37

 

The Mission Covenant Church Holm Glad College

 

 

A COURSE

 

IN

 

PHONICS
 

BOOK 2 – WORDS AND SYLLABLES

 

Teacher’s Book

 


A COURSE IN PHONICS (Book 2)

 

TEACHER’S BOOK

 

CONTENTS

 

1.      What are Syllables?

2.      Compound Words – Short Vowel Sounds

3.      Compound Words – Long Vowel Sounds

4.      Compound Words – R-Controlled Vowels

5.      Compound Words – Diphthongs and other Vowel Sounds

6.      Words Ending in ED (Extra Syllable)

7.      Words Ending in ED (No Extra Syllable)                

8.      Double Consonants – Adding ER, ED, EST

9.      Changing Y to I                                                            

10.  Revision Test 1 – ED Endings

11.  Double Consonants – Adding ING, Y, EN               

12.  Odd Word Out 1

13.  Consonant X                                                              

14.  Reading 1

15.  Consonant S

16.  Words Ending in ES (Extra Syllable)           S, CH, SH, X, Z                     

17.  Words Ending in ES (Extra Syllable)           CE, GE, DGE, SE, ZE

18.  Words Ending in S (No Extra Syllable)                         

19.  Revision Test 2 – S Endings

20.  More about Syllables

21.  Consonant – Soft G

22.  Consonant – Soft C and Q                                         

23.  Reading 2

24.  Consonant Digraph – TH                                             

25.  Odd Word Out 2

26.   Spelling Test 1

27.  Stress – Using the Shwa

28.  Open Syllables

29.  Closed Syllables

30.  Unstressed syllables – le, el and al                                                

31.  Revision Test 3 – Open, Closed and le/el/la Syllables

32.  More Magic E

33.  Spelling Test 2

34.  More Long Vowel Sounds

35.  The Hidden Magic E – Adding ING

36.  Revision Test 4 – Long Vowel Sounds

37.  Suffixes

38.  R-controlled Vowels - UR, ER, IR, OR, OUR, AR  

39.  Spelling Test 3

40.  Homophones

41.  Word Stress in English

42.  Word Stress and Grammar                                            

43.  Odd Word Out 3

44.  Reading 3

Lesson 1

 

a. Demonstrate using strokes to separate syllables

    Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Ask students to repeat each word and say how many    syllables it has. Ask them to use strokes to divide them into syllables.              

    Ask students how many syllables are in their English name.

b. Read the words in Exercise B, or play the CD. Students count the syllables on their fingers. They write down the number of syllables for the words in the third column.

c. Students work in pairs to do Exercise C.

d. English Corner Website   Dividing words into syllables.  Movie – Chunk That Word

The Syllables Factory – How many syllables in these words? Other resources - syllables

 

  1. What are Syllables?

 

Many English words are made up of more than one part or sound. These parts are called syllables. In the first phonics book, all the words had one syllable. For example: fog, truck and cheat.

 

Exercise A            Listen to and say these words. For each word, say how many syllables it has. Draw a stroke between the syllables. 

 

Example:   thank    (thank – one)       thank/ful    (thankful – two)  thank/ful/ly    (thankfully – three)

 

1.             ease                        easy                        easily

2.             tale                          story                       history                   historical

3.             twelve                    twenty                    eleven                    forty-seven

4.             word                       letter                       alphabet               dictionary               alphabetical           

5.             know                      knowledge             understand            understanding         understandable

6.             name                       Jason                      identity                 identification

 

Exercise B            Practise saying these words, counting the syllables on your fingers. Write down the number of syllables for the words in Column Three.

 

One syllable                         Two syllables                       Three or more syllables

 

1. luck                                     lucky                                      luckily                    3

2. real                                      really                                      reality                     4

3. sent                                    sentence                                              sentences              3

4. prayed                                parade                                    economy                4

5. flow                                    fellow                                     economical            5

6. cash                                    money                                    monetary               4

7. stack                                 attacks                                     attractive               3

8. brief                                    belief                                      believable              4

9. vale                                     avail                                        availability             6

 

Exercise C            Work with a partner. Say these words, draw strokes between the syllables and put them in the correct column in the table below. 

 

hurts                       entering                 extract                    fixed                        intended

apple                      screen                     education             stopped                   fixes

strange                   open                       opened                   opening                stripe

astronomical         able                         ability                     individual              individuality         

support                sport                        misses                    spotted                  supported                             

 

One syllable

Two syllables

Three syllables

Four syllables

Five or more syllables

hurts

fixed

screen

stopped

strange

stripe

sport

extract

apple

fixes

open

opened

able

support

misses

spotted

entering

intended

opening

supported

education

ability

 

astronomical   (5)

individual       (5)

individuality   (7)

 

Lesson 2

 

a. Explain the concept of putting two words together to make a new word.

Read and discuss the examples.

b. Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Students attempt the exercise.              

c.  Similarly, for Exercise B.

 

 

2.      Compound Words - Short Vowel Sounds

You can often join two words together to make a new word. This is called a compound word.

Listen to and repeat these examples. Then draw a stroke between the syllables:

        hot/dog                  tenpin                     instep                     backdrop              

Exercise A  Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

chop                                       set

                                        sun                                         stick

                                        drum                                      

                                        lip

                                        up

chopstick             drumstick           lipstick             sunset           upset              

Exercise B    Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

                                        cob                                         pot

                                                jack                                         web

chest                                      fish

hill                                           nut

hand                                       man

gold                                        bag

                hang                                       top

chestnut        cobweb        goldfish            handbag                hangman        hilltop      jackpot

 

 

Lesson 3

 

a. Point out that at least one syllable of each of the words in this exercise has a long vowel sound.

Read and discuss the examples.

b. Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Students attempt the exercise.              

c.  Similarly, for Exercise B.

 

 

3.      Compound Words - Long Vowel Sounds

Listen to and repeat these examples. Then draw a stroke between the syllables:                        goal/post               backside                mainland                beanpole

Exercise A  Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

grape                                      dream

                                                back                                        sick

                                                black                                       stroke

                                                brief                                        hole

                                                cross                                      mail

                                                day                                         vine

high                                        case

home                                      nut

key                                          bow

pea                                          road

play                                        way

rain                                         mate

 

  grapevine                       backstroke                                blackmail                       briefcase     

 

  crossroad                       daydream                                   highway                       homesick                        

 

  keyhole                          peanut                                          playmate                         rainbow

 

Exercise B            Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right. How many can you make? You can use a word more than once.

                                                day                                         stone

                                                bed                                         light

grave                                      time

grind                                       side

                                                mean                                      boat

                                                gem                                        

                                                life

                                                hail

                                                high

        daylight                daytime                   bedtime                  bedside  

        gravestone            graveside               grindstone            meantime

        gemstone             lifetime               lifeboat                hailstone          highlight            

 

 

Lesson 4

 

a. Point out that at least one syllable of each of the words in this exercise has an R-controlled vowel sound.

Read and discuss the examples.

b. Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Students attempt the exercise.              

c.  Similarly, for Exercise B.

 

4.      Compound Words – R-controlled Vowels

Listen to and repeat these examples. Then draw a stroke between the syllables:

car/port                  barnyard                               furball                      coldsore

Exercise A  Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

                                                air                                wide

                                                brain                             place

                                                heart                             port

                                                work                            storm

                                                world                           burn

airport           brainstorm            heartburn              workplace             worldwide                       

Exercise B   Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

                                               arm                               yard

                                               court                             way

                                               door                              chair

                                               farm                              ship

                                               grave                             knob

                                               hard                              work

                                               home                             pit

                                               net                                 mat

                armchair               armpit                    courtship               courtyard             

              doorknob   doormat               doorway                 farmyard

                graveyard                hardship              homework             network

 

 

 

 

Lesson 5

 

a. Revise the diphthongs ow/ou, oi/oy and the vowel sounds oo and or/al.

Read and discuss the examples.

b. Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Students attempt the exercise.              

c. Similarly, for Exercise B.

d. English Corner Website   Revision of Compound Words.

Make Compound Words       Compound Words (Short Test)    Quiz

Matching Game      Concentration Game

 

 

 

5.      Compound Words – Diphthongs and other Vowel Sounds

 

Listen to and repeat these examples. Then draw a stroke between the syllables:

 

cow/boy          school/house           fool/proof  new/born              fall/out

 

Exercise A    Read the words in these two lists aloud. Then make new words by taking one from the left column and one from the right.

                                                back                                        wife

                                                          book                                             book

                                                                count                                      room

                                                                dark                                        fruit

                                                                drop                                        ground

                                                                grape                                      down

                                                                hand                                       case

                                                                house                                     house

                                                                light                                        mouth

                                                                loud                                        out

                background          bookcase               countdown        darkroom     dropout

              grapefruit               handbook               housewife          lighthouse    loudmouth

Exercise B  Read all the following words aloud. Then make new words by writing out, down or foot in front of each word.

downgrade          outbreak            outcast/downcast ­        outcome

outcry                  outdoor             football                          downfall

foothold              outfit                  outgrow                        downhill/foothill

outset                  downgrade        outlaw                           footstep

footstool             footnote            outline                           downpour

outrage                downtown         outside/downside       footpath

footstool             outback             footprint                        outsmart

 

 

 

Lesson 6

 

a. Discuss which words have an extra syllable when ED is added. Try to elicit the rule from students before pointing out the rule written after Exercise A.

b. Read the words in Exercise A, or play the CD. Students attempt the exercise.              

c.  Similarly, for Exercise B.

d. English Corner Website   Practice in pronouncing ED Endings.

 

6. Words Ending in ED (Extra Syllable)

To say most verbs in past tense we add -ed. But the final -ed can sound different in different words. Listen to and say the following words:

 

                   asked                   begged                             pleaded

 

Which word has two syllables?    pleaded

 

Here are some other words that have an -ed ending that sounds like the one in pleaded. Say them aloud:

 

                    tested                                waited                               ended                            faded

 

Each word has 2 syllables. 

 

Exercise A  Listen to these words ending in ed. Write down whether they have one or two syllables.

 

acted      2             printed   2                 wedded   2                  chased     1                    fixed         1

worked    1             walked    1                 matched  1                  hunted     2                    haunted    2

banded   2             used       1                 ended      2                  coughed  1                    smashed   1

 

Can you find a rule? 

 

The ED is affected by the sound that comes before it. The sounds T and D are called dental stops. When a word ends with one of these sounds we can not add ED without pronouncing an extra syllable.  

 

Exercise B            Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 
+ + + D + + L + + + D +
+ + + + O I + + + E D +
+ + + D F T D E D N E M
B O O T E D T N + H T T
+ D E + + D O E + U C I
+ D E + E B D + D N A L
R E S T E D + O + T D T
+ + T A I + + + N E E E
+ I + + N A + + + D T D
P D A T E D W + + + R +
D E T T E V E + + + A +
+ + + + + + + D + + P +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
ACTED(11,6,N)    BONDED(6,6,NE)    BOOTED(1,4,E)     DATED(2,10,E)           DOTTED(4,1,SE)   HUNTED(10,4,S)    LIFTED(7,1,SW)    MENDED(12,3,W)         NODDED(9,8,NW)   PARTED(11,12,N)   PITTED(1,10,NE)   RESTED(1,7,E)
SANDED(3,7,SE)   TILTED(12,4,S)    VETTED(6,11,W)    WAITED(7,10,NW)
 

Exercise C  Write a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

wilted  tilted                  tested  rested                       flitted  pitted

 

drifted  lifted                 defended  mended                squatted dotted    

 

 

 Lesson 7

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercises B and C. Go over answers.

