The Konya Language

Copyright © 2005 Larry Sulky

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Sample sentences and explanation

  1. I eat.
    min-wi komu

    1. min-wi = I; me; we; us
    2. komu = to eat something
    3. Words in Konya are of these grammatical classes:
      • Lexicals — nouns and pronouns; modifiers (adjectives and adverbs), as well as quantifiers and specifiers; and verbs. Prepositions and interjections are also included in this class in Konya, even though they often are not considered such in other languages.
      • Names.
      • Prefixes.
      • Functionals — markers; suffixes; punctuation; conjunctions; and everything else.
    4. Nouns and pronouns end in i.
    5. Verbs end in u.

  2. I eat some apples.
    min-wi komu pomi

    1. pomi = apple
    2. The word order is subject-verb-object. Variations of this are possible with the use of some special words, described later.
    3. There are no articles (the, a, an, some), nor plural forms. Definiteness and number are taken from context, or established with more specific words. These samples will therefore vary in their translations of definiteness and number.

  3. You ate a big green apple.
    ten-wi komu pomi xon-we kalune

    1. ten-wi = you; thou; thee
    2. xon-we = big
    3. kalune = green
    4. The form of a verb does not change due to person, number, or tense. Tense is taken from context, or established with more specific words. These samples will therefore vary in their translations of tense.
    5. Modifiers end in e.
    6. A modifier modifies the most recent noun or verb. This is the same as the way English verbs are usually modified, but the opposite of the way most English nouns are modified.
    7. A sequence of modifiers all independently modify the most recent noun or verb. There are special markers to allow modifiers to modify other modifiers; they are described later.

  4. The cat eats a green apple.
    koti komu pomi kalune

    1. koti = cat
    2. Lexicals are of these classes: core, short, compound, and converted.
    3. Core lexicals make up the basic vocabulary of Konya. Most core lexicals consist of a main syllable followed by a final syllable. Each syllable consists of a consonant followed by one of the vowels e, i, o, u or one of the diphthongs au, ai. The vowel or diphthong of the final syllable is a grammatical role marker.
    4. Either or both of these two syllables can be preceded by any number of unstressed syllables. An unstressed syllable consists of a consonant followed by a.
    5. Short lexicals are similar to core lexicals but have a different form. They consist only of a main syllable, plus optional unstressed syllables preceding the main syllable. They never stand alone as words; they are always compounded with other lexicals or with functionals.
    6. min-wi is an example of a short lexical. They are described more fully later.
    7. Compound and converted lexicals are described later.

  5. I am a person.
    min-wi wa suki

    1. wa = {copula}; to be
    2. suki = person
    3. In Konya, the word for to be is not a verb, but the functional wa.
    4. Functionals, like lexicals, occur in core, compound, and converted forms. The shortest core functionals contain a single main syllable consisting of one of w, y followed by one of the vowels e, i, o, u or by the unstressed vowel a.
    5. This main syllable can be preceded by any number of unstressed syllables. An unstressed syllable consists of a consonant followed by a.
    6. Compound and converted functionals are described later.

  6. Tammy is a person.
    Temya wa suki

    1. Temya = Tammy {name}
    2. ya = {name marker}
    3. The shortest names consist of a main syllable followed by a final syllable. The main syllable consists of a consonant followed by one of the vowels e, i, o, u or one of the diphthongs au, ai. The final syllable consists of a consonant followed by the name marker ya.
    4. Either or both of these two syllables can be preceded by any number of unstressed syllables. An unstressed syllable consists of a consonant followed by a.
    5. Names are capitalized by convention.

  7. The apple is green.
    pomi kalune wa

    1. Unlike English, the copula in Konya cannot equate a subject to a modifier. Instead, the modifier modifies the subject by following it, and the copula just "hangs".

  8. The apple is green.
    pomi wa noli kalune

    1. noli = {impersonal pronoun}
    2. It is possible to put the modifier in the predicate if it has a predicate noun to modify. The noun of choice is often the impersonal pronoun.
    3. A slightly more literal translation of this utterance would be the apple is a green one.

  9. The cat ate a canary.
    kota komu xelen-paipi

    1. xelen-paipi = canary
    2. xele = yellow
    3. paipi = bird
    4. Compounds are formed by joining core words with the compounding hyphen n-, unless this would result in the letter sequence n-n, in which case the compounding hyphen is changed to m-.
    5. The final core word in a compound word carries the main meaning; the other core words modify it. Thus, xelen-paipi > "yellow-bird" > canary.
    6. The final vowel determines the grammatical role of the compound as a whole.
    7. Compound lexicals are generally metaphorical to some degree. A canary isn't simply any yellow bird, which would be expressed as paipi xele; it is a specific kind of bird that, among many other characteristics, is usually yellow.
    8. In general, compounds cannot simply be created ad hoc, since their meanings need to be agreed upon.

  10. Tammy is a female person.
    Temya wa suki mon-we
    Tammy is a woman.
    Temya wa mon-suki

    1. mon-we = female
    2. mo = female {compounding form}
    3. mon-suki = woman
    4. A short lexical, when used as a stand-alone word or as the final component of a compound, ends in one of the conversion suffixeswi, we, yu, or yo. The suffix is itself compounded onto the main syllable.
    5. The main syllable of a short lexical cannot contain the diphthong au or ai.
    6. Many short lexicals are productive; they can be freely compounded to other lexicals to form new words. These new words have meanings that are predictable from their components; in other words, they are not particularly metaphorical. For example, mo always constructs the feminine form of whatever it is compounded to.
    7. A short lexical retains its conversion suffix when it is the final component of a compound.
    8. A short lexical in a compound can carry the main meaning even if it is not the final component of the compound.

