Biographies, History and Genealogy of
PERROT MERCURE DUSSEAULT BOURDON
and other Families in 17th century New France
PERROT, D'ARGENTENAY,MERCURE, DUSSEAULT, D'AILLEBOUST, CATELAN CONNECTION
Nicolas Perrot, 1643/4-1718
Interpretor and discoverer
Biography, Genealogy & History of Old Canadian Families
THERE ARE SEVERAL IMPORTANT PERROT / PERREAULT TIED to THE NEW WORLD
In the 17th c. there were two distinct Nicolas Perrot:
NICOLAS PERROT d’ ABLANCOURT from the Académie Française,
The second NICOLAS PERROT (1643 or 1644-C.1718) came to New France
He was a French Explorer in Canada and the Old NorthWest. Nicolas Perrot was born in France in 1644, the son of François Perrot and Marie Sivot or Sirot
Nicholas Perrot came to New France around 1660, at 17, and entered the service of the Jesuit missionaries,
Nicolas Perrot and Madeleine Raclos had 11 children. They married in 1671 in Quebec, she was the daughter of Godebon or Ibedon Raclos et Marie Viannot(Viennot), she was a "fille du Roi", orphan of Mother.
He wrote of the customs of the Indians, as was described in the broken link at: www.mlink.net/~lfournie/perrot.html
As per Jamie Kneisler, student at
University of Wisconsin - Advisor: Dr. Barbara Rusterholz:
Claude-Charles Le Roy de la Potherie writes that Perrot left the missionaries after five years of service and immediately visited the Potawotomi and the Fox tribes. After this first introduction to the voyageur way of life, Perrot returned to spend a year as a domestic in the residence of a widow and then as a servant of the Sulpicians at Montreal until the later part of 1667. But that first trip into the largely unexplored woodland was a harbinger: this was to be the beginning of a long and fruitful career as an interpreter, fur trader, and government agent....
In the beginnings of the colony, the individuals or groups utilizing the skills of the interpreters had to pay them generously. The demand was high for knowledgeable and diplomatic people in this field, as they were few in numbers. It is for this reason that the interpreters could demand good payment. Etienne Brûlé received 100 pistols per year for his services. ... The interpreters did indeed have the opportunity to profit from the fur trade as they traveled between government posts, although they were not supposed to use their influence for that purpose......When one thinks of Nicolas Perrot, a Frenchman, speaking the languages of the Native Americans, it is inevitable that the question arises of how Perrot learned to speak them. "He early repaired to the Indian country, and made himself familiar with the Algonquian languages." That quotation, taken from the Wisconsin State Historical Collections, vol. V, was written in 1867 and is representative of the lack of detail contained in biographical sketches of Perrot....
As had Nicolas Marsolet with the Montagnais of Tadoussac, a mentor of Nicolas Perrot who became a Fur trader and in trade about Green Bay, soon acquiring great influence over the Indians of Wisconsin.
In 1670 he was sent to the West by Frontenac to take formal possession for France.
In 1684 he was again called into government service, confered with Duluth and helped bring the Western First Nations into the campaign against the Iroquois.
Perrot was made commandant of the territory about Green Bay in 1685 and opened trade with the Sioux as well as the other First Nations in Wisconsin.
He brought the First Nations to aid again to help in the Iroquois campaigns and in 1689 he formally claimed possession of the Upper Mississippi region for New France; the next year he visited Mackinac to prevent an alliance with the Iroquois tribe.
Probably in 1690 also he discovered the lead mines of SouthWest Wisconsin.
When all trading licenses were revoked, he returned to Lower Canada and was employed as an interpretor in 1701.
He rendered good service in keeping the friendly First Nations allied with the French, but is best remembered for the one memoir which survives out of his many writings:Memoire sur les moeurs, coutumes et religion des Sauvages de l'Amerique Septetrionale(1864). Others of his memoirs were used by Bacqueville de la Potherie and so, survive in part
Francois Mercure's second wife: Marie Perrot (Perrault) came yet from another line of Perrot originating in Villedaigne in the Languedoc: she was the first child and daughter of Joseph LeFlot Perrot Seigneur d'Argentenay and of Marie Daubigeon Gagne,
Joseph (LeFlot) PERROT was the son of Jacques (Bigot) Perrot, son of JEAN PERREAULT dit Villedaigre.
Incidentally, as would several of Marie's own descendants, we see see two brothers of Marie PERROT marrying two Guyon Lehoux cousins:
Francois Mercure was 41 and Marie Perrot was ...17!