 

d. Dictate the sentences (or play the CD).

 

7. Words Ending in ED          (No Extra Syllable)

 

Listen to and say the following words:            asked                      begged  

 

Does the -ed at the end of these words sound exactly the same? Say the words until you are sure of your answer. When you say asked does it sound more like askD or askT?  The end sound is T.

Listen to and say these, which end with a T sound.

baked                     puffed                   stopped                 missed                 wished                    watched 

 

Now say the word begged again.  Does it sound more like begT  or begD?   The end sound is D.
 

Listen to and say these words, which end with a D sound.
rubbed                  dragged waved                    caused                   judged                    called

seemed                  cared                       loaned                    flowed                  annoyed

 

How do we know whether a word ends with a D sound or a T sound for –ed?

It depends on the sound that comes before it.

Voiceless sounds are sounds made without vibration of the vocal chords – eg. K, F, P and S.

Voiced sounds are sounds made with vibration of the vocal chords – e.g. B, G, L, V, Z

 

An -ed after a voiceless sound is pronounced T.

An -ed after a voiced sound is pronounced D.

 

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 

 

S M A S H E D + C D D C
D + + + T E + H + E + A
E + + + S U A + H P + L
G + + S D S F C + P + L
G + I + E E T F + O + E
U M + D + A S + E L F D
R W + D M + + U + D I +
D + O D E N I A G L X +
+ + + R + G + + I + E +
+ + + + K + D K + + D +
D E V I L E E U + + + +
S E E M E D D + J + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction)
CALLED(12,1,S)     CHASED(9,1,SW)    DRUGGED(1,8,N)   FIXED(11,6,S)
GAINED(9,8,W)      JUDGED(9,12,NW)   LIKED(10,8,SW)   LIVED(5,11,W)
LOPPED(10,6,N)     MATCHED(5,7,NE)   MISSED(2,6,NE)   SEEMED(1,12,E)
SMASHED(1,1,E)     STUFFED(4,1,SE)   USED(8,7,NW)     WORKED(2,7,SE)
 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 7  (continued)

 

 

7. Words Ending in ED          (No Extra Syllable)

 

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

mixed       fixed                             scratched  matched                            shirked   worked

                                                            

dreamed   seemed                      stopped     lopped                                    smudged  judged

 

Exercise C   Try to put the words from the word list into the correct column.

 

T – after Voiceless Sound

D – after Voiced Sound

chased

fixed

liked

lopped

matched

missed

smashed

stuffed

worked

called

drugged

gained

judged

lived

seemed

used

 

 

Exercise D   Sometimes you can make a mistake in grammar if you don't hear the correct number of syllables. Listen to each of these sentences and tick whether it is about the past or the present.

 

 

Past

Present

a. We start at nine o'clock.

 

*

b. They count the syllables.

 

*

c. I often visited my friends.

*

 

d. We want to play computer games.

 

*

e. I mended my socks.

*

 

f. They tended to waste their time in class.

*

 

 

 


Lesson 8

 

  1. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.
  2. English Corner Website   Use the PowerPoint presentation to present this lesson.
  3. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.
  4. Students do Exercises B and C. Go over answers.

 

8. Double Consonants

Adding ER, ED, EST

 

The Magic E   When E is at the end of a word it is silent, but the vowel before it changes to a long vowel (the name of the letter). The pattern of the word is usually Consonant-Vowel-Consonant-Silent E.

 

Listen to and say these words:

 

fat     fate          pet     Pete                din     dine           lop     lope          cut     cute
 

What happens when you add ER, ED or EST to a word that already ends with E?     

 

The letter E is already there, so we just add the R, D or ST. 

 

For example:          fated                       Peter                       diner                       loped                      cutest

 

The E still works its magic. Be careful to say a long vowel in these words.

 

What happens if you add ER, ED or EST to a word that does not end with E?

 

We need to keep the short vowel so we do not want the E to work its magic. So we double the consonant. This moves the E too far away from the vowel for the magic to work.

 
For example:                   fattest                             petted                             dinner                              lopped                            cutter
 

Make sure you say a short vowel in these words.

 

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 

P + + + T H O T T E S T
I + + + + S + + B + + D
T T + + + + E A + + + E
T S + + + D T N + + R T
E E R E T T E B N E + T
D G + W E R D P T I S O
B G L D E E E T P E H D
A I + O N T I D T O + T
N B + N G F T T D + P +
N + I + + G A E + I + +
E S + + + F E + S + B +
R G U T T E R R + T + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BANNER(1,7,S)     BATTED(9,2,SW)   BETTER(8,5,W)      BIDDER(11,11,NW)
BIGGEST(2,9,N)    DOTTED(12,7,N)   FATTEST(6,11,NE)   FITTER(6,9,NE)
GUTTER(2,12,E)    HOTTEST(6,1,E)   LOGGER(3,7,SE)     PITTED(1,1,S)
POPPED(11,9,NW)   SINNED(2,11,NE)  THINNEST(12,8,NW)  WETTEST(4,6,SE)
 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

sitter         fitter                                    butter    gutter       knitted   pitted

                                               

stopped   popped                                 flattest  fattest       chatted  batted

 

Exercise C  Read these sentences as they would have to be read without the magic Es. Then write in the missing Es and read it again.

 

Dave    rode   his    bike   too    fast    down    the    slope.    He    put    on    his    front    brake   but    it    was    too    late.    This    was    a    bad    mistake.    The    front    wheel    locked    and    he    flew    over    the    handlebars.    He  landed    on    a    stone  and    broke  his    nose.     He    was    in    a    daze   for    quite a long  time.  His mum    came  and    drove  him    home,    and    put    ice   on    his    face  to    soothe    his    pain .    “You    had    a    lucky    escape,”    she    said .    “You    must    take   more    care    in    future.    But  you  can’t  use your  bike  any  more. ”

 

 
 

Lesson 9

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercises B. Go over answers.

 

 

9. Changing Y to I

If the last syllable of a word is Y, what happens if you add ER, ED or EST?

 

The Y changes to I.

 

Listen to and say these words:          worry     worried          hungry     hungrier          smelly     smelliest

 

If Y is only part of a syllable it does not change.

 

Listen to and say these words:          play        player          annoy     annoyed          grey     greyest

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

F T O R H A P P I E S T
U S B + E + D + + C + H
N E E + + Y + E R + U +
N I Y + R + O I I R + R
I R E D R E E R R N E +
E D D + E D P I T Y E +
R + + + Y I E L A S + D
+ + + + A D R L I + E +
+ + + + R + F F + E + D
+ + + + T S E Y O C D +
F R A Y E D R E I L F +
+ + + + B + + + + + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BETRAYER(5,12,N)          COYEST(10,10,W)         CRIED(10,2,SW)  DENIED(12,7,NW)           DESTROYER(12,9,NW)      DRIEST(2,6,N)      FLAYER(7,9,NE)            FLIER(11,11,W)          FRAYED(1,11,E)      FRIED(8,9,NW)             FUNNIER(1,1,S)          HAPPIEST(5,1,E)
HURRIED(12,2,SW)          OBEYED(3,1,S)           REPLIED(5,4,SE)

 

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

curried          hurried                         player    flayer               blade     frayed

                   

sunnier        funnier                          beside    fried                highest  driest

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 10

 

  1. Do not read the words or play the CD until after students have attempted the exercise. Then let them listen to check the number of syllables again. GO over the answers.
  2. Students do Exercise B. Go over the answers.

 

10.  Revision Test 1 - ED endings

Exercise A   Write down the number of syllables in each of the following words.

banded    (  2  )     banned   (  1  )       chapped   (  1  )         chatted   (  2  )

collapsed  (  2  )    collated  (  3  )       headed     (  2  )          healed    (  1  )

padded     (  2  )     panned   (  1  )       related      (  3  )          relaxed    (  2  )

repealed   (  2  )     repeated (  3  )       resented    (  3  )         reserved  (  2  )

salted       (  2  )     sanded    (  2  )      sapped      (  1  )         saved      (  1  ) 

stunned   (  1  )     stunted  (  2  )      willed         (  1  )         wilted     (  2  )  

Exercise B  Draw a line between the words that rhyme. Say the words aloud.

                              bunched                                         punched

                              flouted                                            sprouted

                              fried                                               tried   

                              gelded                                            welded

                              jumped                                           lumped

                              kissed                                             missed 

                              lifted                                               shifted

                              married                                           carried

                              pleaded                                          beaded

                              relieved                                          believed

                              rotted                                             spotted

                              shopped                                         popped

                              talked                                             walked

                              toiled                                              spoiled

                              vexed                                             perplexed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 11

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

11. Double Consonants

Adding ING, Y, EN

 

What happens when you add EN to a word that already ends with E?     

 

The letter E is already there, so we just add the N. 

 

Examples:       wide     widen                        wove      woven    live      liven

 

The E still works its magic. Be careful to say a long vowel in these words.

 

What happens when you add ING or Y to a word that already ends with E?     

 

You hide the E first.     Examples:   fade     fading                    craze     crazy            save     saving

 

Even though we can’t see it, the E still works its magic. Be careful to say a long vowel in these words.

 

What happens if you add EN to a word that does not end with E?

 

We need to keep the short vowel. We don’t want the E to work its magic. So we double the consonant. This moves the E too far away from the vowel for the magic to work.

 

Examples:       fat     fatten          bit     bitten         sad     sadden

 

Make sure you say a short vowel in these words.

 

What happens when you add ING or Y to a word that does not end with E?     

 

If we just add ING to rid we get riding. But this is the same as adding it to ride. So we have to double the consonant to show that there is no hidden magic E. It is the same when we add Y.

 

Examples:  bid     bidding         sun     sunny          drag     dragging          snap     snappy

Exercise  A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

F + G + Y C + C + R B G
+ L + N H G A + O + I N
Y + I A I N G T + G T I
+ N T T N T T U N + T T
S T N I T E T I B + E T
Y I N U N I T U + B N E
+ G T + S T N + J E + L
N E T T A L F G Y T + J
P O P P I N G + T T + E
M I T T E N E T T I K T
+ Y D D U B G + O N + T
F U N N Y + + + D G + Y
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BETTING(10,6,S)    BITTEN(11,1,S)   BUDDY(6,11,W)   BUGGY(9,5,NW)
CANNING(8,1,SW)    CHATTY(6,1,SW)   DOTTY(9,12,N)   FLATTEN(7,8,W)
FLITTING(1,1,SE)   FUNNY(1,12,E)    JETTY(12,8,S)   JUTTING(9,7,NW)
KITTEN(11,10,W)    LETTING(12,7,N)  MITTEN(1,10,E)  PATTING(4,9,NE)
POPPING(1,9,E)     ROTTEN(10,1,SW)  SITTING(1,5,SE) SUNNY(5,7,NW)
 

 Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

banning  canning                                 batten    flatten    knitting  sitting

                    

Betty      jetty                                        smitten  kitten                      fatty       chatty

Lesson 12

 

Do the first one or two as an example. Let students do all exercises, then go over the answers.

 

  1. plastic – It has two syllables. The other words have one. 
  2. strange It has one syllable. The other words have two.
  3. pitiful – It has three syllables. The other words have two.
  4. reason – It is not a compound word like the others.
  5. heated– It has two syllables, because of the T sound. The other words have one.
  6. wedded– It has two syllables, because of the D sound. The other words have one.
  7. saved– It has one syllable, because there are no T or D sounds. The other words have two.
  8. hopped– It has one syllable, because there are no T or D sounds. The other words have two.
  9. cried – The Y has changed to an I for past tense.
  10. riding It has a long vowel sound, because the  consonant is not doubled.
  11. soften EN has been added. For the other words only the N is added.
  12. biting - It has a long vowel sound because the consonant is not doubled.
  13. finer - It has a long vowel sound because the consonant is not doubled.
  14. fatter - It has a short vowel sound because the consonant is doubled.
  15. funny – It is the only word that doesn’t have a hidden magic E.