  11. The boy is eating.
    pem-neni komu
    The boy is sleeping.
    pem-neni xan-lepu

    1. pem-neni = boy
    2. pe = male {compounding form}
    3. neni = child
    4. xan-lepu = to sleep
    5. xa = {intransitivity prefix}
    6. There is no present progressive tense; is eating is equivalent to eats.
    7. In Konya, a verb is inherently transitive or intransitive — not both.
    8. Intransitive verbs are prefixed by xa, followed by the compounding hyphen. Transitive verbs are not prefixed in this way.
    9. komu = to eat is transitive; so we know that the boy is eating something other than himself!
    10. Many verbs that are intransitive in English are transitive in Konya. The reverse is also occasionally true.
    11. All prefixes consist of one or more syllables, each of which begins with a consonant and ends with a. Prefixes cannot stand alone; they must be compounded into a compound word or converted using one of the conversion suffixes.

  12. The boy is eating himself.
    pem-neni komu sefi

    1. sefi = self
    2. sefi, as the direct object of a verb, allows us to use a transitive verb reflexively.

  13. The boys are hitting each another.
    pem-neni faipu failen-sefi

    1. faipu = to hit; to strike; to slap
    2. failen-sefi = one another; each other
    3. faile = other; another
    4. Similarly, failen-sefi allows us to use a transitive verb reciprocally.

  14. The woman saw an unusual, happy child.
    mon-suki sinu pose neni pan-xene xole

    1. sinu = to see; to look at; to watch
    2. pose = before-time; past (earlier) time
    3. pan-xene = strange; unusual
    4. pa = opposite; anti- {prefix}
    5. xene = usual; standard
    6. xole = happy
    7. The tense of a verb can be indicated, if desired, with time-related modifiers like pose.

  15. The woman saw an unusually happy child.
    mon-suki sinu pose neni xole we pan-xene

    1. we = {spoken hyphen}
    2. we ties a word to the preceding word, whether that word is a headword or not.
    3. Hence, xole we pan-xene literally means happy-unusual; which then cumulatively modifies the headword neni to yield unusually happy child.

  16. Three big women saw twelve children.
    mon-suki xote sife sinu neni munen-xume

    1. sife = three
    2. munen-xume = twelve
    3. mune = one
    4. xume = two
    5. A multi-digit number is constructed simply by compounding the digits of the number, like any compound word.
    6. When used as a modifier, which is most of the time, a number is typically the last modifier, but it does not have to be.

  17. I put the cat on the table.
    min-wi putu koti supo mesi

    1. putu = to put; to place
    2. mesi = table
    3. A preposition relates the noun that follows it to the most recent verb.
    4. In Konya, all prepositions end in o.

  18. I put the cat on the table.
    min-wi putu supo mesi koti

    1. The prepositional phrase can precede or follow the direct object.

  19. I see the cat on the table.
    min-wi sinu koti wa supo mesi

    1. supo = on top of
    2. A preposition that follows the copula wa relates the the noun that follows it to the most recent noun instead of the verb. wa could be more literally translated as that is, rather than is, in this situation.
    3. In this case the position of the prepositional phrase can make a difference in the meaning of the sentence.

  20. The cat is on the table.
    koti wa supo mesi

    1. wa can tie a prepositional phrase to the subject noun.

  21. The cat is on the table.
    koti supon-yu mesi

    1. supon-yu = to be on top of
    2. yu = {verb conversion marker}
    3. supon-yu is an example of a converted lexical. It is a transitive verb built from a preposition. Any lexical is potentially a candidate for conversion.

  22. I put the cat in a basket on the table.
    min-wi putu koti tino saseti wa supo mesi

    1. tino = inside; within
    2. saseti = basket
    3. Frequently it doesn't much matter whether a prepositional phrase is modifying the verb or a noun. tino saseti = in a basket, which describes the action of putting, could as easily have been wa tino saseti to describe the location of the cat.

  23. I give a basket to the cat.
    min-wi tonu tun-yo koti saseti

    1. tonu = to give; to donate
    2. tun-yo = to
    3. Prepositions also mark objects of a verb (except for the direct object).
    4. Konya isn't very fussy about the order of a verb's objects.

  24. The woman helps the cat eat.
    mon-suki xepu koti komu

    1. xepu = to help
    2. A verb phrase can take an entire sentence as an object.

  25. The woman helps eat the cat.
    mon-suki xepu komu koti

    1. An auxiliary verb precedes the main verb, as in English.

  26. The woman helps the cat that is eating.
    mon-suki xepu koti yo kun-wi komu wo

    1. yo = {spoken comma}
    2. kun-wi = he/she/it/they {animate}
    3. wo = {general clause ending marker}
    4. Subordinate clauses are set off from main clauses with yo and wo.
    5. Unlike English, subordinate clauses can include an explicit reference to the headword that they relate to, usually using the pronoun kun-wi. They can therefore be placed anywhere after this headword, but in practice usually follow it immediately.
    6. Subordinate clauses also serve for parenthetical statements. So the subordinate clause in the example could be more literally translated as (it is eating) instead of that is eating.
    7. Regardless of its specific use, yo always creates a grammatical break while retaining the theme of the sentence.
    8. It is typical, but not required, to pause in speech after yo (and wo).
    9. wo is used generally to end all manner of clauses, not just subordinate clauses.

  27. The woman helps the eating cat.
    mon-suki xepu koti yo komu

    1. To convey the sense of a modifying present participle, Konya can use the same structure as for a subordinate clause.
    2. Note the optional omission of wo when — and only when — it occurs at the end of an utterance. This is a purely cosmetic difference.
    3. Note also the omission of kun-wi (and any other reference to the headword) from the subordinate clause. If the pronoun is omitted, it is assumed that the headword is the subject of the verb. Whereas in English this omission is mandatory, in Konya it is optional.