It is not surprising that Marie Perrot's wedding was a social event. The Perrot family was important even earlier in the 17th century when
Pierre Mercure (Solange Chaput)
Joseph, (Father of Louis and Michel who founded Masdawaska)
Jean-Francois(? son or grandson ? - see below for more on this)
NICHOLAS PERROT d’ ABLANCOURT
Chapelin said of him: « Il est de tous nos écrivains en prose celui qui a le style le plus dégagé, plus ferme, plus résolu, plus naturel. Son génie est sublime ; et quoiqu’il soit sans comparaison le meilleur de nos traducteurs, c’est dommage qu’il se soit réduit a un emploi si fort au-dessous de lui."
Voltaire(1694-1778) who was the unsurpassed leading Author in France in the 18th century, at a time when French culture ruled Europe, Voltaire dominated French culture. He chose a career as a writer against the wishes of his father who said he couldn't earn a living as a writer, however, he became a wealthy man before he was 40 years old. He was diversified and wrote in almost every literary form, including 56 plays, historical stories and novels, poetry and epic poems, dialogues, essays, scientific and learned papers, pamphlets, book reviews, and more than 20,000 epistles(letters).
Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire said of
The Mercures represent a fairly large family in French-Canada.
The name resonnates as one of the 800 founding patronyms of New France
(often referred to as "Les Canadiens de souche")
Francois Mercure, dit de Villenouvelle, near Toulouse, in the Languedoc, born in 1666,
In those days, Vaudreuil commandered several offensives against the English, as also Subercase did, and Francois Mercure, as Vaudreuil's personal guard and friend, must have known Anselme d'Abbadie de St-Castin who was held in high esteem by both Governors, Vaudreuil and Subercase, who would ask for his assistance when the British attacked the French colonies. Yes, in 1704 St-Castin had just gotten himself a ship and become privateer.
In later generations the descendants of Mercure and St-Castin would mingle, but now, in this new world where most towns inhabitants were untried newcomers, St-Castin shined.
The English landed their forces (1600 besides ships' crews) on August the 22nd. It is said, Governor Subercase did not stay behind his walls; he aggressively went out and met the enemy with cannon at both the east and west sides of the Annapolis River (then known as Rivière Dauphin). During this fight, where he lost his life, Antoine de Saillant was outstanding in courage, judged by the survivors as an exceptionally brave fighter, and the same was said for Subercase and the young Baron Castin."
The descendants of the Mercure & St.Castin families would inter-marry tru the Bourdon, Perrot (Perreault), Loignon and Dussault families.
Francois Mercure held the appellation of "dit de Villenouvelle".
Francois came to New France with the Regiment of Vaudreuil, as a guard.
The church at the top of the page is from the 16th century
Villenouvelle is 25 km south of Toulouse, in the Languedoc.
Marie-Josephe Mercure, (who would become dame Francois-Benjamin Pichon-Toulouse,and be the Grand-Mother of Justine Papin who married Joseph-Nicaise Marsolet Lemire)
Pierre Mercure (Solange Chaput)
Joseph, (Father of Louis and Michel who founded Masdawaska)
It is not clear if the first Jean-Francois is son or Grandson: there is a Jean-Francois Mercure, son of Jean-François Mercure & Marie-Anne Doré, who marries Marie-Josèphe Toupin-Dussault on Feb. 11, 1765; she was born on July 10 1738 in the Parish of St-François-de-Sales de Neuville. Her GodFather is Joseph Toupin-Dussault; Her GodMother is Marie Gaudin. She dies of pneumonia on June 19 juin 1775, at 37 buried on the 20th at les Écureuils.
THE TOUPIN DUSSAULT CONNECTION
Jean Catelan is witness with Joseph Lemire, in Neuville, to the wedding of Isabelle Ursule Pinelle, daughter of Gilles Pinelle, who marries Michel Coutancineau on February 24 1683.
If we do not know where Jean CATELAN came from, we do know when and where he died: on November 16 1712 at Cap-Santé)
and Jeanne Carreau (fourth child of Jeanne Joly LE ROUGE a.k.a. Jeanne LaRouge dit St-Denis or Madeleine Leroux(daughter of Pierre Le Rouge and Marguerite Joly)of Joinville, Champagne) and Louis Caussade CARREAU dit Lafraicheur, (son of Andre Carreau & Jaquette Caussade) of Bordeaux, Guyenne, France
Rene Gareman MÉZERAY
Genevieve MEZERAY, veuve Etienne Letellier (7 children), then dame Francois Dussaule
These Mezeray, like the Perrot, were related to a member of the French Academie,
If Marie Catelan was the GodMother of Jean-Baptiste Toupin-Dussault, the child's GodFather was Jean-Baptiste Mezeray (1681-1741).
first marriage to Therese Desrosiers Turcot with whom he had 13 children:
Louise dite Catherine,
Jean-Toussaint dit Jean-Baptiste (15 children with Marie-Louise Legris PRIVE),
Francois de Sales and
Jean-Baptiste Toupin dit Dussault's second marriage to Marie-Anne Perrault Chapelin
CATELAN, TOUPIN, DUSSAULT, D'AILLEBOUST, D'ARGENTENAY, MEZERAY, GUYON, BOURDON, PERRAULT CONNECTION
Jean (Jean-Baptiste) Toupin dit Dussault was the Founder and Seigneur of "Les Ecureuils"; he had been born at Longue-Pointe, Chateau-Richer on December 10 1648, first son of Toussaint Toupin dit Dussault and Marguerite Boucher, his first wife, who were married on Christmas day of 1645. As it was, Marguerite Boucher, daughter of Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lemere (or Lemaire), was the sister of Pierre Boucher, seigneur de Boucherville, Governor of Trois-Rivieres.