 

 

 

 12. Odd Word Out 1

 

Which word is the odd one out? Explain why.

 

1.             soft                         trap                         plastic                   length                      crust

 

2.             easy                        faster                      painful                  quickly     strange

 

3.             thinking                pitiful                       hungry                   plainly                    piglet

 

4.             doorknob               bedpost                 handbag                reason                    hotpot

 

5.             taxed                       heated                    warned                   jumped                   burned

 

6.             wedded                  clapped                  banned                   sagged                   popped 

 

7.             hated                      waded                    saved                     coded                     cited

 

8.             hopped                  kidded                    wedded                  fitted                       potted

 

9.             greyed                    betrayed                              destroyed                strayed                   cried

 

10.           nodding                 copping                 trotting                   riding                      bidding

 

11.           widen                     woven                    soften                     given                      taken

 

12.           batting                   betting                   biting                      cutting                   rotting

 

13.           ripper                      fitter                        sinner                     killer                        finer

 

14.           fatter                       later                        tighter                    meaner                   ruder

 

15.           coping                    funny                     droning                  lazy                         exciting

 

 

 

Lesson 13

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

 

13.       Consonant  X

 X has no sound of its own.  It borrows some unusual sounds from other consonants.  The most common sound of X is KS.  Another sound of X is GZ although this sound is not common.  The last sound of X is the Z sound.  There are very few words which use this sound of X.

 

Sound of KS          Examples:  The KS sound can be heard in the words mix and next. 

 

Sound of GZ          Examples:  The GZ sound of X is not very common.  Sometimes, it can be heard in words that begin with ex- like the word exam.  (However, many words that begin with -ex have the KS sound.)  Other examples of the GZ sound are: exert, exaggerate. 

 

Sound of Z             Examples:  The Z sound of X is not very common.  An example of this sound: xylophone.

 

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

+ + + + + + + + B + + +
+ + + + + + + + O + + T
+ + + + + + D E X A F C
C I B O H P O N E X + A
+ + + E E A Y + R + E R
X + + X L X X + + L X T
+ O E + E P + I I + A X
+ R R S + + M T O + O E
T + + E + + X A + M C +
+ + + + X E + + X + + +
+ + + + T + + + + E + +
+ + + + + F I X I N G +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
AXIOM(6,5,SE)    BOXER(9,1,S)      COAX(11,9,N)        EXAMPLE(10,11,NW)
EXERT(5,5,SW)    EXTRACT(12,8,N)   FAXED(11,3,W)       FIXING(6,12,E)
SEXY(4,8,NE)     TEXTILE(5,11,NE)  XENOPHOBIC(10,4,W)  XEROX(5,10,NW)
 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

relaxed  faxed                        mixing     fixing                     sample example

 

hurt        exert                                       jokes      coax

                    

 

 
 
 

Lesson 14

 

  1. Ask individual students to try reading the poems.
  2. Betty Botter  - Point out that the only difference between the key words is the vowel (second letter). List the words (batter, better, bitter, Botter, butter) on the board, highlighting the vowel, and get students to sound out the words.
  3. The Bittern - It is likely that students will read at least one of the vowels wrongly in the first line. Take the opportunity to revise the magic E (including hidden magic E). Discuss the words bit, bite, biter, bitter, biting, “bitting”.
  4. Similarly for “Fresh Fish”, discuss fin, fine, finer, “finner” finest, “finnest” and din, dine, diner, dinner. You may also need to remind them that Y changes to I when ED is added.
  5. Revise the two sounds of U – oo and yoo, blends TW and CL, and difference between T and D.

 

 14. Reading 1

 

Read these poems. 

 

1. Betty Botter                                                                       2.  The Bittern

Betty Botter had some butter,                                                                A bitter biting bittern
"But," she said, "this butter's bitter.                                       Bit a better brother bittern,
If I bake this bitter butter,                                                      And the bitter better bittern
It would make my batter bitter.                                              Bit the bitter biter back.
But a bit of better butter--                                                      And the bitter bittern, bitten,
That would make my batter better."                                       By the better bitten bittern,
So she bought a bit of butter,                                                  Said: "I'm a bitter biter bit, alack!"
Better than her bitter butter,
And she baked it in her batter,
And the batter was not bitter.
So 'twas better Betty Botter
Bought a bit of better butter.

 

3. Fresh Fish                                                                         4. Tooter tutor

(from Dr. Seuss'  - "Oh say can you say")

Do you like fresh fish?                                                           A Tutor who tooted a flute
It's just fine at Finney's Diner.                                               Tried to tutor two tooters to toot.
Finney also has some fresher fish                                           Said the two to their tutor,
that's fresher and much finer.                                                  "Is it harder to toot
But his best fish is his freshest fish                                        Or to tutor two tooters to toot?"

and Finney says with pride,
"The finest fish at Finney's is
my freshest fish, French-fried!"                                             5. Twister

SO...                                                                       
don't order the fresh or the fresher fish.                                 A twister of twists once twisted a twist.
At Finney's, if you're wise,                                                    And the twist that he twisted was a three-twisted twist.
You’ll say, "Fetch me the finest, French-                               Now in twisting this twist, if a twist should untwist,
fried freshest fish that Finney fries!"                                     Would the twist that untwisted untwist the twists?

 

6. Writing on a Train                                                           7. Tap Dancers

Writing on a railway train                                                      Twenty tiny tap dancers

Is very hard to do                                                                   Tapped to a bright light tune.

For it bumps you up and down                                              Their routine was smart and dainty

And shakes you through and through.                                   And they tapped and they did croon.

Clickety-clack                                                                        Tip tap tappety tap tap tip

Down the track                                                                       Dippety, dippety tap tap dip.

Heading for the station.                                                          Teddy taught the tappers

I’ve put my pen and paper away                                            To tap and flick their feet,

Till I reach my destination.                                                    But it sometimes happened that the twenty

                                                                                                Tried too hard and missed a beat,

                                                                                                So instead of

                                                                                                Tip tap tappety tap tap tip

                                                                                                Dippety, dippety tap tap dip,

                                                                                                It was

                                                                                                Tip tappety tappety tip

                                                                                                Dippety tappety dip tip dip.

 

 
 
 
 
 

Lesson 15

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

b. Students are chosen to read the sentences in Exercise A and the tongue twisters in Exercise B. 

c. Students do Exercise C. Try to elicit the rule from them before reading it.

 

15.       Consonant  S

The most common sounds of the letter S are: SS and ZZ. 

 

Sound of S             Examples:  The unvoiced sound SS can be heard in the words see, say, some. 

 

Sound of Z             Examples:  The voiced sound ZZ is also very common.  It is often heard in word endings, especially words that end in -es (ages) and -ies (thirties).  Other patterns that often have the Z sound of S is a vowel-s pattern (was, his).

 

Sometimes it can even have the sound SH or ZH, if it is followed by U.

Eg. (SH) sure, pressure, fissure.        (ZH) pleasure, treasure

 

Exercise A   The ending sound of the words “use” and “abuse” depends on whether it is s noun or a verb.

         The noun has an unvoiced S and the verb has a voiced S.

 

Try reading these sentences:

 

  1. What’s the use of cheating?
  2. You must use your brain.
  3. Domestic abuse is a serious crime.
  4. You must not abuse your position of power.

 

Exercise B            Read these tongue twisters to practice the sounds of S.

 

Sammy & Suzie                                                                    Say This

 

Sammy sitting singing                                                              Say this sharply, say this sweetly,
Sought Suzie Shaw                                                                      Say this shortly, say this softly.
Since Suzie started sobbing                                                          Say this sixteen times in succession.

Sammy's stopped seeking

 

Mr. See's Saw                                                                        The Shot-silk Sash Shop

 

Mr. See owned a saw.                                                                                  Sarah saw a shot-silk sash shop
And Mr. Soar owned a seesaw.                                                    Full of shot-silk sashes,
Now See's saw sawed Soar's seesaw                                              As the sunshine shone

Before Soar saw See,                                                                   On the side of the shot-silk sash shop.

Which made Soar sore.
If Soar had seen See's saw                                                         Silly Sally
Before See sawed Soar's seesaw,
See's saw would not have sawed Soar's seesaw.                             Silly Sally swiftly shooed seven silly sheep.
It was sad to see Soar so sore                                                      The seven silly sheep Silly Sally shooed
Just because See's saw sawed Soar's seesaw!                                                  Shilly-shallied south.
                                                                                                These sheep shouldn't sleep in a shack;

                                                                                                Sheep should sleep in a shed.

Susan the Shoe-shiner

                                                                                                            Slippery Sally

Susan shines shoes and socks;
Socks and shoes shines Susan.                                                    Slippery Sally slipped on a slippery sea shell

She ceases shining shoes and socks,                                           While selling sea shells on the sea shore.
For shoes and socks shock Susan.                                                              Surely she shouldn’t have slipped on such a sea shell.

        

Exercise C.           Listen to these words ending in s. Write down whether they have one or two syllables.

                                               

faces       2                              washes   2                             watches   2               takes   1              puts         1

smiles     1                              tools       1                             kisses       2               slices  2               pinches   2

boxes      2                              fringes    2                             prices       2               loves  1               pieces     2

 

What is the rule? 

 

Nouns and verbs ending in a sibilant (hissing) sound have an extra syllable when s is added.

 

Lesson 16

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

 

 

16.  Words Ending in ES (Extra Syllable)           S, CH, SH, X, Z

To make verbs like catch or wash into third person singular, add ES:  catches, washes

To make nouns like fox or church plural, add ES: foxes, churches.

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

+ + + + S K + S + S + F
+ + + + I E E E + E + I
B + S S + H H H + X + Z
+ U S E C + + S + I + Z
+ E Z N H + + A I F + E
S + U Z + S + L + W + S
+ L + + E + A F + + + +
+ + + + + S + R + + + S
+ + + + + S E H C A E B
S E S N E L + + + X + +
+ T O U C H E S A + + +
+ + + + + + + T + + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BEACHES(12,9,W)        BUZZES(1,3,SE)       CRASHES(9,9,NW)
FIXES(10,5,N)          FIZZES(12,1,S)       FLASHES(8,7,N)
KISSES(6,1,SW)         LENSES(6,10,W)       LUNCHES(2,7,NE)
TAXES(8,12,NE)         TOUCHES(2,11,E)      WISHES(10,6,NW)

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

reaches  beaches                 misses   kisses                     quizzes  fizzes

 

waxes     taxes                       crunches lunches                crutches touches

 

 

                    

 

 

 

 

Lesson 17

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers. Point out that there are two ways of saying abuses, depending on whether it is a verb or a noun. In the rhyme exercise it must be a verb.

