Hole physics, teleportation and levitation, V1, nr. 1, August 2001

Gravitation becomes strong on small distances and carries out a function of non-exchange nuclear forces by help of vacuum holes

Leshan  C.Z.  leshan_c@yahoo.com

     Vacuum holes are capable to glue nucleons into nucleus, carrying out thus the function of nuclear forces. The vacuum short-range attraction has all properties of nuclear forces, for example property of saturation, short-action, charging independence, non-centrality, there is a mass defect of nucleus etc. The combination of gravitational and strong interaction is obvious, as both interactions are carried out by the same particle as vacuum hole. It is strong or nuclear gravitation.

     Vacuum holes can be detected experimentally if pull together two massive particles [1,2,3]. Let in hole vacuum there are two nucleons. In each point of space continuously appears and disappears vacuum holes which interact with  particles therefore  particles emit holes. Thus, while the distance between particles is large, between them are gravitational forces only. If we approach particles, when the distance between them will be about a vacuum hole diameter, next vacuum hole having appeared and having slammed between particles with huge force will glue them both particles. The appearance of hole means, that between particles the distance became suddenly equal to zero, therefore both particles will fill the emptiness with the great speed, appear a force that binds together both particles. As vacuum holes continuously appears in each point of space, and in particular between the given nucleons, the attraction force  also will be continuous,  but nucleus can be destroyed by external forces. If the given particles are proton and neutron, then the nucleus of deuterium was created. If  to approach other nucleons to a nucleus,  they also will be glued on distance about 1 - 2 hole diameters, forming more heavier nucleus. The vacuum is capable to stick together particles with the certain sizes only. The vacuum attraction cannot glue a dot particles because in case of appearance of holes between them, one will be filled by dv only, therefore practically there is no attraction effect .
 
 

The identity of properties of  nuclear and vacuum attraction

It is possible to show, that the vacuum attraction has all experimentally known properties of nuclear forces. First of all, the vacuum attraction has the property of short action,  the attraction between nucleons begins only when the distance between them becomes about a vacuum hole diameter. As between nucleons appears absolute emptiness,  the distance between them became equal to zero, therefore particles will fill with huge acceleration a hole. If between nucleons constantly existed vacuum hole, the attraction  force between nucleons would have infinite value. But holes appear then disappear between nucleons, therefore the attraction force has limited value, and if we  apply external force then is possible to tear off one nucleon from another.
The properties of nuclear forces can be deduced proceeding from model of a nucleus as group of nucleons glued together by vacuum holes.
At distances of 10-15 m nuclear forces are only forces of attraction, and there  cannot exist forces of pushing away. Really, from model it is visible, that in hole vacuum can exist the attraction forces between nucleons only. Pushing away in the given conditions is theoretically impossible.
The property of charging independence of nuclear forces consists that forces  between two protons, two neutrons or between a proton and a neutron are identical. The hole model also show charging independence as vacuum attraction forces depend only on the geometrical sizes of particles, but not from charges of a particle. Therefore attraction force not depend from particle kind (proton or neutron), it is important only  a particle geometrical sizes. Also in two mirror nucleus there will be identical forces of attraction as force of a vacuum attraction does not depend on presence of any charges of glued particles.
The definition of property of saturation of nuclear forces is that each nucleon interact only with the limited number of the nucleons in nucleus. Really, in hole model one vacuum hole may glue only the limited number of nucleons which are around. In other words, in hole model one nucleon may attract only those nucleons which interact with same hole, and such nucleons will be only a few. Therefore one nucleon cannot interact with all nucleus because one do not have border with all holes of nucleus.

