifying nouns that act just like titles. Without such a title, and with no other context, a name is assumed to represent a person or other creature.
    8. It's possible to use ata as a title on a person's name if necessary to distinguish it from something else with the same name.
    9. It's also possible to omit the classifying noun on a non-animate name once it's well-established what the name is referring to. But the classifying noun is almost invariably used at least upon first reference, and is generally used even with all subsequent references.

  146. This is Canada.
    alo anta ikanata
    This is Canadian.
    alo onyikanata

    1. ikanata = Canada
    2. onyikanata = Canadian
    3. To be used in a grammatical role other than "name", a name must be converted using one of the conversion prefixes.
    4. Names within compounds, or that are converted to other grammatical classes, retain any initial capitalization, by convention.

  147. This is a large Ford key.
    alo eyo akunxi oxo u akoxo owo Ford owomwa

    1. akunxi = key
    2. A foreign name that is used as a foreign lexical is marked with the foreign word marker owo, not the foreign name marker.

  148. more than
    less than
    as much as

    1. unyopu = more than
    2. unyoli = less than
    3. unyoka = as much as; equally to
    4. When a modifier is converted to a preposition, it acquires the sense of with respect to; in relation to; than; as. In practice, this applies mainly to the three words defined above, and a handful of others having to do with spatial and temporal relationships.

  149. I like Tammy more than (I like) Melanie.
    ami emolu itemi unyopu imelani

    1. Note that the preposition unyopu relates to the verb, so it would be incorrect to precede it with u. A rule of thumb is, if one can precede the equivalent English preposition with the phrase that is, then one can precede it with u in Ilomi.

  150. I like Tammy less than Melanie (does).
    ami unyoli imelani emolu itemi

    1. To compare one subject to another, the comparator preposition is used in the subject phrase.
    2. More literally, this example could be translated I, less than Melanie, like Tammy.
    3. Note that the preposition, though it is in the subject phrase, still relates to the verb emolu.

  151. I like Tammy as much as I need her.
    ami emolu unyoka efo itemi

    1. To compare one verb to another, the comparator preposition is used between the two verbs.

  152. I like Tammy as much as I need her.
    ami emolu itemi a ami efo oyoka

    1. oka = same; identical
    2. oyoka = equally
    3. As is so often the case, there are different ways to phrase the same concept. This sample could be more literally translated as I like Tammy, eh? I need [her] equally. Ilomi tends to favour constructions that get built up one simple phrase at a time like this.

  153. I like Tammy instead of (liking) Melanie.
    ami emolu itemi unyalu imelani

    1. unyalu = instead of; in place of; rather than

  154. I like Tammy most.
    ami emolu itemi unyopu anfo
    ami emolu itemi unyopu
    ami emolu itemi oyopuswe

    1. anfo = all; total; entirety
    2. oyopuswe = most (adv.)
    3. opuswe = most (adj.)
    4. The superlative can be constructed as a comparison against all.
    5. If there is no comparand for the preposition, the context determines whether it is a true superlative or merely a comparison against some unspoken comparand.
    6. Finally, an adverbial form of most can be used.

  155. the taller girl
    apekya otile opu
    the tallest girl
    apekya otile opuswe

    1. Comparative and superlative modifiers are similar in construction to comparative and superlative prepositions.

  156. I see the tallest woman
    ami esi apekya otile onyay'me
    I see the third-tallest woman
    ami esi apekya otile onyay'si I see the third, tall woman
    ami esi apekya otile e onyay'si

    1. opu = more
    2. Ilomi also has a mechanism for ranking things more precisely than simply more and most.

  157. I run like a horse.
    ami elele unyomo akuta

    1. elele = to run
    2. unyomo = similar to
    3. omo = similar
    4. akuta = horse

  158. I want a horse like that one.
    ami efulu akuta unyomo alo

    1. Note that, because unyomo in this sample relates two nouns (akuta and alo), it has adjectivial preposition form.

  159. We work for IBM.
    amixa ekoto uxo inyaw'nibaymay

    1. amixa = we (they and I)
    2. uxo = for; on behalf of; for the benefit of
    3. inyaw'ni'bay'may = IBM Corp.
    4. Initialisms are handled as strings of letters.
    5. The name conversion prefix iny can be applied to an initialism to convert it to a name.

  160. We work for IBM.
    amixa ekoto uxo inyI.B.M.

    1. Initialisms, whether they represent names or nouns, can be written as letters plus full-stops. Don't forget to pronounce the prefix aw' before the first letter.

  161. For I.B.M. work we.
    uxo inyI.B.M. ekoto awu amixa

    1. awu = {subject marker}
    2. awu marks the beginning of a subject phrase when the subject does not begin the sentence.

  162. The address is 221B Baker Street.
    ankanyalu eyo aw'tu'tu'me'bay u akale ibeka

    1. ankanyalu = address (location)
    2. anka = number
    3. akale = street; road
    4. An alphanumeric string that functions as an identifier, rather than as a quantity, must be preceded by the glyph marker aw. This is true even if the string contains only numbers.
    5. A street address often has multiple occurrences of u for its various components.
    6. Words like "Street" and "Avenue" function as titles to the names that they are associated with. They therefore precede those names, by convention.

  163. Plan number 4-BC "Blue" failed.
    akimi aw'fanyafitinyaw'bay'caynyosu esukimwa

    1. akimi = plan (of action); scheme
    2. afiti = hyphen
    3. esukimwa = to fail
    4. esuki = to succeed
    5. A literal hyphen is used when there actually is a hyphen in the identifier.
    6. An identifier may incorporate lexicals. In this case, the lexicals are compounded into the rest of the identifier using the compounding hyphen ny.

  164. from January to December
    ufe amuxalu utu amutese

    1. ufe = from
    2. amuxalu = January
    3. utu = to
    4. amutese = December
    5. Names of months are common nouns, not names, in Ilomi.

  165. from Monday to Sunday
    ufe akime utu akisu

    1. akime = Monday
    2. akisu = Sunday
    3. Likewise, days of the week are common nouns, not names.
    4. Names of days are not true compounds, but are inspired by the word aki = day and the numbers 1 through 7.

  166. Tee-hee-hee! (sound of giggling)
    Ha-ha-ha! (sound of laughter)
    Whoosh! (sound of airflow)
    Kablam! (sound of gunshot)
    Biff! (sound of punch)

    1. Sound effect words, like those we find in comic books, are made up at whim. They have the form of lexicals, except that they begin with w or y instead of a vowel.

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