Jean-Baptiste (connu sous le nom de Jean Toupin Dussault),
When his wife Marguerite died, Toussaint married again in 1669; yes, on June 3rd 1669 in Notre-Dame de Québec there was a double wedding: Father and Son and Mother and Daughter:
Toussaint Toupin and Marie Bourdon had another 3 children:
Jean, born in 1675, who married Louise Martin.
So in the household of Toussaint, there were fourteen children.
Jean Toupin, Toussaint's first son, had for GodParents: Jean Cloustier and Marguerite Tavernier, wife of de Massé Gravelle.
Jean Toupin married twice:
JEAN BOURDON, was not only the "Procureur général du Conseil Souverain",but he was a cartographer and land-surveyor, responsible for all the land grants assigned in his territory and he also laid the plans for all the streets of Quebec city (they named the suburb of St-Jean and the Porte St-Jean after him) and the Chateau St-Louis. Well-informed, reliable, and conscientious he was the confidential agent of the governors, who employed him on several missions with success. Jean Bourdon was sent to "parley", reconnoiter and reach agreements for Peace Treaties. Jean Bourdon died when his little-niece, Marie Gloria was 14 yrs old.
The second marriage of Jean Toupin was to Marie-Magdelaine Mézéray, daughter of Jean Mézéray and Magdelaine Masse, born on July 24 1674 in the parish Notre-Dame de Québec. Her GodFather was Pierre Masse and her GodMother was Nicole Magdelaine Masse, wife of René Mézéray. Jean Mézéray, in 1688, was "capitaine de milice" in Neuville, near Quebec city.
The second child and first son of Jean Toupin and Marie Gloria was Michel,
The relation between Francois Mercure and Jean Catelan (his in-laws) was very good. The Catelan arrive in New France earlier than Francois and were a powerful family. They kept their relationship alive for many years (at least until the death of Catelan). Records and notary minutes often show their mutual presence as witnesses in various sales acts and other. It is possible that Mercure's second marriage to Marie Perrot was a "mariage d'intérêt" as we say, and that his first marriage (Marie Catelan) had been one of love. Regardeless, one thing is for certain: Jean Catelan considered his former son-in-law with the highest regards and vice versa. Also, when he married the second time, Francois did not have any known children and it was probably another determinant for his marriage.
After the death of Marie Catelan(1701), Mercure disappeard for about 5 or 6 years.
Mercure reappears in the archives of Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade in 1706: a notary act describes the sale of his land where he had lived with Marie Catelan. Further research yields the fact that François Mercure had to sell this land as a condition for marrying Marie Perrot (Perrault) daughter of Joseph Perrot Seigneur d'Argentai.
The Seigneur d'Argentenay imposed this condition probably to "motivate" Mercure to settle down and begin founding a family. Another condition was that he would have to live in Cap Santé in the house that still stands on rue Bois de l'ail.
Around 1721, François Mercure was named Captain of the Militia in Cap Santé (despite the fact that this title was supposed to be granted only to a person whose past was irreprochable and that Mercure had spent some time in jail for having broken the arm of one of his neighbours over a dispute concerning dead wood) tru the agency of Vaudreuil who intervened to allow his former arm-fellow to enjoy the pivileges and duties of the title.
Pierre Mercure is the best-knowned son of François Mercure. He continued the family tradition and was named captain of the militia in Cap Santé.
Joseph Mercure was the Father of Louis and Michel Mercure who helped found Madawaska in northern New-Brunswick.(There is supposed to be a statue in the Madawaska county that recognises the contribution of the Mercure brothers to the creation of Madawaska)
Louis Mercure was also famous as a courrier and woodsman.
One thing is sure however, it took only one generation for the Mercures to branch out into two distinct lineages : the Acadian lineage with Joseph and his sons Louis and Michel; and the Québec lineage with Pierre and I believe another son called Jean-François (often mistaken for François himself). So whatever the lineage, it always comes back to this.
