**Hole theory of gravitation**

Leshan C.Z. leshan_c@yahoo.com

The mass is the parameter describing the ability of particle to emit out holes, the more holes particle emits during a time unit, the more is the mass. The matter radiates holes which curve space - time and this curvature influences movement of a matter. Hole radiation of massive bodies has all properties of a gravitational field. The hole version of universal gravitation law has been formulated.

The vacuum hole has all graviton properties, except for spin: the mass
m = 0, electric, lepton, barion and other charges also are equal to zero.
Besides vacuum hole is a unique particle in physics able to explain the
phenomenon of a spacetime curvature around of massive bodies. It is necessary
to notice that the term “interaction mediator” cannot be used for vacuum
hole because this theory of gravitation is not exchange as electromagnetic
theory, where two electric charges are attracted by photons exchange. The
gravitational attraction occurs without any particle exchange between interacting
bodies.

Let there is material particle N in hole
vacuum [1,2,3]. Around N continuously appear and disappear vacuum holes.
We shall consider interaction between N and one of vacuum hole. The appearance
of vacuum hole near N means, that appeared an absolute vacuum which
must be filled by all surrounding particles ( by N and neighboring elementary
volumes dv). Therefore after hole appearance N and dv will move to the
hole center. Let's consider now a case when vacuum holes appears simultaneously
from opposite sides of N. Particle N can not move to the opposite sides
simultaneously, then N will stand fixed while both vacuum holes will be
filled by dv only. As dv move to N, it means that holes moves to the opposite
side. There is analogue with an electric current where electrons move to
one direction and holes moves in opposite. As vacuum holes continuously
appear around N, it means that N will emit a flux of “their” holes.
It is necessary to notice, that dv moves to N not only in the second case,
but also in the first.

The massive material bodies emits a flux of holes by each component
particle. The speed of motion of vacuum hole in space should be equal to
hole slam speed which is equal to speed of light.

Mass definition. The mass of a particle is a parameter describing the
ability of particle to interact with hole vacuum and emit “their” holes,
the more holes radiates particle for a second, the more is the mass.

All massive particles should emit holes because of existence
in hole vacuum, except for those particles which speed of movement are
equal to slam speed of vacuum holes. Here the gravitation mechanism not
work, therefore the rest mass of photons are equal to zero.

**The hole version of universal gravitation law**

If to collect all holes emitted by a material point
during a time unit (for one second), we shall receive a sphere with volume
V and radius r. In that case the law of universal gravitation can be formulated
in following manner:

There is a force of mutual attraction between two points directly proportional
to cubes of radiuses of summarized volumes of holes emitted in time unit
and inversely proportional to quadrate of distance between them.

The module of gravitation force is defined by expression:

F = Gm r_{1}^{3} r_{2}^{3}
/ R^{2},
R > > r
(1)

Where Gm = 1,665 * 10^{9} N/m^{4} (cg / m^{3}s^{2})
- a metrical gravitational constant, (11 / 9G);

r - radius of volume V0 that is summarized volume of all holes
emitted by material point in time unit.

From formula (1) follows that Gm (in newtons) is a force of attraction
between two points that emits during a second a stream of holes with summarized
volume V0, which is a sphere with radius one meter,

the distance between points are R = 1 m. Though the formula (1) in
this case gives the same value, as well as the formula of Newton, nevertheless
is recommended to apply it only at R > > r ), differently formula loses
the physical sense, as on small distances between interacting bodies there
are other physical phenomena which the formula (1) does not take into account.
Also the equation (1) is fair only in case a hole field is weak enough
and bodies move slowly in comparison with speed of light.