  28. The woman helps the eating cat.
    mon-suki xepu koti komun-we
    The woman helps the eaten cat.
    mon-suki xepu koti lan-komun-we

    1. komun-we = eating {active participle}
    2. lan-komun-we = eaten {passive participle}
    3. we = {modifier conversion suffix}
    4. la = {inversion prefix}
    5. Konya constructs an active participle by affixing the modifier conversion suffix we to a verb.
    6. The passive participle is constructed using not only we but also an inversion prefix, la, which inverts the usual subject and object roles.
    7. The usage of these participles is quite parallel to that of English.

  29. The eating of cats is unusual.
    Eating cats is unusual.
    To eat cats is unusual.
    faye komu koti taye pan-xene

    1. faye = if
    2. taye = then; consequently
    3. Konya doesn't have a true gerund or a personal infinitive. These things are translated differently depending on the nature of the statement.
    4. The examples above are conceived of in Konya as hypothetical if / then statements.

  30. It's unusual to eat cats.
    It's unusual, eating cats.
    pan-xene faye komu koti

    1. Just as in English, the two phrases in an if / then sentence can be inverted.
    2. When the if clause follows the then clause, the word taye can be omitted.

  31. The cat bit the man on the leg.
    koti noxu pose xomi yu pen-suki

    1. noxu = to bite
    2. xomi = leg
    3. yu = {association particle}
    4. Note that Konya does not treat this kind of expression with a prepositional phrase the way English does. As it is the leg that is bitten, leg must be the direct object.
    5. yu loosely corresponds to of, but it is generic. Other words are used to be more specific about the nature of the association or relationship between nouns. This issue is discussed in more detail later.

  32. The cat bit the man and the leg.
    koti noxu pose pen-suki ye xomi

    1. ye = and
    2. Multiple direct objects are permitted if they are separated by ye or some other conjunction.

  33. The student learns.
    kon-pan-tixun-wi pan-tixu

    1. kon-pan-tixun-wi = student
    2. ko = worker; professional; agent; one who does {compounding form}
    3. kon-wi = worker; professional; agent; one who does
    4. pan-tixu = to learn
    5. tixu = to teach
    6. ko is used often in compounds, like the English suffixes -ist or (one of the meanings of) -er. It does not necessarily imply professional status.

  34. The student learns the lesson from the teacher.
    kon-pan-tixun-wi pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi fen-yo kon-tixun-wi

    1. xin-tixun-wi = lesson; subject
    2. xi = thing; matter; material; substance; stuff {compounding form}
    3. fen-yo = from; delivered from; issued from; yielded from
    4. kon-tixun-wi = teacher
    5. Compound words can contain more than just two core words.
    6. The order of core words in compounds is usually the opposite of what it would be if the compound were expressed as a multiword phrase instead.

  35. The boy is walking the cat.
    pem-neni fun-mexu koti

    1. fun-mexu = to walk something; to cause something to walk
    2. fu = cause {compounding form}
    3. fu = is freely and frequently used in a compound to render a verb causative.

  36. Learn the lesson!
    pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi

    1. The imperative in Konya is distinguished from the indicative by lack of a subject, as in English.

  37. The girl ought to learn the lesson.
    mom-neni tepu pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi

    1. mom-neni = girl
    2. tepu = to be obliged; ought
    3. An imperative of a sort can also be constructed with the auxiliary verb tepu.

  38. Let's learn the lesson!
    min-wi tepu pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi

    1. A suggestion in the first person also uses the auxiliary verb tepu.

  39. The lesson is learned by the student
    xin-tixun-wi lan-pan-tixu kon-pan-tixun-wi

    1. lan-pan-tixu = to be learned by
    2. A passive verb in Konya is constructed from the active verb by using the inversion prefix, la. This is the same prefix thta is used to build passive participles.

  40. The lesson is learned.
    noli pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi

    1. The impersonal pronoun noli can be used as the subject as another way to form the equivalent of a passive voice.
    2. More literally, the sample could be translated as one learns the lesson.

  41. the learned lesson
    xin-tixun-wi yo noli pan-tixu son-wi

    1. son-wi = it; they {inanimate}
    2. We see here how the impersonal pronoun is used to construct a passive participial phrase.
    3. A more literal translation of this example sentence would be The lesson (one learns it) or The lesson that one learns.

  42. the learned lesson
    xin-tixun-wi yo noli pan-tixu

    1. Note the alternative form without noli.
    2. Because noli occupies the subject place, it is assumed that the headword, xin-tixun-wi, is the object of the verb pan-tixu.
    3. A more literal translation of this example sentence would be The lesson, one learns.

  43. The table is "being-ed on top of" by the cat
    mesi lan-supon-yu koti

    1. The passive construction can be used with converted verbs. In this example, the meaning of the Konya sentence is clear in Konya, but is difficult to express in English.

  44. Tammy Smith helped.
    Temya Samitya xepu pose

    1. Multi-part names are constructed simply by juxtaposing individual names. There are no rules governing which part of a multipart name is the family name, given name, etc.
    2. "Names" include only people's names, but names of pets, organizations, landmarks, countries, and so on.
    3. It's common to familiarize longer names of people by using only the main syllable and one of the remaining consonants, plus ya: Melya or Menya for Melanya (Melanie); for example.

  45. Tammy, learn.
    ya Temya pan-tixu

    1. ya has another, related function. It is used to transform a name into an address; in linguistic terms, it forms a vocative case.
    2. Compare Temya pan-tixu, which means Tammy learns, as well as Temya tepu pan-tixu, which means Tammy ought to learn.

  46. Girl, learn the lesson.
    ya mom-neni pan-tixu xin-tixun-wi

    1. ya also transforms common nouns into vocatives.

  47. Learn, Tammy.
    pan-tixu ya Temya

    1. As in English, the imperative verb can precede the addressee or follow it.

  48. It's raining.

    1. pulun-wi = rain
    2. It's common simply to utter a single noun or noun phrase in order to make an impersonal observation; in this case, the observation is "rain".