 

 

 

17.  Words Ending in ES (Extra Syllable)           CE, GE, DGE, SE, ZE

Words like face, age and edge already end with E, so to make a plural or third person singular, just add S:

faces, ages, edges

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 
B + + F S + + + + S + M
+ O + R S E G D E L P A
+ + U I + R Z G + G + Z
+ + + N A P D E R + + E
+ + + G C A L U E + + S
+ + E E B E D A + N + +
S S + S + G S + C + S +
E + + + E C L O S E S +
S + + S E Z I S + + S +
U + + + + + + + + + + +
B + + + + + + + + + + +
A + + + + + + + + + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
ABUSES(1,12,N)            BADGES(5,6,NE)         BOUNCES(1,1,SE)
CLOSES(6,8,E)             FRINGES(4,1,S)         GRUDGES(10,3,SW)
MAZES(12,1,S)             PLACES(6,4,SE)         PLEDGES(11,2,W)
RAGES(6,3,SW)             SIZES(8,9,W)           SNEEZES(11,7,NW)

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

pages  rages                                          smudges  grudges                             singes  fringes

 

rises  sizes                                            dozes  closes                                     cruises  abuses

 

 

 

Lesson 18

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

 

18.   Words Ending in S (No Extra Syllable)           

For most other endings, to make a plural or third person singular, just add S. But if the word ends with a Y syllable, change it to I and add ES:

worry     worries  query      queries                   sty           sties

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 

+ + + S + + + + S C + +
T H I E V E S E S O + +
+ + + N + + I E G U + +
S + + O + R I L + G + +
E E + B R R I + F H + +
I + R U C D + + L S + +
D + H A E L S N E E U Q
N + + S T F O + A + S +
A D U N E S A C S + B +
C S G N I S + D K + A +
+ + + + + + + + E S T +
T R E E S + + + + S S +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BONES(4,5,N)      CANDIES(1,10,N)    CLOCKS(5,6,SE)     COUGHS(10,1,S)         CRIES(5,6,NE)     DUNES(2,9,E)       FADES(6,8,SE)      FLEAS(9,5,S)            GLIDES(9,3,SW)    HURRIES(3,7,NE)    QUEENS(12,7,W)     SINGS(6,10,W)
STABS(11,12,N)    STARES(6,9,NW)     THIEVES(1,2,E)     TREES(1,12,E)

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

              rocks  clocks                          flies  cries                           brings  sings

 

              strides  glides                         scoffs  coughs                      leaves thieves_    

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 19

 

a. Do not read the words or play the CD until after students have attempted the exercise.

b. For Exercise C, read the following sentences:

               a.   He reaches home at six o'clock.

b.      If wishes were horses then beggars would ride. (English proverb)

c.       I can catch the next train.

d.      She will lose face if you don't invite her to the party.

e.       Please fax me your reply by tomorrow.

f.         The company faces losses this year.

 

19. Revision Test 2 – S Endings

Exercise A  Write down the number of syllables in each of the following words.

batches                    (  2  )                     bathes   (   1  )                     chances   (   2  )        chants       (  1  )

collapses  (  3  )                    collates  (  2  )                       hopes       (  1  )       hoses        (  2  )

parades    (  2  )                     peruses   (  3  )                      passes      (  2  )       pasts         (  1  )

relates      (  2  )                     relaxes    (  3  )                       repeats     (  2  )       rephrases  (  3  )

scrapes    (  1  )                     scratches (  2  )                     sleeps       (  1  )       sneezes     (  2  )

trudges    (  2  )                     trumps      (  1  )                     wades       (  1  )       waxes        (  2  )

Exercise B  Draw a line between the words that rhyme. Say the words aloud.

                         bunches                                        punches

                         flouts                                             sprouts

                         fries                                              tries              
                         gales                                               wails

                         jumps                                            stumps

                     lunges                               plunges

                        marries                                             carries 

                          misses                                          kisses

                          pleads                                           bleeds

                        relieves                                          believes

                        rotates                                             debates
                        shops                                              pops                     

                        sloshes                                          washes

                        toils                                                  spoils
                        vexes                                               flexes

 

Exercise C            Listen to six sentences. You will hear one word from each of the following pairs.

                              Underline the word you hear from each pair.

 

a.                    reach / reaches                                     b.             wish / wishes                        horse / horses

 

c.                catch / catches                                     d.             lose / loses                            face / faces

 

e.                fax / faxes                                              f.              face / faces                            loss / losses

 

Lesson 20

 

a. Ask students to write down the number of syllables they expect to hear for the words in Exercise A. Then play the CD or read the words, being careful to pronounce them according to the number of syllables given below. Students write down the number of syllables they hear. 

Point out that syllables are often dropped in normal speech. Not doing so will make their speech sound unnatural.

 

b. Read the sentences for Exercise B (or play the CD). Students write in the missing words.

    Ask students to count the total number of syllables in each sentence. Tap them out.

Point out that intended is followed by a reduced syllable to, so it is harder to hear. Also, handed it to you the day has five reduced syllables in a row (between hand and day). Students need to be

sensitive to the rhythm of the short syllables or they will leave out pronouns and articles.

 

c. Students do Exercise C. Listen to some individuals reading. In particular, check for three syllables in oranges, two in pieces and boxes, and one in dates.

 

20.  More about Syllables

Exercise A   In fluent natural English, some syllables are left out. For each of these words, write down the number of syllables you expect to hear. Then listen and write down the number you actually hear.

 

                                                                Expected number                      Actual number

a.                    national                                                 3                                               2

b.                   library                                                     3                                              2

c.                    interesting                                             4                                              3

d.                   chocolate                                               3                                              2

e.                    rationally                                               4                                              3

f.                     actual                                                     3                                              2

g.                   awfully                                                  3                                               2

h.                   comfortable                                           4                                              3

 

Exercise B            (Dictation) Listen and write in the missing words.

 

a.                    The horses are ready for the race.                                                  9

b.                   The dispute ended our friendship.                                                  8

c.                    We visit our grandmother on Saturday.                                          11

d.                   Food prices increased during the crisis.                                         10

e.                    We miss our houses when we are overseas.                                  11

f.                     I intended to send you a present.                                                      10

g.                   My homework? I handed it to you the day before yesterday.       16

 

Count the syllables in each sentence. Write the number in the space provided.

 

 

Exercise C  Listen to a partner saying these sentences. Point out any errors you hear. Then change roles.

 

a.                    I would like to buy a dozen oranges and two pieces of cake. I would also like two large boxes of dates please.

 

b.                   When I travelled to England I visited London. This is the city I liked best.

 

 
 

 

Lesson 21

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

 

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

21. Consonant   Soft G

The letter G has two different sounds. It has a hard and a soft sound. 

The hard sound of G is G as in go. 

The soft sound of G is J as in pigeon. 

 

Sound of G Rule:  When G is followed by E, I, or Y it is usually the soft sound (J).  When G is followed by other vowels or consonants, it is usually the hard sound (G). 

 

Examples  Soft Sound:                                                                                        Some exceptions (Hard Sound)

 

G followed by E     gem, general, geometry, age                                               get, gelding

 

G followed by I      gin, giant, raging, gist, giraffe                                            gig, gift

 

G followed by Y     gym, gyp, energy                                                                 gynecologist

ExerciseA  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

+ + + L + + G + + + + Y
+ + + + L E + + + + S +
+ + + + N E + + + P + +
E G R E M E G + Y + + +
+ M T + + + N G + + + +
R I A + + + I L A R G E
C E E G + + G + + + + P
+ + G + I R A + + + + U
+ + U N I C P + + + + D
+ + H G I E G A T S + G
+ + I + + G + + + + + Y
+ D + + + + + + + + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
EMERGE(6,4,W)              GELL(7,4,NW)           GENETIC(7,1,SW)
GINGER(6,11,NW)            GYPSY(8,5,NE)          HUGE(3,10,N)
LARGE(8,6,E)               MAGIC(2,5,SE)          PAGING(7,9,N)
PUDGY(12,7,S)              RIGID(6,8,SW)          STAGE(10,10,W)
 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

caging   paging                     tragic    magic                       quell  gell

 

frigid     rigid                         frenetic genetic                    urge   emerge

 

 

 

Lesson 22

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercise B. Go over answers.

 

22. Consonants  Soft C, Q

The letter C in English has no sound of its own.  It borrows two different sounds from the consonants K and S. Hard C sounds like K. Soft C sounds like S. 

 

When C is followed by E, I or Y it is usually the soft sound (S).  When C is followed by other vowels or consonants, it is usually the hard sound (K).

Examples:              CE           cease, face, ceiling, celebrate, celery

CI            circle, cinema, city             

CY          cyber, cycle, fancy, cynic

 

The letter Q in English is another consonant that has no sound of its own.  It borrows sounds from K.  Q is always used with the vowel u to create two distinct sounds:  KW and K.

 

The KW sound of Q is the most common.  It is often heard in words that begin with Q, such as quite, queen, and quick. 

 

The K sound of Q is found much less often. It is most often heard in words that end with -que, as in antique and plaque.

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

+ + E + B R + R + + T C
+ + + C E I O + + + E Y
+ + R V A M C + + + N C
+ + A A A L S Y + + G L
Q U I N C E P U C E Y O
Q + C E C I O H C L C N
U E U Q I P S I + R E E
N + + T + + W T + + I D
I Q U E S T I O N + U C
Q + + I + + + + + N + +
U + + U + + + + C + + +
E + + Q + + + E + + + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BICYCLE(5,1,SE)     CHOICE(9,6,W)     CIRCUS(12,9,NW)    CYCLONE(12,1,S)
CYGNET(11,6,N)      DUNCE(12,8,SW)    PIQUE(6,7,W)       PLACE(7,5,NW)
QUAVER(1,6,NE)      QUESTION(2,9,E)   QUIET(4,12,N)      QUINCE(1,5,E)
RACIST(3,3,SE)      ROMANCE(8,1,SW)   TWICE(6,9,NE)      UNIQUE(1,7,S)
 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

voice   choice                        diet quiet              chase  place

 

once    dunce                                         flavour quaver                      speak  pique         

 

 

Lesson 23

 

  1. Test students on the sentences. Read or play the CD if they need a model.
  2.  English Corner Website   Listening tests.  Can you tell the difference? 

B and P – Test 1  B and P – Test 2   B and P – Test 3  R and L – Test 1 R and L – Test 2  R and L - Test 3

 

 

23. Reading 2
 
Exercise A (Consonant S)  Read the following sentences.
 
1. Several sick sailors ask for sea salt.
2. The assassination of the assistant secretary surprised several people.
3. The sisters sat snipping with scissors.
4. Stay on the east side of the street.
5. Set the sack in the center of the circle.
6. Six times six is thirty-six.
7. The sun is stronger on the south side of the seat.
8. The snake stung swiftly and slid smartly away.
 
Exercise B (Consonants M, N, B, P and W)  
 
Think about what your lips do when you say these five sounds – M, N, B, P, W.
Which sound does not need your lips at all?
For which sound do you need to make a circle with your lips?
For which sound do you leave your lips together?
 
Exercise your lips by reading the following sentences.
 
1.              Many moaning men are making music to the moon.
2.              Nineteen noisy gnomes are never alone.
3.              I mentioned minerals may be mined in mountains.
4.              Pass the pens and pencils please.
5.              Packing pickles poses problems.
6.              The stupid spider disappeared into the upturned barrel.
7.              Bobby burst the big blue balloon.
8.              I bought a book about a boy who became a prince.
9.              Where are the watches we wanted?
10.           Why will you worry about wild winds and wet weather?
 
Exercise C (Consonants L, R, D and T)  
 
Be careful not to confuse the sounds of L and R. This is often a problem for Chinese students. 
 
D and T can also sometimes be confused.
 
Read the following sentences carefully.
 