The main parameters of hole radiation as summarized volume V0 can be
calculated without use of notion “mass” or Newton gravitational law, proceeding
from geometrical reasons only. If we have measured free fall
acceleration g near body, the summarized volume of holes V0 emitted by
heavy body during a second can be calculated by formula:

V0 = V (R ) - V (R - g) = 4pi (R^{3}
-(R - g)^{3}) / 3; & R >> r0
(2)

Thus was shown, that the hole theory of gravitation is completely independent
from mass concept, and the fact that formula (1) can be transformed very
simply to Newton formula is the proof of its validity. Actually why the
concept of mass is necessary in general? The concept “mass” was introdused
in antiquities basically for such purposes as trade, construction etc.,
however now in physics this physical parameter is completely excessive,
it simply duplicates such fundamental concepts as length, volume, time.
It is possible to exclude completelly the concept of mass by measuring
the inertness and gravitation of body in volume of holes emitted
by body in time unit. Then to one cg there corresponds volume 4piGv cubic
metres.

Volume V0 is connected to mass by expression: V0 = 4pi GvM; where M
is the mass of body, Gv =6.672 * 10^{--11} m^{3} / cg -
coefficient of transformation of mass in volume, that numerically is equal
to gravitational constant, but with other units of measurements - m^{3}
/ cg.

The summarised volume of holes emitted by body that exist at the distance
r>>R from hole center V0 can be calculated by formula:

g = r^{3}/3R^{2};
r^{3} = 3GvM
(3)

Taking into account that the given
volume g accelerates trial bodies on the given distance R from the
centre of hole V0 (look an example 3 below), g can be understanded as acceleration
of free fall or intensity of a gravitational field on distance R from the
centre of V0.

The universal gravitation law in specified form is fair not only for
material points, but also for a) bodies of the any form which sizes there
are less than distances between mass centers of interacting bodies; b)
bodies with spatial-symmetric distribution of mass. In these cases R
is distances between mass centres of these bodies. The centre of summarised
hole V obviously coincides with the mass centre of body.

In the mentioned above formulas (1, 3) the real physical picture is
a little simplified. Holes are emitted from the mass center of body whereas
in reality they are emitted by each component particle of body. The summarised
volume of holes were collected in sphere V whereas in reallity all holes
are distributed in space according to distribution of substance and energy.
The hole slams not in one second, every elementary hole participates at
attraction process. Besides radiation of holes by material bodies results
not only in an attraction between them, but also in time retardation and
length contraction. The equation (1) is fair only in a case if gravitational
field is weak enough and bodies move slowly in comparison with light speed.

We shall look as hole radiation of massive bodies influences properties
of space, proceeding from a nature of space as mixture of dv and holes.
The space properties as well as properties of any body, should depend
on its component particles. For example if to increase concentration dv,
properties of space should be displaced to properties of dv
and after magnification of hole concentration in space the properties of
space should be displaced to hole properties. The main property of holes
are absence of length and time properties. Therefore it is possible to
assert that the magnification of holes concentration near massive bodies
results in contraction of all distances between any two points and
time retardation, because in limiting case when the space consists from
holes only, the distance between any two points are equal to zero and time
does not exist, there is nothing outside of the universe. The given effect
of length contraction and time retardation in hole field near massive bodies
was called curved space-time. However the picture of a curvature
of space - time in a gravitational field is more complex because just as
in metals exist bound and free electrons, also in vacuum there are
usual vacuum holes and free holes emitted by material bodies. The difference
between them is, that they differently curve space. At magnification of
usual holes in space the distances are reduced on all directions whereas
magnification of concentration of free holes result to reduction of distances
on movement direction of free holes only.

Hole gravitation describes gravitation as influence
of a physical matter on properties of space - time which in turn influences
movement of a matter and other physical processes: The matter bends space-time
by emission of streams of holes, and this curvature shown as gravitation,
influences movement of a matter. In such space - time movement of bodies
on inertia occurs any more on a straight line, and on the curved lines
to variable speed. The geometry of usual three-dimensional space appears
non-euclidean: the sum of corners of a triangle is not equal to 180, and
time in different points flows differently. The more are concentration
of vacuum holes, the more slowly will work clocks.

3. About gravitational attraction in a hole field

It
is possible to show the gravitational atraction between two bodies by means
of a hole field, using the hole property to absorb environmental particles
at closing process.