  49. My mom and I are eating apples.
    momi min-we ye min-wi komu sixe pomi

    1. momi = mama; mom
    2. min-we = my
    3. sixe = now; right now
    4. When short lexicals are converted to other grammatical roles, they drop their "built-in" conversion suffixes. So, for example, min-wi becomes min-we, not *min-win-we.
    5. Multiple subjects are separated by ye, and.

  50. Your mother and he ate them.
    mon-puni ten-we ye kun-wi komu pose son-wi

    1. mon-puni = mother
    2. puni = parent
    3. ten-we = your
    4. Some words have common or familiar forms as well as more formal ones. momi, mom, and mon-puni; mother, are examples of this.

  51. He — the teacher — sees him — the boy.
    kun-wi yo kon-tixun-wi wo sinu pan-kun-wi yo pem-neni wo

    1. pan-kun-wi = (other) it; (other) they {animate}
    2. Juxtaposing a subordinate clause to a pronoun is a common mechanism for explicitly associating the pronoun to its referent.
    3. pan-kun-wi is used as an alternate to kun-wi. There is also pan-son-wi = (other) it; (other) they {inanimate} as an alternate to son-wi.

  52. The teacher — he — sees the boy — him.
    kon-tixun-wi yo kun-wi wo sinu pem-neni yo pan-kun-wi wo

    1. The pronoun can alternatively be in the subordinate clause.
    2. When multiple subordinate clauses are present, the closing wo on the final clause is usually retained, for parallelism.

  53. The teacher he sees the boy.
    kon-tixun-wi kun-wi sinu pem-neni

    1. A noun, pronoun, or name that follows another noun, pronoun, or name functions as an appositive.
    2. Note that the English sample, though common in its structure, is non-standard. Not so the equivalent Konya. This structure is frequently used to associate pronouns with their referents, a most useful artifice if the pronoun is going to be used later in the conversation.

  54. The man, a carpenter, spoke.
    pen-suki kon-poxi toku pose

    1. kon-poxi = carpenter
    2. poxi = wood
    3. Appositives don't require an aural pause in Konya.

  55. We are going.
    min-wi ye ten-wi ken-yu
    min-ten-wi ken-yu
    min-wi xoxe ken-yu

    1. min-ten-wi = we (you and I)
    2. ken-yu = to go to; to have motion towards
    3. xoxe = many; much
    4. Pronouns do not have plural forms. They can be combined using ye, or compounded, or modified with words that suggest quantities, to identify things more specifically as necessary. min-ten-wi is an example of a compound pronoun, as is min-kun-wi, to be encountered later.
    5. xoxe is just one of many modifiers that can serve to indicate plurality; in this instance, it suggests that we means a sizable group. min-wi tixe would suggest a smaller group; as in English we few. min-wi mune would be definitively singular.

  56. My mom is a bad swimmer.
    momi min-we wa kom-nutun-wi fon-we

    1. kom-nutun-wi = swimmer
    2. nutu = to swim
    3. fon-we = bad; poor

  57. My mother swims poorly.
    mon-puni min-we nutu fon-we

    1. As in English, sentences can be structured in various forms, some more concise than others.
    2. Remember that, although English adjectives (almost always) precede their nouns and English adverbs (usually) follow their verbs, in Konya all modifiers follow their headwords.

  58. My mom is an evil swimmer.
    momi min-we wa kom-nutun-wi pan-molale

    1. pan-molale = immoral; unethical; evil
    2. Many antonyms — not all, but more than in English — are formed using a compound with pan-.
    3. There is not always a one-to-one correspondence between English words and Konya words. For example, fon-we means bad but it does not mean evil; it is closer to the concept of bad at something. pan-molale breaks down to anti-moral; therefore; evil.

  59. My mom is good. She works hard.
    momi min-we molale wa lawa kun-wi tupu tule

    1. lawa = {spoken full-stop}
    2. tupu = to labour; to work
    3. tule = hard; effortful
    4. lawa provides a grammatical and minor thematic break. It is similar to a period or a semicolon.
    5. lawa is often used as a placeholder word, like um... or eh... in English.

  60. The woman who likes me left.
    mon-suki yo molu min-wi wo xun-yu pose

    1. molu = to love; to like
    2. xun-yu = to go away from; to go from; to depart from; to leave from
    3. Again, compounds can include both functional and lexical core words. The last one determines the grammatical type.
    4. Note the permitted omission of kun-wi in the subordinate clause.

  61. The woman whom I like left.
    mon-suki yo min-wi molu wo xun-yu pose

    1. The subject of a subordinate clause is not necessarily the subject of the sentence overall. In the example, min-wi is the subject of the subordinate clause, but mon-suki is the subject of the sentence even though it is the implied object (note the permitted omission of the pronoun kun-wi) of the subordinate clause.
    2. Konya does not distinguish between dependent and independent clauses in the way the English does with that and which.

  62. Yes, Melanie is sick.
    sun-ye Melanya pan-sene wa

    1. pan-sene = sick
    2. sun-ye = yes; indeed
    3. su = affirmation {compounding form}
    4. ye = {interjection suffix}
    5. sun-ye is an interjection. An interjection can occur anywhere within an utterance, without causing a grammatical break.
    6. Interjections always end in n-ye; there is no single-vowel ending to mark them. Therefore, they are always constructed, or constructible, from short or regular lexicals.

  63. No, Melanie was not sick.
    nin-ye Melanya pan-sene nin-ye wa pose

    1. nin-ye = no
    2. ni = negation {compounding form}
    3. An interjection applies most specifically to the word that it immediately follows.
    4. Interjections do not serve as headwords.
    5. The modifier pose is modifying the copula wa, so it is not really standing alone in the predicate.