1.              Bring three lorries round to the front.
2.              Raise the retail price of broken rope.
3.              The rusty rod was wrapped in a rotting rug.
4.              The river runs under the railway bridge.
5.              Carry the dress round to the rest room.
6.              The grain was really very brown for a rather curious reason.
7.              The letter is likely to be lost.
8.              He had long legs and leapt easily along the lane.
9.              The flames leapt into the loft killing millions of black and blue flies.
10.            It’s foolish to leave a wallet lying around.
11.            The pilot landed the plane smoothly in a pool full of tall reeds.
12.           The blood flowed slowly as the ball of wool rolled away.
13.            He stole the gold, filled the pail full of coal, but failed to sell the needles.
14.            If you delay longer we’re likely to be late so leave the lazy lion alone.
15.            Don’t touch those tomatoes till I return tomorrow.
16.            He didn’t want to admit that the leader was right. 

 

 

Lesson 24

 

a. Students practice reading the words and sentences. Play the CD as a model if necessary.

b. English Corner Website   Unvoiced TH – Matching Game   Concentration Game

 

24. Consonant Digraph    TH

Sound of the consonant digraph TH:  The th digraph is difficult to describe as it has two forms, voiced and unvoiced. The amount of movement of the vocal cords determines which form it is.

Examples: An example of a voiced th is the word the. An unvoiced example is the word thin.

You may or may not be able to feel or hear the differences between these two words. 

 

The Voiced "th" Sound
Exercise A  Try saying these words and phrases:

 

feather                   the                           they                      theirs                       those                     though

rhythm                   therefore                lather                      rather                      writhe                     with

gather                     bathe                      soothe                    smooth                   further                    either

weather                father                        mother                    brother                  

That was then, this is now                                 Either this one or that one                                 

I loathe this smooth leather.               Smooth breathing is soothing.          Gather the others together.

 

Exercise B  Practice this Dialogue:

A: Is your father coming to the gathering this Saturday?

B: No. Neither is my mother.

A: That's too bad. My brother was looking forward to seeing them.

B: Well, they're both a little under the weather.

A: Oh, sorry to hear that. Can I send something or other to cheer them up?

B: Please don't bother. They'll be fine.

 

Exercise C  Try reading this passage:

Even though my father is a weatherman, he can't predict with absolute certainty whether it will rain or not. Neither can the other people who work with him. They say there's only a thirty per cent chance of rain, and the next thing you know, it's pouring. They predict snow, and there's nothing for another five days. Then, there's a blizzard. So rather than trust my father's weather forecasts, I use a more reasonable approach. I ask my mother. 

 

The Unvoiced "th" Sound

Exercise D  Try saying these words and phrases:

 
thief                                 theft                                thorn                               thrust                              broth                               threat                              
month                             maths                              thrift                                wrath                               health                             thought      
thong                              thatch                             thirty                               theme                              thumb                             three           
lethal                               ethics                              author                             method                            athletic                           filthy           
length                             worth                              earth                                wealth                             broth                               tenth                               
fifth                                 Think of three themes.                              Through thick and thin.

The thieves took the path to the wealthy author’s house.            Thursday is his seventh birthday.

Three thousand three hundred and thirty three feathers.              Three free throws.

 

Exercise E   Practice this dialogue:

A: When's Thanksgiving?

B: It's on a Thursday in November.

A: The third Thursday or the fourth?

B: I think it's the fourth.

A: That would be the twenty-fifth.

B: No, it's the twenty-sixth.

A: Thanks.

 

Exercise F  Try reading this passage:

If you think you're safe from thievery, think again. Most thefts occur within three miles of the victim's home. People often venture into the streets without giving their valuables a second thought. They leave things out in the open, where thieves can easily spot them. Items worth thousands of dollars can be stolen in a tenth of a second. So be thoughtful. Only you can thwart this terrible crime. Watch your things carefully. Thieves do.

 

Lesson 25

 

Do the first one or two as an example. Let students do all exercises, then go over the answers.

 

  1. was –  The S is voiced. In the other words it is unvoiced. 
  2. goose The S is unvoiced. In the other words it is voiced. 
  3. strikes – It has one syllable. The other words have two.
  4. edges – It has two syllables. The other words have one.
  5. taps– The S is unvoiced. In the other words it is voiced. 
  6. bathes – It has one syllable. The other words have two.
  7. getting – It has a hard G sound. The other words have a soft G sound.
  8. gin – It has a soft G sound. The other words have a hard G sound.
  9. regret – It has a hard G sound. The other words have a soft G sound.
  10. cell It has a soft C sound. The other words have a hard C sound.
  11. cover It has a hard C sound. The other words have a soft C sound.
  12. plaque – The Q has a K sound. In the other words it is KW.
  13. this - It has a voiced TH sound. The other words have an unvoiced TH sound.
  14. brother - It has a voiced TH sound. The other words have an unvoiced TH sound.
  15. whether – It has a voiced TH sound. The other words have an unvoiced TH sound.
  16.  

25. Odd Word Out 2 

 

Which word is the odd one out? Explain why.

 

1.             soft                         best                        was                         sand                       crust

 

2.             goose                     user                        fuse                        boos                       blues

 

3.             badges                   pitches                   hisses                     strikes                    washes

 

4.             slaves                     edges                     hopes                     rides                       bones

 

5.             trees                       cries                        tries                       fleas                        taps

 

6.             watches                 witches                  messes                   bathes                    crushes 

 

7.             geography             gentleman              getting                   generous               gender

 

8.             gin                          gas                          gore                        giggle                     gun

 

9.             fringe                      badge                     agenda                   regent                     regret

 

10.           cell                          cold                        camp                       cook                       cup

 

11.           cyber                      fancy                      recite                      centre                     cover

 

12.           request                   plaque                    queen                     acquit                     quickly

 

13.           thin                         think                       this                         thistle                     thicker

 

14.           brother                   breath                     thought                  method                   month

 

15.           healthy                   thimble                   Thursday               birthday                 whether

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 26

 

Read the spelling words or play the CD. The spelling test may be taken up and marked as part of their Phonics assessment.

 

  1. mended
  2. banned
  3. fitted
  4. tossed
  5. patched
  6. cracked
  7. stuffed
  8. stitched
  9. hurried
  10. quaker
  11. bosses
  12. crashes
  13. beaches
  14. taxes
  15. crops
  16. matches
  17. edges
  18. bends
  19. mazes
  20. incite

 

26.  Spelling Test 1

 

Listen to the following words. Fill in the missing letters. Listen carefully for the first sound and the end sound. It may help to think of a word that rhymes.

 

  1. men __ __ __
  2. ban __ __ __
  3. fit __ __ __
  4. tos __ __ __
  5. pat __ __ __ __
  6. cra __ __ __ __
  7. stu __ __ __
  8. sti __ __ __ __
  9. hur __ __ __
  10.  __ __ __ ker
  11.  bos __ __ __
  12.  cra __ __ __ __
  13.  bea __ __ __ __
  14.  tax __ __
  15.  cro __ __
  16.  mat __ __ __ __
  17.  ed __ __ __
  18.  ben __ __
  19.  ma __ __ __
  20.  inc __ __ __

 

 

Lesson 27

 

a. This lesson introduces the idea of word stress in terms of the three main ways to give syllables emphasis - pitch change, length and vowel quality. It also introduces the "schwa", which is the most common vowel sound in English. Before doing the exercises, try to elicit student's ideas about what makes one syllable stand out from the others. eg.       excellent

b. It is important for students to know they should not pronounce every sound clearly. If teachers always say every syllable clearly they are giving the students a false idea of how English is spoken. The rhythm of English, which depends on differing vowel quality, is important for real communication. This is not true of many other languages, including Cantonese. Show students the difference by pronouncing these words with all vowels strong and then the correct way. Let them practise both ways to feel the difference:      banana                    Canada                   drama

 

Write “woman / women” on the board. Ask students which vowel sound changes, the first or the second. Some will probably say the second. In fact the second is the same sound - the schwa.

 

27. Stress - Using the schwa.

 

In English some syllables are emphasised more than others. There are three main ways they are stressed:

                Higher pitch                             Extra length                             Clearer vowel sound

 

A.                   Pitch

 

When we speak our voice moves up and down. In Cantonese each word has a fixed tone. In English a higher-pitched tone is used for syllable stress, not to change the meaning of a word.    Example:  ba-na-na.  Which syllable has higher pitch?

Exercise A              Listen to these words and underline the syllable with the highest pitch.

                                apple                      decision                 evidence                              statement beautiful               

                                tomato                    forty                       television               recreation              beautician

                                orange                    fourteen               dictation revolt                      revolution

B.                   Syllable length

In English, some syllables are long and some are short. Stressed syllables are extra long.

Exercise B              Listen to these names. Which syllable is longest in each word?

Raymond Mary                        Amanda   Maria                       Eudora                     Alexander

Exercise C              Listen and practise saying these words. Focus on the different lengths of the sounds.

__     .                        .    ___               .  ___    .                 ___    .   .

farmer                           review                 decided                     telephone

open                             discuss                 appearing                 practical

take it                           perform                                he's calling                             thoroughly

longest                          approach             I'm coming               wait a bit

danger                              explain                         revolting                                handicapped

neighbour                        because        attention                 buffalo

C   Vowel quality   In English, there are strong vowels and weak vowels.

All stressed syllables have strong vowels.  Most unstressed syllables have weak vowels.

Listen to these words:              banana                     Canada                     drama

Which syllable has a strong vowel sound? The other syllables have a short weak vowel sound. This sound is called a schwa.       It is the most common vowel sound in English.              

Exercise D Listen to the difference between strong and weak vowels. Repeat the words. Underline the strong vowels.

pot          potato                                    Tom        atom                       ass          assault

man         woman                                   men         women                   be            become

add         addition                                 office      official                    fort          effort

Athens                   Melbourne                            Sydney                  Paris              Barcelona

Exercise E        Listen and write down the missing words. Underline the strong vowels.

1.                    An old woman was assaulted in her own home.

2.                    There was an addition to the Lee family. (But note how Lee makes the vowel sound in family weaker.)

3.                    Attach a photograph to the application form and don't forget to sign it.

4.                    My sister wants to visit the city of Melbourne.

5.                    The Olympics were held in Athens  .

 

Exercise F             Practice saying the following:

FORward                  WOman                   WOmen                   offICially                

PHOtograph                            phoTOgraphy                          photoGRAPHic

He was in BARceLOna in the SUMmer HOlidays.

My proNUNciAtion is GETTing BETTer.

 

 

Lesson 28

 

a. Read the words for Exercises A and B and D (or play the CD) as students follow the instructions.

    Go over answers.

 

28. Open syllables

 

An open syllable is a syllable that ends with a vowel. It is nearly always a long vowel sound.

 

Exercise A            These words begin with an open syllable. Listen, and draw a line between the syllables.

 

a/corn                     be/tray                  bi/sect                     co/gent                   de/fend                   di/verge                 e/vent

 

fa/tal                       fu/tile                      ge/nius                   gi/ant                     ha/ven                    ho/tel                     i/dol               

la/bour                   ma/jor                     mi/nor                    mo/bile                   mu/cus                   na/val                     no/tion

 

o/boe                      o/ver                       pa/gan                    po/ny                      pu/pil                      re/gal                     ro/dent

 

si/lent                     so/da                      to/tal                       tu/ba                       va/cant                   va/grant                  Ve/nus                               

 

Exercise B            Listen to the same words again. This time, underline the stressed syllable.

 

 

Exercise C            Write a word from Exercise A that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

emerge  diverge                    motel   hotel                          rover  over            craven  haven

 

pliant      giant                                       ocean  notion       odour  soda          scruple pupil

 

 

Exercise D            Some words end with an open syllable, especially when the vowel is O. Listen to these words and draw a line between the syllables.