It is difficult to show the atraction process with every elementary
hole, therefore we shall collect all holes emitted by mass M of the Earth
during a second, having received a hole with volume V0 =4 pi GvM.

Thus it is possible to substitute Earth by equivalent hole V0 which
slams every second. Let the trial body N exist on distance R from the hole
center V0 concerning the Earth. At the moment of time t0 hole V0 begins
to slam and to the moment t1 the volume holes V0 is equal to zero. Therefore
sphere V decreases on size V0, why between N and sphere V occurs hole with
diameter: g = R - R1 = R - (R^{3}-r0^{3})^{-3}
= 9.8 m. Body N and Earth move with acceleration to the centre of hole
g, therefore N passes distance S1=4.9m up to the centre holes, but with
speed V = 9.8 m/s concerning the Earth. The next second t2 body N passes
by inertia the distance of 9.8 m, and besides, is again accelerated moving
to the centre of hole together with Earth. Then body has passed distance
S=S1+9.8+4.9 = 19.6 m. Continuing further effectings we shall find, that
the body falls under the law S=gt^{2}/2 which describes free fall
in a gravitational field. Thus the material bodies fall in a hole field
just as in a gravitational field, that also is the proof of identity of
hole and gravitational fields. For presentation in this example the real
picture is slightly simplified, as was described above. hole g it is meaningful
total volume of all elementary holes flying from the Earth within one second,
on distance R from the centre of weights of the Earth. As well as trial
body N, in a hole field may deviate and a beam of light.

If to apply the given method upside-down on size of acceleration of
a trial body in a gravitational field it is possible to calculate quantity(amount)
let out by a massive body holes for time unit V0.

Below are compared known properties of a gravitational field with properties
of a hole field: 1. If a gravitational field is weak and bodies move
slowly in comparison with speed of light then the law of universal gravitation
is fair.

As it was shown above, in hole gravitation the universal gravitational
law also work, examining holes instead of gravitons or bosons.2) Phenomenon
of time retardation and length reduction near massive body was described
above.

3. The gravitational interaction is long-range and its radius
is equal to infinity. Really, the radius of a hole field also is
equal to infinity, because vacuum holes are distributed to infinite distance.
A hole emitted in space willl fly eternall without stop. 4) Gravitational
charges in comparation with electrical charges are only of one kind, therefore
action of all microscopic particles are summarized and in a macrocosmos
gravitation plays the important role; - Really, holes may be only of one
kind, therefore the stream of holes from all paricles contained in a massive
body is summarized. 5) Gravitation attract all particles without exception;
- the hole show, that holes ; are filled by all particles without
exception, without dependence from their charges and other characteristics.

6) The following property of gravitation is an absence of repulsion
forces between bodies. From hole model it is visible, that at emission
of a stream holes bodies only may fill themselves in these holes, that
results in their mutual attraction and in this circuit repulsion is impossible.
The velocity of distribution of hole radiation is equal to speed of gravitation
- to speed of light. There are no effeccts, forcing us to accept other motion
speed of holes. The holes mass is equal to zero just as the photon, hole
cannot exist in a rest, it at once closes with speed of light. Hole
is stable only at motion in space with speed of light.

The conclusion

The hole field has all properties of a gravitational field. There is no other particle in physics capable better to explain length contraction and time retardation in gravitational field. Hole gravitation is perfectly coordinated both to the theory of Newton, and with the general theory of relativity, showing gravitation as curvature of space-time.

Now I would like to thank the Soros foundation for support of the hole theory of gravitation in 1995.

The note: Other questions of hole gravitation will be discussed later as it is impossible to state such complex question in one article.

References:

1. Leshan C.Z., - The combination of gravitational, strong and weak
interaction in hole vacuum and matter, Conference proceedings, ICPS94,
S. Petersburg, 1994, page 143.

2. Conference proceedings, ICPS_95, Copenhagen, 1995

3. Leshan C.Z., - Association of gravitational, strong and weak interaction
in hole vacuum and matter, "Tipografia din Balti", 31 August Avenue,
1994 Beltsy.