  64. Yes, Melanie herself was sick indeed.
    sun-ye Melanya sun-ye pan-sene sun-ye wa

    1. sun-ye is also used to emphasize or dispel doubt about the use of a particular headword.

  65. No, Melanie wasn't sick; but she is now.
    nin-ye Melanya pan-sene nin-ye wa pose naye sixe sun-ye

    1. naye = but; except; however
    2. Utterances are presumed to be affirmative unless otherwise indicated.
    3. Not every phrase within a sentence must be fully grammatically expressed. sixe sun-ye is enough to convey the idea that what was not true before (whatever it may have been) is true now.

  66. Melanie was sick, though I didn't know it.
    Melanya pan-sene wa pose naye min-wi kenu nin-ye tisi

    1. kenu = to know (about)
    2. tisi = this; it {abstract}
    3. Once the time frame of an utterance is established ("was sick"), it is even more likely that other verbs will be used without time referents.

  67. Melanie is sick, the doctor told me.
    Melanya pan-sene wa yo matiki toku son-wi tun-yo min-wi

    1. matiki = doctor
    2. toku = to say; to speak about; to talk about; to tell about
    3. In this case son-wi is used to clarify that the doctor gave the specific information that Melanie was sick.
    4. The use of yo to join the two phrases is another clue that the doctor specifically told about Melanie's sickness, because it ties the two utterances tightly together.

  68. Melanie is sick. The doctor was talking to me.
    Melanya pan-sene wa lawa matiki toku son-wi tun-yo min-wi

    1. Here, the use of lawa suggests a less-firm connection between the two utterances; perhaps that the doctor mentioned Melanie's health during conversation.

  69. Melanie is sick. I like apples.
    Melanya pan-sene wa sawa min-wi molu pomi

    1. sawa = {spoken paragraph/theme break}
    2. sawa indicates the beginning of a new topic. It is used frequently as a colloquial one-word greeting, meaning roughly what's new?

  70. please / thank you / you're welcome
    regret / apology

    1. xexen-ye = you're welcome; please; thank you
    2. xexe = gracious; kind; gentle
    3. sosun-ye = I'm sorry; I apologize
    4. sosu = to regret; to accept blame
    5. Interjections are readily constructed from any type of lexical.

  71. Thank you, Tammy
    xexen-ye ya Temya

    1. The vocative marker ya is still used with interjections, though generally no harm comes from omitting it.

  72. I want to make you happy.
    min-wi fulu fun-yu ten-wi xole wa

    1. fulu = to want; to desire
    2. As noted earlier, an entire sentence can be the object of a verb.

  73. Make him leave!
    fun-yu kun-wi xun-yu

    1. A command to cause someone else to act is constructed parallel to the English model. Unlike many European languages (but like English), Konya does not need to use a subordinate clause for this purpose.

  74. Keep him from leaving!
    fun-yu kun-wi xun-yu nin-ye

    1. These kinds of indirect commands often take a preposition in English, but not in Konya.

  75. Melanie is not tall. She is of average height.
    Melanya tile nin-ye wa lawa kun-wi nan-tile wa

    1. tile = tall
    2. nan-tile = neither tall nor short; of average height
    3. na = {neutrality prefix}
    4. na conveys the idea of neither X nor its opposite. Contrast this with pa, which clearly indicates opposition.

  76. Hello, Mr. Shen and Mrs. Shen.
    koni ya pen-misi Xenya ya mon-misi Xenya

    1. koni = greeting
    2. pen-misi = sir; mister; gentleman
    3. mon-misi = ma'am; miss; missus; mizz; lady
    4. misi = sir/madam; honoured one
    5. A lexical preceding a name functions as a title to that name. This is the same as for an appositive.

  77. Mr. Paul is at the lake.
    misi Polya wa lito leki

    1. leki = lake; pond; body of fresh water
    2. Nouns do not have to be rendered gender-specific just because they can be. For example, misi is perfectly acceptable as a non-gender-specific, general-purpose honourific, and is in fact more commonly used than pen-misi or mon-misi.

  78. Dr. Paul is at Klaus Lake.
    matiki Polya wa lito leki Kalausya

    1. Titles can also be applied to inanimate objects.

  79. Hello, Doctor.
    koni ya matikin-ya
    I see Mother.
    min-wi sinu mon-punin-ya

    1. matikin-ya = Dr.
    2. mon-punin-ya = Mother
    3. ya can be compounded to a lexical to convert it into a name. It's often used to address or refer to someone by title only.

  80. I know Jerry Greenberg.
    min-wi kenu Jerya Garinburagya

    1. Names can have the general form of compound lexicals.
    2. Foreign letters may be used in foreign names and words. There is no expectation that "native" speakers will pronounce them well.

  81. I know Rebecca Wong.
    min-wi kenu wu Rebeka Woq wo

    1. wu = {foreign name marker}
    2. Completely foreign names — that is, those that are of a foreign form — are enclosed between wu and wo. Completely foreign words are enclosed between kawu = {foreign word marker} and wo.
    3. Foreign names and words that cannot be misinterpreted as collections of Konya words may dispense with their foreign markers.

  82. X

    1. exi = x; X
    2. Letter names are special lexicals. They always begin with a vowel, and, when spoken, should be preceded by a glottal stop or a pause to delineate them clearly.

  83. ABCUVW

    1. Any sequence of letters automatically compounds together, without the use of the compounding hyphen.
    2. When written out by name, letters in a sequence are joined by hyphens for visual recognition. Of course, usually they are written simply as letters.

  84. AbCLmy

    1. The case of letters is generally left to context. However, there are distinct names for uppercase and lowercase letters. These names are formed by inserting an additional syllable into the non-case-specific name, along the model shown in the sample.

  85. the third man
    pen-suki sifemawe

    1. sifemawe = third
    2. mawe = {ordinal suffix}
    3. Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the ordinality suffix to the cardinal number.