 

a/go                                        ban/jo                                     din/go                                    ha/lo                      

 

may/be                                   pho/to                                    ve/to                                       Zu/lu     

 

               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 29

 

a. Read the words for Exercises A and B (or play the CD) as students follow the instructions.  Accept other answers, provided each syllable contains a vowel sound.

b. Students do Exercise C.   Go over answers.

 

29. Closed syllables

 

A closed syllable is a syllable that ends with a consonant. If the syllable has a single vowel it is nearly always a short vowel sound.

 

Exercise A            In these words both syllables are closed. Listen, and draw a line between the syllables.

 

act/ress                  bank/roll                can/did                   con/fess                 dent/ist                   egg/shell                ex/cept

 

ex/pert                    friend/ship            gas/ket                   hand/bag               in/sect                    in/sist                     jun/ket

 

kitt/en                    lip/stick                  met/ric                    mat/tress               ost/rich                   pen/cil                    ra/bbit

 

sing/let                  stat/ic                     tab/let                     top/notch               trans/port              un/kind                  vix/en                               

 

Exercise B            Listen to the same words again. This time, underline the stressed syllable. Note – if the first syllable is a prefix, it is usually not stressed.

 

Exercise C            Write a word from Exercise A that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

inept       except                                   mitten       kitten                                     democratic  static

 

address  confess  (not actress!)         remind   unkind                                   enlist          insist

               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 30

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercises B and C. Go over answers.

 

 

30. Unstressed syllables – le, el and al

 

Many words end with an unstressed syllable which sounds like the consonant L. It can be spelt in three ways – LE, EL and AL. Examples: little, double, label, shrivel, legal, journal.

 

Note: In words ending with STLE the T is silent. Examples: gristle, bustle.

 

Exercise A  Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

 

T S A N D A L M E T A L E
K R + L A D E P + + + B L
E + O + + D + L + + O + T
T + + U D + + + T T + + T
T L S L B S C U T T L E E
L E E E W L E L T T A C F
E S T B H E E H N + + W E
+ S T A I + L O U E + L +
+ U L L S E D D L R D + M
+ M E + T A L D A D T + O
H A N D L E D D A R + L D
+ + + + E I + P I + C + E
+ + + + F E L D D I M + L
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
BOTTLE(12,2,SW)     CATTLE(12,6,W)    CRADLE(11,12,NW)     FETTLE(13,6,N)
FIDDLE(5,13,NE)     HANDLE(1,11,E)    HURTLE(8,7,SE)       IDLE(9,12,NW)
KETTLE(1,2,S)       LABEL(4,9,N)      MEDDLE(8,1,SW)       METAL(8,1,E)
MIDDLE(11,13,W)     MODEL(13,9,S)     MUSSEL(2,10,N)       NODAL(9,7,SW)
PADDLE(8,12,NE)     PEDAL(8,2,W)      SANDAL(2,1,E)        SCUTTLE(6,5,E)
SETTLE(3,5,S)       TROUBLE(1,1,SE)   WATTLE(12,7,NW)      WHISTLE(5,6,S)

 

Exercise B  Write down a word from the word list that has the same sound as each of the following words.

 

idol       idle                                            medal  meddle                       mettle  metal

 

muscle mussel                                      peddle pedal                          Handel  handle

 

 

Exercise C  Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

battle      cattle                                      candle handle                       turtle  hurtle

 

fable      label                                         coddle model       epistle whistle     

 

 
 

Lesson 31

 

a. Do not read the words or play the CD until after students have attempted the exercise.

 

31. Revision Test 3

Open, Closed and le/el/al Syllables

Exercise A  Draw a line between the words that rhyme. Say the words aloud.

                               bundle                               trundle

                               rotten                                cotton

                               fritter                                 bitter  

                               crazy                                 lazy

                               jumping                             dumping

                               happy                                snappy 

                               haven                                shaven           

                               middle                               fiddle

                               toddle                                model

                               petal                                  settle  

 

Exercise B  Practice reading the following:

 

1. As I grapple with the riddle, I put the fiddle in the middle of the puddle.

 

2. A very vocal crippled yokel gave a muffled cry as he fumbled at the local jumble sale.

 

3. What’ll be the title of the novel?

 

4. I have dental problems, rental problems and mental problems!

 

5. I like apple strudel and mussels with noodles.

 

6. The little kettle

    Made of metal

    Sang a subtle tune.

    The little kettle made of metal

    Merrily did croon.

 

7. A freckle and a dimple

    A wrinkle and a pimple-

    That’s what I find on my face.

    I chuckle and I giggle

    And I wobble and I wriggle

    As I stumble out of this place.

 

8. There once was a man in a tangle

    Who had mangled up his hand with a bangle

                When his friends asked him why

                He just held his arm high

    And let his hand hang there and dangle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 32

 

  1. For Exercises A to C, read the words (or play the CD). Check answers.
  2. Students do Exercises D and E. Go over the answers.

 

32. More Magic E

Exercise A            The magic E is found in the second syllable of each of the following words.

Divide the words into syllables.

Listen to the words and underline the stressed syllable.  Then read the words aloud.

 

ac/cuse                  air/line                   ath/lete                   a/lone                    back/side                be/rate  

 

be/spoke                cas/cade                 col/late                  com/plete                con/clude              con/done               

 

cre/ate                    de/base                  de/cide                   de/fine                   de/vote                   ex/plode 

                                                             

Exercise B  Write down a word from the above list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

refuse     accuse                                   intrude conclude                                  remote    devote

                                               

beside      decide                                   effete    complete                  hairline  airline

 

Did you get the last three words right?

Beside does not rhyme with backside, because the stressed syllables do not rhyme.

Effete does not rhyme with athlete, because the stressed syllables do not rhyme.

Hairline does not rhyme with define, because the stressed syllables do not rhyme. Note - A word only rhymes if every syllable after the stressed syllable also rhymes. Eg. Backside rhymes with trackside.

 

Exercise C            The magic E is found in the second syllable of each of the following words.

Divide the words into syllables.

Listen to the words and underline the stressed syllable. Then read the words aloud.

 

ex/treme                              fu/tile                        gy/rate                   im/pede                   in/cite                     in/hale

 

mid/wife                                 nit/rate                   o/bese                    ob/tuse                  re/fuge                   re/fute   

 

re/vise                                    se/duce                  se/rene                  sur/vive                  ver/bose               ward/robe

 

 

Exercise D  Write down a word from the above list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

unclean extreme                  replies revise                        indeed   impede

 

flight      incite                      police  obese                         great       gyrate (not nitrate!)

 

 

Exercise E

 

 

Write some more MAGIC E words using the following letters. You may place them at the start of a word, at the end, or in the middle. Some examples are given. 

 

1.                    - ice-               twice                      e.g.           mice     iced        nicest       

2.                    –ake-              earthquake            e.g.          cake     faked     naked 

3.                    –use-              accused                e.g.           abuse   user        refused 

4.                    –ate-               hateful                    e.g.          mate     equate   creates 

5.                    –ike-               unlikely                  e.g.          pike      spiked    likeable    

6.                    –ife-                knife                       e.g.          rife       lifelike    strife

7.                    –ope-              opening                e.g.           rope     coped     telescopes 

8.                    –ite-                spiteful                   e.g.          quite    whiter     item

9.                    –ise-               advertise                e.g.          wise     revised    concisely 

10.                 –aze-               craze                       e.g.          maze    dazed     haze


               

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 33

 

Read the spelling words or play the CD. The spelling test may be taken up and marked as part of their Phonics assessment.

 

  1. candle
  2. scandal
  3. bubble
  4. beagle
  5. channel
  6. boggle
  7. shuffle
  8. topple
  9. hobble
  10. petal
  11. invade
  12. concede
  13. revile
  14. depose
  15. refute
  16. rebuke
  17. explode
  18. enthuse
  19. ignite
  20. consume

 

33. Spelling Test 2

 

Listen to the following words. Fill in the missing letters. Listen carefully to the sounds. It may help to think of a word that rhymes.

 

  1. can __ __ __
  2. scan __ __ __
  3. bub __ __ __
  4. bea __ __ __
  5. chan __ __ __
  6. bo __ __ __ __
  7. shu __ __ __ __
  8. to __ __ __ __
  9. ho __ __ __ __
  10.  pe __ __ __
  11.  inv __ __ __
  12.  con __ __ __ __
  13.  re __ __ __ __
  14.  de __ __ __ __
  15.  ref __ __ __
  16.  re __ __ __ __
  17.  exp __ __ __ __
  18.  en __ __ __ __ __
  19.  ig __ __ __ __
  20.  con __ __ __ __

 

 

 

Lesson 34

 

a. Do some examples orally. Students complete the exercises. Go over answers.

 

34. More Long Vowel Sounds

 

Exercise A  A (AI, AY, A_E), E (EE, EA, Y), I (IGH,I_E), O (OA, OW, O_E), U (EW, U_E)

Each of these words has two syllables with a long vowel sound. Break the words into syllables. Under each syllable write a single letter to show which vowel sound it contains. Then say the words aloud.

 

be/low                                    bee/line                                  fe/male                                   free/load                                Fri/day                  

 E    O                                    E   I                                  E  A                                     E    O                  I    A

 

lone/ly                                    main/stream                           new/ly                                    nu/bile                    night/life

  O   E                                    A       E                              U   E                                  U   I                      I      I

pre/owned                             pro/file                                   rail/road                               rain/bow                 re/use    

  E    O                                  O   I                                     A   O                                A    O                  E   U

 

Exercise B    Diphthongs – OU /OW, OI /OY

 

Break the following words into two syllables. Underline the above diphthongs in each word. 

Then say the words aloud.

 

ap/point                                 a/round                                  ball/gown                               buoy/ant                                com/pound

 

cow/boy                                down/pour                               ground/work                         joy/ous                   re/nown

 
roy/al                                     sound/proof                           toil/et                                      top/soil                  tow/er

 

 

Exercise C    OO/EW/O/OE/U/UE   (as in TOO)

 

Break the following words into two syllables. Underline the above vowel sound in each word.

Then say the words aloud.

 

ball/oon                  blue/bird                blu/ish                      car/toon                                coop/er  

 

clue/less                                crew/cut                 grue/some               re/view                                  in/to                       

 

loop/hole               re/do                       rhu/barb                   shoe/horn                            with/drew

 

Exercise D     AW/AU/AUGH/AL/OR/OUR   (as in LAW)

 

Break the following words into two syllables. Underline all syllables which contains the above vowel sound.  Then say the words aloud.

 

ap/plaud                                              ball/gown                                daught/er                               de/fault                  court/house                         

down/pour                             re/port                                    shoe/horn                             saw/dust                                slaught/er               

 

small/talk                               taut/ly                                    tor/toise                                 walk/way               with/draw              

 

 

              

 

 

 

Lesson 35

 

  1. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.
  2. English Corner Website     Use the PowerPoint presentation to present this lesson.

 

 

35. The Hidden Magic E – Adding ING

 

What happens when we add ING to a word which has a magic E? The E disappears, but we should imagine it is still hiding behind the ING and working its magic.

 

Eg. Ride becomes riding. The first syllable still has a long vowel sound.

If we want to add ing to the word rid, we must double the consonant to make ridding, so that the hidden magic E is too far away to work its magic.

 

Exercise                Add “ing” to the following words.