The motto of the Mercure family: "Sans craindre, ni feindre" [Without Fear, nor Feign]
Also in 1707, the same year that Francois Mercure married Marie Perrot,
Josephe Mercure, by her wedding to Francois Benjamin Pichon-Toulouse, (son fo Francois-Marie Joseph Pichon-Toulouse, grandson of Francois Pichon-Toulouse and Jeanne Lanthier)
The grand-daughter of Marie-Josephe Mercure Pichon-Toulouse, Justine Papin would have 14 children with Joseph Nicaise Lemire Marsolet, who would marry in the families of:
Justine Papin's children, by their Father Joseph-Nicaise Lemire Marsolet, were descendants of:
The first seigneur d'Argentenay in the Ile d'Orleans fief was Louis d'AILLEBOUST (1612-1660), sieur de Coulonges and Argentenay, Engineer, Third (3rd) Governor & Lieutenant-général of New France
The family had been in the French nobility since the Antiquity.
Jean d'Ailleboust, the youngest child, became the first surgeon of Henri IV (King of France from 1589-1610.
Jean had two sons, Henri, sieur de Mivoisin (Loiret) and Antoine, sieur de Coulonges.
Antoine d'Ailleboust, councillor to the prince of Condé, was married twice and he had at least three children:
Louis was born in 1612 at Ancy-le-Franc (Yonne). In Paris, on September 6 1638, he married Marie-Barbe Quéan de Boullogne, daughter of Florentin de Boullogne and Eustache Quéan, who came from Ravières (Yonne).
Marie-Barbe was sickly and the doctors thought she was going to die in a short time, so when she insisted on going to Canada with her husband, they let her come, with her sister Philippine de Boullogne.
Because the couple knew the "Société de Ville-Marie" it was a simple matter to make the arrangements for their passage to New France. In the spring of 1643 they went to La Rochelle to take their ship and they landed in Quebec on August 15, 1643.
In 1645 when M. de Maisonneuve had to go to France, he named M. d'Ailleboust gouverneur-intérimaire.
In 1647 he was chosen to go to the French Court with M. Juchereau des Châtelets to make some representations on some modifications to the Privy Council (Conseil privé).
On the recommendations of the "Compagnie des Cent-Associés", Mazarin chooses him as the successor to M. de Montmagny, on March 2nd 1648; it is a three years nomination.
During this time, for five years, Marie-Barbe, his wife, had been working with Jeanne-Mance in the Quebec hospital. Now, in 1648, she joins him at the Chateau St-Louis, whereas her sister decides to become a nun with the Ursulines de Quebec, where she lived another nineteen years.
Louis d'Ailleboust got a "fief" at l'Ile d'Orleans on July 23rd 1652 which he named "Seigneurie d'Argentenay"
He helped build the Monastery for the Ursulines de Quebec and he accomplished many missions during his time in New France. He was the one who pronounced an Act of War against any Iroquois who would come and stand in front of the forts of Quebec, Trois-Rivieres and Ville-Marie.
On May 31st 1660 he came back to Ville-Marie (Montreal) to die, ten days after their victory at Long-Saut.
Three years later his wife entered the Ursulines, then went to the Hospitalieres in 1670. She died on June 7 1685 in her own house, next door to the Hotel-Dieu Hospital of Quebec.
The tradition wants that when they were married
For more details about Louis d'Ailleboust's experiences / life in New France, see the French website at pages.infinit.net/lej/diction/aillebou.htm
This is a site on genealogy / genealogie, where we come across the Seigneur d'Argentenay,Joseph Perrot, a.k.a. Argentai, whose 17 yrs old daughter, Marie Perrot ( Perrault ) d'Argentenay, Grand-daughter of Marie Daubigeon Gagne, married 41 yrs old Francois Mercure dit Villenouvelle; they would have at least three sons and two of their grandsons, Louis and Michel Mercure, would found MADAWASKA, where Charlotte Guyon d'Amours des Chauffours had been raised on a farm, until 8 yrs old when her Mom died, before she married ST.CASTIN, who went to France to get his Letters of Nobility in 1713 from Louis XIV and received them from Louis XV after some recommendations from Vaudreuil in Quebec
Some informations are taken from:
"Histoire de l'Acadie" par Bona Arsenault (1978)
Sir Charles Lucas "Historical Geography of the British Dominions: Vol.5 Canada"
Oxford, 1923 "
BACK TO INDEX
Robert E. CHENARD's List of Original Immigrants to New France
Voltaire Foundation and Cirey Castle (Mme du Chatelet) (Mezeray)
Genealogie de la region de VILLENOUVELLE, Toulouse
ORGAN: Saint-Eugène d'Argentenay, Dolbeau (Québec)
Genealogy Garneau Catelan Mercure Angers
Genealogie: Jean BLAIS fils d'Anne PERROT, Francois MERCURE
References de Genealogie: Enfant de Jean PERREAULT / PERROT
The Port Royal Project by Dr. Donny L. Hamilton
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