  86. the thirty-second man
    pen-suki sifen-xumemawe

    1. sifen-xumemawe = thirty-second
    2. Compound ordinal numbers are analogous to compound cardinal numbers.

  87. one-third of a man
    pen-suki mune tawi sife
    pen-suki tawi sife

    1. tawi = {fraction bar}
    2. A fraction is like a cardinal number. In English the ordinal numbers and fractional numbers are mostly identical, but they are actually very different constructs. In Konya, this distinction is clear.
    3. The numerator of a fraction is separated from the denominator by the spoken fraction bar, tawi.
    4. mune is optional when it is the numerator of a fraction.

  88. negative twenty degrees / twenty degrees below zero
    selaxi xumen-tole mene

    1. selaxi = degree Celsius
    2. mene = less; negative; minus

  89. forty-five point six seven
    koken-fexe payu soten-pipe

    1. koke = four
    2. fexe = five
    3. payu = {decimal point}
    4. sote = six
    5. pipe = seven

  90. eighty-nine one-hundredths of a litre
    liti temen-like tawi munen-tolen-tole

    1. teme = eight
    2. like = nine
    3. tole = zero
    4. munen-tolen-tole = one-hundred
    5. liti = litre

  91. eighty-nine one-hundredths of a litre
    liti temen-like tawi munen-kaike

    1. munen-kaike = one-hundred
    2. kaike = hundreds
    3. For convenience, Konya has several power-of-ten words.
    4. The power-of-ten words are intentionally similar to the international standard metric prefixes.
    5. When a power-of-ten word is compounded with one or more numerals, it effectively serves as a shorthand for a series of zeroes. For example, kaike, when compounded at the end of a series of numerals, adds 00 to it, even though it means hundreds when it is used alone.

  92. You are 180 centimetres tall.
    ten-wi wa senen-meti munen-temen-tole yu tilen-wi

    1. sene = hundredths
    2. meti = metre
    3. Measurement is done as comparison or equality.
    4. A more literal translation would be you are 180 centimetres of tallness.

  93. 2000 grams
    kemi xumen-kile
    2 kilograms
    kilen-kemi xume

    1. kile = thousands
    2. kemi = gram

  94. thousands of apes
    sukin-xupi kile

    1. sukin-xupi = ape
    2. xupi = beast; animal
    3. Order-of-magnitude approximation is indicated by using the power-of-ten words without compounding them with numerals.

  95. tens of thousands of apes
    sukin-xupi teken-kile

    1. teke = tens
    2. When appropriate power-of-ten words do not exist, order-of-magnitude approximation is done by compounding multiple power-of-ten words.

  96. about two thousand apes
    sukin-xupi xumen-kile fexe

    1. fexe = approximate; about
    2. More precise approximation is done by modifying the number with the interjection fexe.

  97. X men
    pen-suki exikawe

    1. exikawe = X of
    2. kawe = {cardinality suffix}
    3. kawe converts a lexical into a cardinal number.

  98. the X'th man
    pen-suki eximawe

    1. eximawe = X'th
    2. When mawe is applied to a non-numeric lexical, it converts the lexical to an ordinal number.

  99. the x'th woman and X'th man
    mon-suki exatimawe ye pen-suki exaximawe

    1. exatimawe = x'th
    2. exaximawe = X'th
    3. The same rules for marking letters as specifically uppercase or lowercase apply in all contexts.

  100. You saw me yesterday.
    ten-wi sinu min-wi lito posen-tiki

    1. posen-tiki = yesterday
    2. tiki = day
    3. Most adverbs of time ("yesterday"; "soon") can be handled with prepositional phrases.
    4. Again, tense is usually not specified when the context makes it clear.

  101. You saw me yesterday.
    ten-wi sinu posen-tiki min-wi

    1. Alternatively, most adverbs of time ("yesterday"; "soon") can also be handled as modifiers of the verb.

  102. You saw me before yesterday.
    ten-wi sinu min-wi posen-yo posen-tiki

    1. posen-yo = before

  103. I need that blue car.
    min-wi nuxu koxi nile tise

    1. nuxu = to need
    2. koxi = car; coach
    3. nile = blue
    4. tise = this; that
    5. Demonstrative adjectives are often last in a string of modifiers, similar to numbers. But this is up to the speaker.

  104. I need this blue car and that red one.
    min-wi nuxu koxi nile tise ye noli mime note

    1. mime = red
    2. note = other; alternative
    3. The impersonal pronoun noli is often used to avoid repeating a lexical. This parallels English usage.
    4. note = other; alternative is often used where English would use a this / that pair.

  105. I need that.
    min-wi nuxu tisen-wi

    1. tisen-wi = this one; that one; this thing; that thing
    2. Demonstrative modifiers can be easily converted into demonstrative nouns.

  106. I need this blue car and that red one.
    min-wi nuxu koxi nile tise ye noten-wi mime

    1. noten-wi = other one; other thing

  107. Which car do you want?
    ten-wi fulu koxi kin-we

    1. kin-we = which
    2. "Which one" questions are usually not inverted as in English, but simply include kin-we as a demonstrative adjective modifying the headword in question.

  108. I don't know which car you want.
    min-wi kenu nin-ye koxi yo ten-wi fulu

    1. Many varied English constructions break down to straightforward sentences with subordinate clauses in Konya.
    2. kin-we does not function as a relative the way it does in English. It is strictly interrogative.

  109. Is it the cat that is sick?
    koti xen-ye pan-sene wa
    Is the cat sick?
    koti pan-sene wa xen-ye

    1. xen-ye = is it so?; {question marker}
    2. xen-ye calls into question whichever headword it modifies. Whereas kin-we requests identification ("which one"), xen-ye requests confirmation ("yes or no", or "is it true that...").