 

mat         matting               mate    mating            cop        copping                    cope     coping

win          winning               wine    wining           sham      shamming               shame shaming

shin        shinning              shine    shining                       spit        spitting                    spite     spiting

cub         cubbing               cube    cubing           strip       stripping                 stripe    striping

 

 

Revision Exercise

 

Circle every magic E and hidden magic E you can find in this passage. Read the passage aloud.

 

The diner was closing when I arrived late, so I decided to try the place next door. It looked quite nice, so I asked for a plate of fried tripe. When it came I tried biting it but ended up spitting it out. It was vile. “Take this away!” I yelled. “It is bitter.”  

 

I don’t like griping but I am used to finer dining. I strode out refusing to pay. I am not planning to return.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 36

 

a. Do not read the words or play the CD until after students have attempted the exercise.

 

 

36.  Revision Test 4 – Long Vowel Sounds

Exercise A  Draw a line between the words that rhyme. Say the words aloud.

                                         complain                  remain            

                                         evade                      afraid              

                                         repay                       today  

                                         misread            exceed                   

                                         repeat                       complete

                                         freezing           pleasing

                                         needle                      beadle

                                         higher                      wire                

                                         inside                       replied            

                                         loaning         owning            

                                         coated                     noted

                                         defuse                     renews                        

                                         annoyed       avoid

                                         renew                      pursue            

                                         drowning      clowning         

                                         porter                      daughter

Exercise B            Fill in the gaps with the correct letters.

1.             (aw / or / a / al / augh)

I  talked  to  my  daughter,  who  saw  a  strange  sort  of  fish  in  the  water.

2.             (i / igh / ie / i_e / y)

A  tiny  fly  fell  beside  me  from  high in  the  sky,  and  died.

 

3.             (a / ai / ay / a_e)

 

A  day  will  come  again  when  I  may  be  able  to  escape from this jail.

 

4.             (o / oo / ou / oe / ew)

 

Do  you  wear  new  blue shoes  too?

 

5.             (ow / ou / ough)

 

I  use  a  cow to  plough  the  ground.

 

6.             (e / ee / ea / y / ey)

 

It’s  easy  to see  we  need  a  new  key .

 

 

 

 Lesson 37

 

  1. Read the examples (or play the CD). Ask students what they notice about adding y to noise.
  2. Students do Exercise A. Go over answers.
  3. Discuss the difference between vowel and consonant suffixes.
  4. Students do Exercises B and C. Go over answers.

 

37. Suffixes

 

A suffix is an ending that is added to a word to make a new word.

 

Examples:               trust + ing             = trusting                                               end + less              = endless

                                popular + ity         = popularity                                          lion + ess               = lioness

                                noise + y                = noisy                                                   quick + ly               = quickly

 

Exercise A            It is important to know whether a suffix starts with a vowel or a consonant. Add the suffixes to the following words to make new words.

Vowel suffixes

-er            -or              -en

-ing          -ity             -ish

-ion          -ation          -y

 

Consonant suffixes

-ful           -less           -ly

-ment        -ness

 

pity                         pitiful                      pitiless                   hunt        hunter        hunting

beauty                    beautiful                                                fit            fitter           fitting

hope                       hopeful  hopeless                                take         taken          taking        (taker)

use                          useful                     useless                  rot           rotten         rotting       (rotter)

slow                        slowly    slowness                child       childish

bright                     brightly                 brightness            style       stylish

                                                                                                examine examiner   examining  examination                                                                                  repute     reputation

                                                                                                rain         raining      rainy

                                                                                                pollute    polluter     polluting     pollution

                                                                                      debt        debtor

 

How did words ending in Y change when a suffix was added?

How did some of the other words change when a vowel suffix was added?

 

The e is dropped  e.g. taking, stylish, reputation. Sometimes consonant is doubled e.g. fitter, rotten.

 

Adding a suffix to words ending in silent E: A key thing to notice about a suffix is whether it starts with a consonant or a vowel. Look at the following silent e words and see what happens when you add a suffix.

 

Word                      + consonant suffix               +vowel suffix

 

late                          lately                                      latest

excite                      excitement                             exciting

extreme                   extremely                               extremity

 

What is the pattern?

Adding a consonant suffix does not change the word, but with a vowel suffix, the silent E is dropped.

 

Exercise B  Add suffixes to the following to make new words. Remember to drop the E when adding a vowel suffix.
(Note that Y is regarded as a vowel suffix, so laze + y = lazy)

 

hope + less            =              hopeless                state + ment          =              statement

 

reserve + ation      =             reservation           expense + ive        =              expensive

 

arrive + al               =              arrival   bore + ing              =              boring

 

create + ion           =              creation                 waste + ful             =              wasteful

 

space + ious          =              spacious                cube + ic                =              cubic

 

 

Lesson 38

 

a. Read (or play the CD) and discuss the introductory section.

b. Students do the Word Search puzzle. They must say each word aloud as they find it.

c. Students do Exercises B and C. Go over answers.

d. Exercise D. Do not play the CD until after students have attempted the reading themselves.

 

 

38. R-controlled Vowels

UR, ER, IR, OR, OUR, AR

These words have two syllables, one of which has an r-controlled vowel sound.

A. Find the words in the word search puzzle. When you find each word, you must say it.

B N + A + + + + T N
O V E + B B + R Y R
R O + E U S A + T E
D R + R T N U T R C
E T D + S R R R I N
R E + P + E I + D O
N X O + V + + H + C
+ R G N I V R A T S
T + O H A R B O U R
+ C N E D R A G + +
 
(Over,Down,Direction) 
ABSURD(4,1,SE)      BORDER(1,1,S)      BURDEN(6,2,SW)      CONCERN(10,7,N)
CONVERT(2,10,NE)    DIRTY(9,6,N)       GARDEN(8,10,W)      HARBOUR(4,9,E)
STARVING(10,8,W)    THIRTEEN(9,8,NW)   TRANSPORT(9,1,SW)   VORTEX(2,2,S)
 
 

B. Write down a word from the word list that rhymes with each of the following words.

 

revert      convert                                 thirty        dirty                     barber     harbour

 

third        absurd                                    return     concern                pardon    garden

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

Exercise C Draw a line between the words that rhyme. Say the words aloud.

abort                                                       resort

assert                                                     dessert 

burning                                                turning 

curtain                                                    certain

concern                                             return

early                                                       curly

flirted                                                      skirted

girdle                                                      hurdle

harder                                                     ardour

hermit                                                     permit

partly                                                smartly

mortal                                                     portal

pardon                                                   garden                                                  

rework                                                    berserk

turkey                                                     quirky                                   

 

Exercise D  Practice reading the following:

1. The parson has furnished his parlour with purple chairs. It may deter the burglars.

2. Dear Sir,

I have heard an absurd story that the barber was flirting with the servant. He may be an expert in cutting hair but I discern he has become the target of a sordid and murky rumour campaign. Of course it could be an error on my part, but I am rather concerned.                            

Yours truly,

Carl Firth

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Lesson 39

 

Read the spelling words or play the CD. The spelling test may be taken up and marked as part of their Phonics assessment.

 

  1. topsoil
  2. cloying
  3. homebound
  4. endow
  5. showdown
  6. frugal
  7. untrue
  8. reboot
  9. hitherto
  10. naughty
  11. discord
  12. convert
  13. chalkboard
  14. poorhouse
  15. shamming
  16. wining
  17. sniping
  18. flipping
  19. whipping
  20. wiping

 

39. Spelling Test 3

 

Listen to the following words. Fill in the missing letters. Listen carefully for the first sound and the end sound. It may help to think of a word that rhymes.

 

  1. tops __ __ l
  2. cl__ __ ing
  3. h __ __ __ b __ __ nd
  4. end __
  5. sh __ wd __ __ n
  6. f __ __ gal
  7. untr __ __
  8. reb __ __ t
  9. hither __ __
  10.  n __ __ __ __ ty
  11.  __ __ __ c __ __ d
  12.  conv __ __ t
  13.  ch __ __ kb __ __ __ d
  14.  p __ __ rh __ __ se
  15.  sha __ __ __ __ __
  16.  win __ __ __ __
  17.  sni __ __ __ __
  18.  flip __ __ __ __
  19.  whi __ __ __ __ __
  20.  wi __ __ __ __

 

 

 

Lesson 40

 

a. Do some examples orally. Students complete the exercises. Go over answers.

 

40. Homophones

 

Homo = same. Phone = sound. So homophones are words that sound the same.

 

Exercise A  (Revision of one-syllable homophones.)

Fill the gaps in the following sentences with the correct words. Read the sentences aloud.

 

1.  When I see the sea, I feel it is the loveliest scene I have ever seen.  (Accept reversal of sea and scene.)

 

2. I must warn you that a dress that short is not fit to be worn.

 

3. I knew the soldier wore his new uniform to the war.

 

4. Sign this piece of paper and we can live in peace.

 

5. The clouds blew across the blue sky.

 

6. The evil king was thrown off the throne. 

 

7. You’re not being fair if you don’t pay your fare. 

 

8. They’re making their way there now.

 

9. Where can I go to lose weight? I can’t wait to wear the little dress you gave me.

 

10. It took the workmen five hours to fill in the whole hole.

 

Exercise B  Homophones with more than one syllable.

Fill the gaps in the following sentences with the correct words. Read the sentences aloud.

 

1. If we hire a ladder we can climb up higher.

 

2. That berry may be poisonous; you should bury it in the ground.

 

3. I ate my breakfast cereal as I watched my favourite television serial.

 

4.  I must compliment you on your dress; those colours really complement each other. 

 

5. I need flour to make bread and a flower for the vase.

 

6. The car was stationary because I was in the stationery shop buying some paper.

 

7. The principal told me he would let me go though in principle I should be punished.

 

8. She has been in mourning since the morning that her husband died.

 

9. I want to alter the plans for the design of the altar.

 

10. All the colonels gave their soldiers to eat were the kernels of some nuts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 41

 

a. Pronounce some of the introductory words with wrong stress and ask students which are correct.

b. Do the exercise on  photograph / photographer? Ask students to give the correct response depending on whether they hear PHOto... or phoTO... 

c. Go over the two simple rules about word stress. Point out that the other rules are useful but that it is more important to learn from experience in speaking and listening to English. Students are not expected to learn these rules – just be aware that there are rules.

d. For Exercise A, read the words as nouns. Point out that it does not really matter which consonants are included in the syllable – so long as the vowel is there.

e. Do Exercises B and C. Discuss the different stresses for nouns, adjectives and verbs.

 

 

41. Word stress in English

 

Listen to these words and underline the stressed syllable in each:

 

college                                   exciting                  unexceptional                       present                   present

 

photograph                           photographer        photographic                        permit                     permit

 

Word stress is very important in spoken English. If you place the stress on the wrong syllable a native English speaker may find it difficult to understand you.

 

Think about the two words photograph and photographer. Imagine you are speaking to somebody over a very bad telephone line. You hear only the first two syllables of the word, photo... How do you know if the word is photograph or photographer? If you hear PHOto... you know the word is PHOto...graph. If you hear phoTO… you know the word is phoTO...grapher.

 

Rules of Word Stress in English

 

There are two very simple rules about word stress:

 

1. A word has only one stress. (But sometimes long words have a "secondary" stress.)

2. We can only stress vowels, not consonants.

 

There are other rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But there are many exceptions to these rules, so it is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.

 

Exercise A            Listen to these two-syllable nouns and underline the stressed syllable.

China                    table    export                   money                      permit   

 

present                  produce                  machine                 water                       Raymond

 

Which word is the odd one out?   machine

 

Exercise B            Listen to these two-syllable adjectives and underline the stressed syllable.