The non-centrality property of nuclear forces also is visible from hole model of vacuum attraction. The central forces are directed along a line connecting interacting points.
Imagine the group of 3 nucleons filling one vacuum hole. Nucleons aspire to fill hole moving to its center, therefore nucleons will move  on line AC and BC to hole center. However the central forces, such as coulomb or gravitational are directed always along lines AB that connect their centers (the centers of mass for  gravitational field). As you can see on Fig. 1, the force of attraction between two next nucleons are directed under an angle to straight line AB which connect nucleons, therefore vacuum short-range forces of attraction are non-central nature. Also it is visible, that force of attraction between nucleons does not depend on a square of distance between them as in the central interactions. The attraction between particles is increased at once as  soon as the distance between nucleons becomes equal to hole diameter.
The model of hole nuclear forces may explain classification of elementary particles to  adrons and leptons. Apparently from model, steady forces of attraction will be only in a case if hole slams between particles having the certain geometrical sizes; a stable in time attraction cannot be in a case if hole closes between dot particles as leptons because hole will be filled mainly by elementary volumes. Therefore the vacuum attraction sorts particles on adrons and leptons in dependence from their geometrical sizes.

       This nucleus with vacuum forces of attraction has mass defect, i.e. the mass of nucleus is less than the sum of mass of all these nucleons in a free state. For explanation of this effect it is necessary to use definition of mass from hole theory of gravitation, which looks so “the mass of particle is determined by quantity of holes emitted for a time unit. However, the part of holes emitted out by nucleons of nucleus perform a function of “glue” between nucleons, therefore the all quantity of holes emitted by nucleus will be less, than a stream of holes from the same nucleons in a free state, why the nucleus mass will be less that the sum of weights of nucleons of a nucleus in free state..
      As you can see, hole theories of gravitation and nuclear forces are perfectly joined and able to explain each other, there are no any contradictions between them.
Also it is possible to explain disintegration of heavy nucleus by probability  processes in hole vacuum and physical processes in a nucleus. The nucleus represents a set of nucleons glued together by vacuum holes. The external holes concerning nucleus, aspire to tear off a nucleon or group of nucleons from a nucleus. Certainly, the force of an attraction in system a nucleon - hole-nucleon is incomparably more thaan in system nucleon - hole-dv. However in heavy nucleus because of saturation of nuclear forces and coulomb pushing away the binding energy is small. In vacuum can be fluctuations why near massive nucleus may appear a big virtual hole, capable to destroy a nucleus, having torn off from nucleus the part of nucleons outside of nuclear field, then coulomb forces will finish disintegration process of a nucleus.
      In spite of the fact that between nucleons in nucleus are holes, the distance between them are not equal to zero, as holes continuously appears and disappears, therefore between nucleons exist distance.
Let imagine a following experiment: if we pull one of nucleons from nucleus,  thus we have stretched a vacuum hole behind it, which also will pull the following nucleon etc. Thus in nucleus moves a hole delaying nucleons one after another. Such fluctuation of nucleons in a nucleus should be considered as the excited state of nucleus, as in dropwise model of  nucleus. The motion time of holes in nucleus can be considered as life time of excited state. Also it is obvious that may exist conditions when hole may reflects from border of nucleus therefore the nucleus will stay long time in the excited state. Also in nucleus can moves the big number of holes  and can changes the big groups of nucleons.
The vacuum theory of nuclear forces is not exchange theory, the mechanism of vacuum attraction does not provide an exchange of any particles.

The note. Other questions connected with a hole short-range attraction will be published later.

The combination of gravitational and strong interaction

There is no necessity to prove a uniform nature of gravitational and strong interaction as both forces has a hole nature, first was shown above, and description of hole theory of gravitation is in [4]. As both interactions are carried out by the same particle as vacuum hole then their unity is obvious. Gravitational interaction becomes strong on small distances due to existence of fundamental length in space equal to 10-15 m. As gravitational and nuclear interactions has same nature, it can be named simply gravitational interaction, and if it is necessary to specify events on small distances - strong or nuclear gravitation.

References

1. Leshan  C.Z., - The combination of gravitational, strong and weak interaction in hole vacuum and matter, Conference proceedings, ICPS94, S. Petersburg, 1994, page 143.
2. Conference proceedings, ICPS_95, Copenhagen, 1995
3. Leshan C.Z., - Combination of gravitational, strong and weak interaction in hole vacuum and a matter, Printing house from Balti, August 31 Avenue, 22, Balti, 1994
4. Leshan C.Z., - The hole theory of gravitation, Hole physics, teleportation and levitation, N 1, Volume 1, August 2001
5. B.M. Javorsky - The help manual in physics. M.: Science, 1989
 
 

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