  110. Is the cat sick?
    xen-ye koti pan-sene wa

    1. Often it's difficult or unnecessary to determine just which word is in question. An entire utterance can therefore be called into question by prepending xen-ye to it.

  111. I would leave if the cat were sick.
    min-wi xun-yu faye tapun-ye koti pan-sene wa

    1. tapun-ye = doubt {interjection}
    2. In some situations an interjection can modify a functional. In this case, the premise — the if-clause — is cast into doubt by modifying faye with tapun-ye. The result is something like a conditional mood.

  112. I doubt that I will leave if the cat is sick.
    min-wi xun-yu tapun-ye faye koti pan-sene wa

    1. Note the important distinction between the wording of this sample sentence and the preceding one. In this sample it is the action that is in doubt, rather than the premise.

  113. Really? / Pardon? / What? / Is it true?
    I don't believe it. / No way. / That isn't true. / No.
    I doubt it. / I question that. / Probably not.
    It may be. / Possibly.
    I believe so. / Probably.
    I'm certain. / That's right. / It's true. / Yes.

    1. xen-ye = {question interjection}
    2. nin-ye = {negation interjection}
    3. tapun-ye = {negative probability interjection}
    4. malun-ye = {possibility interjection}
    5. kelun-ye = {probability interjection}
    6. sun-ye = {positive interjection}

  114. The man ate, I believe, a cat.
    pen-suki komu yo min-wi kelu wo koti

    1. kelu = to believe
    2. Attitude can also be established with subordinate phrases, though they can be long.
    3. If a subordinate clause is not fully populated with subject, verb, and object, then the meaning is left to context.
    4. A subordinate clause can occur almost anywhere within an utterance.

  115. It was raining; then it stopped.
    pulun-wi pose xufe wa laye son-wi niku
    pulun-wi xufe laye niku

    1. xufe = continuous
    2. laye = then; afterward
    3. niku = to stop (action)
    4. laye is a conjunction, like ye (and); it also conveys a sense of sequence, though not causality.
    5. The second of the two sentences uses more context and less verbiage to convey the same message as the first.

  116. There's a man.
    pen-suki wa

    1. "There is..." utterances can sometimes be cast as impersonal phrases, when they convey the sense of existence rather than location.

  117. The time is eleven-thirty.
    timi wa lito xesi munen-mune pilen-yo manuti sifen-tole
    xesi munen-mune pilen-yo sifen-tole

    1. timi = time
    2. xesi = hour
    3. pilen-yo = plus
    4. manuti = minute
    5. Time reports, like weather reports, often drop words that can be understood from context. timi, lito and manuti are often omitted.

  118. It's half-past eleven.
    xesi munen-mune pilen-yo tawi xume
    It's a quarter to twelve.
    xesi munen-xume menen-yo tawi koke

    1. menen-yo = minus
    2. Fractions of hours can be used in time reports.

  119. There's no time.
    timin-seti tole wa

    1. timin-seti = time-span; duration; time allotment
    2. seti = set; group; collective
    3. "There's no..." utterances usually use tole, zero; because they are focused on the quantity — or lack — of something.
    4. timi is not used here, because it refers to a specific point in time, not a span of time.

  120. the girl's location
    lun-wi wa lan-tenun-yo mom-neni
    lun-wi yu mom-neni
    the girl's toy
    xuki wa lam-nopun-yo mom-neni
    xuki yu mom-neni
    a group of girls
    seti wa kumun-yo mom-neni
    seti yu mom-neni
    a girl of the group
    mom-neni wa lan-kumun-yo seti
    mom-neni yu seti

    1. yu = {association particle}
    2. lan-tenun-yo = possessed by; held by; related to
    3. lam-nopun-yo = owned by; belonging to
    4. kumun-yo = containing; comprising
    5. lan-kumun-yo = contained by; component of
    6. xuki = toy; plaything
    7. The various concepts expressed by of in English are expressed in a variety of ways in Konya, most of them using one of these related words.
    8. yu is a generic association particle, and can be used for any of these purposes, at the cost of some precision. lan-tenun-yo is used specifically to indicate a general relationship and nothing more.
    9. Note the use of wa to mark the prepositions as relating the word they govern to the word they follow. If yu is used, it replaces both wa and the preposition.
    10. Some usages of of in English do not translate to yu or its more specific associative prepositions. For example; the town of Smallville is simply Sumalen-filya tona.

  121. She likes guy cars.
    kun-wi molu koxi pen-sukin-we
    kun-wi molu koxi yu pen-suki

    1. In English it's common to modify one noun with another. Not so in Konya. Either the modifying noun needs to be converted into a modifier, or ye needs to be used to generically relate the modifying noun to the modified noun.
    2. In the second sample sentence above, "the cars" referred to could be those that belong to "a guy", or those that are "guy-like" in some way. The first sample sentence is clearer in this respect; it refers to "guy-like" cars.

  122. She likes the guy's car.
    kun-wi molu koxi wa lan-tenun-yo pen-suki

    1. Compare the previous sample, where car is generically associated with guy, and this sample, where the association is a bit more specific.

  123. She likes "guy" cars.
    kun-wi molu koxi xayu pen-suki wo

    1. xayu = {figurative phrase marker}
    2. xayu begins a phrase that is not meant to be taken literally. It is used where English would use ironic quotes (also called "scare" quotes).

  124. She invented a "cat-car".
    kun-wi pesan-fetu xayu kotin-koxi

    1. pesan-fetu = to invent
    2. pesyu = to think
    3. fetyu = to create; to make
    4. xayu also marks ad hoc constructions, including compound words (though not numbers, initialisms, or alphanumeric identifiers).
    5. As always, wo at the very end of an utterance can be omitted.

  125. He said, "I agree".
    kun-wi toku kayu min-wi sin-yu wo

    1. sin-yu = to agree
    2. kayu = {literal quote begin}
    3. kayu marks a literal quotation.