 

pretty                              happy                               slender                          obese                               tiny

 

crazy                              purple                              yellow                            anxious                           hungry       

 

Which word is the odd one out?  obese

 

Which one of these statements is the general rule?

 

a. Most two-syllable verbs and nouns have stress on the first syllable.

b. Most two-syllable nouns and adjectives have stress on the first syllable.

c. Most two-syllable nouns and adjectives have stress on the last syllable.

Exercise C            Listen to these two-syllable verbs and underline the stressed syllable.

 

create                     destroy                  export                     permit                    produce

 

present                   believe                   reject                      settle                      complain

 

Which word is the odd one out?  settle

Which one of these statements is the general rule?

 

a. Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the last syllable.

b. Most two-syllable nouns have stress on the last syllable.

c. Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the first syllable.

 

Lesson 41 (continued)  

 

f. Do Exercise D and check that students understand the differences between the columns.

g. Students do Exercises E, F and G. Discuss the rules with them. With a good class, you could introduce the words “penultimate” (second last) and “ante-penultimate” (third last).

 

 

Exercise D           Listen to these nouns and repeat them. What is the pattern?

 

ENGlish                 comPUTer                             enterTAINment

LANguage                            reVISion                 expectAtion

SCIence                                 exCITEment                           teleVISion

 

Words in the first column have stress on the first syllable, second column second syllable, third column third syllable.

 

Exercise E             Listen and mark the stresses in these words.

 

graphic                           geographic                    domestic    plastic                             fantastic

 

terrific                    specific                  Pacific                    statistic                  electric

 

Which one of these statements is the general rule?

 

a. Words ending in “ic” have stress on the first syllable.

b. Words ending in “ic” have stress on the second syllable.

c. Words ending in “ic” have stress on the second last syllable.

 

Exercise F             Listen and mark the stresses in these words.

 

creation                  destruction           permission                    production

 

presentation         rejection                 television                        decision

 

Which one of these statements is the general rule?

 

a. Words ending in “sion” and “tion” have stress on the first syllable.

b. Words ending in “sion” and “tion” have stress on the second syllable.

c. Words ending in “sion” and “tion” have stress on the second last syllable.

 

Exercise G            Listen and mark the strongest stresses in these words.

 

democracy                             electricity                              electrical                                exceptional

 

university                              photography                         photographical                     philosophical

 

dependability                       biology                                  biological                               fundamental

 

policy                                     geography                             geographical                         grammatical

 

Which one of these statements is the general rule?

 

a. Words ending in “cy”, “ty”, “phy”, “gy” and “al” have stress on the last syllable.

b. Words ending in “cy”, “ty”, “phy”, “gy” and “al” have stress on the second last syllable.

c. Words ending in “cy”, “ty”, “phy”, “gy” and “al” have stress on the third last syllable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 42

 

a. Go over the introductory section. Read the words (or play the CD) and students repeat them.

b. Students do Exercise A. Go over answers.

c. Read the words for Exercise B (or play the CD). Go over the answers.

d. For Exercise C, point out that “there is” would normally be spoken as “there’s”. Similarly, “anniversary” and “international” can be shortened to four syllables (annivers’ry, internashnal) and “interest” should be pronounced with two syllables (int’rest).

e. Students should attempt to read the sentences in Exercise D before hearing them read correctly.

f. Two more rules you may introduce with a good class: Polysyllabic words usually have more than one stress (primary and secondary). (interNATional, antibiOtic)  If there is a prefix it takes secondary stress.

In compound words the stress in a noun goes on the first part: BLACKbird, POSTman, FLAGpole

The stress in adjectives and verbs goes on the second part: bad-MANNered, outNUMbered, overTAKE.

 

 

42.  Word stress and Grammar

 

Different kinds of words often have different stress patterns. If we don’t hear the right stress we may not understand the correct grammar.

 

Listen and practice saying these words:

 

Verb                       inFORM                                 exPORT                  creATE

Noun                      informAtion                                          EXport                   creAtion

 

Exercise A Complete the columns below and underline the most strongly stressed syllable in each word.

 

Verb                                       Noun                                                      Noun                      Adjective

 

record                                     record                                                    politics                   political

 

present                                   present                                                  secretary                secretarial

 

insult                                      insult                                                      industry                 industrial

 

frequent                                 frequency                                             philosophy            philosophical        

 

examine                                  examination                                           energy                    energetic

 

oppose                                   opposition                                            product                  productive

 

Exercise B   Listen to the following words. Underline the most strongly stressed syllable in each word.

                     Practice reading them aloud.

 

decision                commission                          technology                            technological

medical                                   human                                    humanity                               humanitarian       

microscope                           microscopic                           translate                                                translation

 

Exercise C            Practise saying these sentences. Make sure you have the correct stress pattern in words with more than one syllable. It may help if you underline the stressed syllables first.

 

1.                    There’s too much traffic on the road today.

2.                    There was a lot of preparation for our thirty-fifth anniversary.

3.                    The international community is taking an interest in developments in China.

 

Exercise D    Try reading the following sentences correctly. Think about how verbs are stressed   

                       differently from nouns and adjectives. It may help if you underline the stressed

                       syllables. Then listen to see if you got them right.

                                                                   
1.              If you are present I will present you with a present.
2.              A farm can produce fresh produce.
3.              I can not permit you to enter without a permit.
4.              I must protest. You progress too slowly.
5.              The progress of the protest marchers was slow.
6.              I resent your recent insult!
7.              The entrance to a mall fails to entrance me. 
8.              The insurance for the invalid was invalid.
9.              I object to this ugly object. 
10.           We must subject the subject to a series of tests. 
11.           The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert. 

 

 

Lesson 43

 

Do the first one or two as an example. Let students do all exercises, then go over the answers.

 

  1. respect –  The second syllable is stressed. In the other words the first syllable is stressed. 
  2. raven –  The first syllable is stressed. In the other words the second syllable is stressed. 
  3. possible –  The first syllable is stressed. In the other words the second syllable is stressed. 
  4. accepting –  The second syllable is stressed. In the other words the first syllable is stressed. 
  5. impossible –  The second (third last) syllable is stressed. In the other words the third (second last) syllable is stressed. 
  6. invent –  The second syllable is stressed. In the other words the first syllable is stressed. 
  7. canal –  The second syllable is stressed. In the other words the first syllable is stressed. 
  8. unreal –  The second syllable is stressed. In the other words the first syllable is stressed. 
  9. pollute –  The stressed syllable has a long U (OO)sound. In the other words it has a long O sound. 
  10. upside –  The first syllable is stressed. In the other words the second syllable is stressed. 
  11. athlete –  The first syllable is stressed. In the other words the second syllable is stressed. 
  12. profile –  The vowel sounds are long O and long I. In the other words they are long E and long O.  
  13. picnic –  Both syllables have a short I vowel sound. The other words have long I vowel sounds. 
  14. exploit –  The stressed syllable has the diphthong OI. In the other words it is OU. 
  15. reply –  The stressed syllable has the long I vowel sound. In the other words it is diphthong OI. 
  16. avoid –  The stressed syllable has diphthong OI.  In the other words it is the long O vowel sound.  
  1. laughter The stressed vowel sound is R-controlled vowel sound AR. In the others it is OR. 
  2. showing – The vowel sound is a long O. In the other words OW is a diphthong (OU).
  3. product –  The first syllable is stressed. In the other words the second syllable is stressed. 
  4. notice –  The first syllable is stressed, whether the word is a noun or a verb. In the other words the second syllable is stressed if the word is a verb. 

 

21.          

43. Odd Word Out 3

 

Which word is the odd one out? Explain why.

 

1.             farmer                    basket                     respect                 driving                  candle

2.             define                     about                      release                  confuse                    raven

3.             intended                               possible                 polluted refusal                    ambition

4.             accepting               motorist                 chemical elephant                 practical

5.             definition               impossible             residential              resolution              photographic

6.             silent                      rodent                    patent                     invent                     latent

7.             canal                       petal                       medal                      fatal                        brutal

8.             idle                          sandal                    wattle                     candle                    unreal

9.             atone                      impose                   alone                      demote                   pollute

10.           reside                     upside                    betide                     defied                     denied

11.           athlete                    complete                receipt                    defeat                     repeat

12.           below                     freeload                  pre-owned             profile                     re-zone

13.           nightlife                 finite                       skylight                  wide-eyed              picnic    

14.         confound                allow                     exploit                      unbound              renown
15.         destroy                    reply                    annoy                   despoil   uncoil
16.         avoid                        undo                    review                      refute  untrue        
17.         aboard                     daughter              doorway               coleslaw               laughter
18.         showing                  tower                    shower                    scowling                 power
19.         inform                     defeat                    pretend                   product                   arrest
20.         present                    protest                  permit                     rebel    notice

 

 

 

 

 

 Lesson 44

 

    Choose students to read the poems. Watch for the following problems.

    Confusion of B sound and BL blend in 1, sounding all Ss in 4 and 7, L and N confusion in 5, and 

    sounding of C in 6.

   

 

44. Reading 3

 

Exercise A  Read these poems. 

1. Big Black Bug                                                                                                2. Thin Things

 

A big black bug                                                                                                                  I can think of thin things, 

Bit a big black bear,                                                                             Six thin things, can you?
And made the big black bear bleed blood.                                      Yes, I can think of six thin things,

                                                                                                                And of six thick things too.

3. Larry O'Reilly

 

Larry O’Reilly loved Nellie O’Malley                                                4.  Ghosts

And so, one fine day, they decided to marry.                                 Amidst the mists and coldest frosts,
Larry really loved Nellie.                                                                     With stoutest wrists and loudest boasts,
Nellie really loved Larry.                                                                     He thrusts his fist against the posts
Now they’re Larry and Nellie O’Reilly-O’Malley.                           And still insists he sees the ghosts.

 

5. Light Night                                                                                      6. A Little Lady

 

You've no need to light a night-light                                           A little lady lives alone

On a light night like tonight,                                                       Close to a little lake.

For a night-light's light's a slight light,                                        She plants blue flowers

And tonight's a night that's light.                                                 To be watered with showers

When a night's light, like tonight's light,                                     And clears leaves with her rake.
It is really not quite right
To light night-lights with their slight lights
On a light night like tonight.

 

7. Doctor

 

When a doctor doctors a doctor,
Does the doctor doing the doctoring
Doctor as the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored or
Does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor as he wants to doctor?

 

8. Sally Snake

 

Ms. Sylvia Snake, tired of small Sally Snake's hissin' in the pit all day,
told Sally Snake to go to Ms. Pott's pit and hiss a while.
Ms. Pott told Sally Snake to "go back to her own pit and hiss."
"But Mom sent me over here to hiss in your pit!" replied Sally Snake.
Sally Snake went back to her own pit to hiss in.
"I told you to go to Ms. Pott's pit and hiss!" shouted Mom.
"Ms. Pott told me to come hiss in my own pit," replied Sally Snake."

"Well!" scowled Sylvia Snake. "I remember when Ms. Pott didn't even have a pit to hiss in."

 

Exercise B  Read these tricky sentences. Be careful!

 
1.              The buck does funny things when the does are present. 
2.              A cat with nine lives lives next door.
3.              There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row. 
4.              I shed a tear when I saw the tear in my clothes. 
5.              They had to wind up the picnic because of the strong wind.
6.              The bandage was wound around the wound. 
7.              They were too close to the door to close it.
8.              The man with the bow and arrow must bow to the man with the gun.