  126. This is Canada.
    tisen-wi wa Kenatya
    This is Canadian.
    tisen-wi Kenatyan-we wa

    1. Kenatya = Canada
    2. Kenatyan-we = Canadian
    3. A name refers inherently to a particular thing — a person, place, language, etc. To be used otherwise it must be converted to a lexical using one of the conversion suffixes.
    4. However, a name can be used in non-final position within a compound without being converted to a lexical.
    5. Names that are converted to lexicals retain their initial capitalization, by convention. This is true even within compounds.

  127. I speak English.
    min-wi toku lilo Heqya
    This is England.
    tise wa Heqyam-nexi

    1. lilo = with; by means of; using
    2. Heqya = English language
    3. Heqyam-nexi = England
    4. nexi = nation; country
    5. Some countries are named for their languages; for others it's the reverse, or there may be no relation between the two at all.

  128. This is a large Ford key.
    tisen-wi wa kaluxi xote kawu Ford wo

    1. kaluxi = key
    2. A foreign name that is used as a foreign lexical is marked with the the foreign word marker kawu, not the foreign name marker.

  129. I see a boy.
    min-wi sinu pem-neni fufe
    I know a boy.
    min-wi kenu pem-neni lepe
    I know the boy.
    min-wi kenu pem-neni tise

    1. fufe = a; any; some; no particular
    2. lepe = a (particular but not yet introduced)
    3. Generally specifiers like these are left to context, but it is possible to be more precise, as in these examples.
    4. fufe not only means any, but also a in the sense of one that I don't know. lepe means a in the sense of a particular one that I have in mind and am now introducing.
    5. tise is used not only for this; this one here, but also to refer to something that has already been identified in the conversation.

  130. I like Tammy more than (I like) Melanie.
    min-wi molu Temya pin-yo Melanya

    1. pin-yo = more than
    2. Note the conversion of the interjection pin-ye into the preposition pin-yo.
    3. Note also that the preposition relates back to the verb, so it is not preceded by wa.

  131. I like Tammy more than Melanie (does).
    min-wi pin-yo Melanya molu Temya

    1. To compare one subject to another, the comparator preposition is used in the subject phrase.
    2. More literally, this example could be translated I, more than Melanie, like Tammy.

  132. I like Tammy more than I need her.
    min-wi molu pin-yo nuxu Temya

    1. To compare one verb to another, the comparator preposition is used between the two verbs.

  133. I like Tammy instead of (liking) Melanie.
    min-wi molu Temya lono Melanya

    1. lono = instead of; rather than

  134. I like Tammy most.
    min-wi molu Temya pin-yo toten-wi
    min-wi molu Temya pin-yo

    1. The superlative can be constructed as a comparison against all.
    2. If there is no comparand, the context determines whether it is a true superlative or merely a comparison against some unspoken comparand.

  135. the taller girl
    the tallest girl
    mom-neni tile pin-ye

    1. pin-ye = more
    2. As with prepositions, modifiers do not have a distinct superlative construct. The comparative is used instead.

  136. I run like a horse.
    min-wi kulu simo xefali

    1. kulu = to run
    2. simo = similar to
    3. xefali = horse

  137. I want a horse like that one.
    min-wi fulu xefali wa simo tisen-wi
    min-wi fulu xefali yo simon-yu tisen-wi

    1. simon-yu = to resemble; to be like; to be similar to
    2. As is usually the case, a prepositional phrase can be replaced with a subordinate clause.
    3. Note that, because simo in this sample relates two nouns (xefali and tisen-wi), it requires wa to precede it.

  138. We work for IBM.
    min-kun-wi tupu sepo iwi-ebi-emin-ya

    1. min-kun-wi = we (they and I)
    2. sepo = for; on behalf of; for the benefit of
    3. iwi-ebi-emin-ya = IBM Corp.
    4. Initialisms are handled as strings of letters.
    5. The name suffix ya can be compounded to an initialism to convert it to a name.

  139. We work for IBM.
    min-kun-wi tupu sepo I.B.M.n-ya

    1. Initialisms, whether they represent names or lexicals, can be written as letters plus full-stops.

  140. For I.B.M. work we.
    sepo I.B.M.n-ya tupu lawu min-kun-wi

    1. lawu = {subject marker}
    2. lawu marks the beginning of a subject phrase when it does not occur as the first headword of the sentence.

  141. The address is 221B Baker Street.
    lum-numi wa wi xume xume mune ebi wo yu Bekarya kamini

    1. lum-numi = address (location)
    2. numi = number
    3. wi = {identifier string marker}
    4. kamini = street; road
    5. An alphanumeric string that functions as an identifier, rather than as a quantity, must be preceded by the identifier marker wi and followed by wo.
    6. Within an identifying string, all the lexicals are interpreted as part of the identifier, regardless of their grammatical role markers.
    7. A street address often has multiple occurrences of yu for its various components.

  142. Plan number 4-ABC "Blue" failed.
    sakimi wi koke faifi awi ebi eci nile wo pan-sasitu

    1. sakimi = plan (of action); scheme
    2. faifi = hyphen
    3. pan-sasitu = to fail
    4. sasitu = to succeed
    5. A literal hyphen is used when there actually is a hyphen in the identifier.

  143. from January to December
    xun-yo munen-moni tun-yo munen-xumen-moni

    1. xun-yo = from
    2. munen-moni = January
    3. moni = month
    4. munen-xumen-moni = December
    5. Within a compound, every digit of a multi-digit number must be joined with n-, just like a pure number.
    6. Names of months are lexicals, not names, in Konya.

  144. from Monday to Sunday
    xun-yo munen-tiki tun-yo pipen-tiki

    1. munen-tiki = Monday
    2. pipen-tiki = Sunday
    3. Likewise, days of the week are lexicals, not names.

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