|Studying Suitability of Using Camelina Sativa as Biodiesel
and introducing projection technology
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Science
in the College of Science and Research of the
Islamic Azad University, 2003
In order to study the probability of using vegetable oils as fuels (biodiesel), camelina sativa was chosen as a source, because of its low production costs compared with other oil seeds.
In this case, the oil from camelina sativa seed was extracted with a novel method which integrated the mechanical and chemical method to solve the problem caused by milling the seed in this phase in which the oil extracts from the seed. In this method, about 30% of the total oil was produced in the beginning of the extraction.
The measuring of oil content showed that it concludes 46% by weight. The results of the determination test at what temperature and rotation the solvent separates from the oil in the end of the final phase of extraction showed the determination of the distillation in rotary machine was 90 C at 270 rpm.
Biodiesel was made by transesterification with pure methyl alcohol in presence of sodium methoxyde (catalyst) at 65-70 C. All the extraction phases and esterification were done at Food Technology Lab. in the laboratory complex of Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus.
To compare the physical and chemical properties of produced biodiesel and common biodiesel used in Iran, and also other compositions of these two fuels, tests were made at Laboratories of Evaluation of Crude Petroleum Unit of Tehran Petroleum Industry Research Centre. In this method, the produced methyl ester blends with common diesel fuels at different percent of 00 to 100, so called B00 to B100. Most measurements have been done with biodiesel (CME) in ASTM standard.
The results also show an increase in density, special gravity, viscosity at 40 & 100 C, flash point, cetane index from B00 to B100,was 4.3, 4.3, 36.5, 29 & 12.28 percent ,respectively and an increase in distillation limit. The flash point and cetane index increase cause storability safety and fuel properties. The result of test on cloud point and pour point shows the increase in B00 to B100, 66.6, 57.14 percent, respectively; which result the improvement in fuel properties in low temperature conditions.
The amount of sulphur decreases from B00 to B100 was in the ratio of 1:20, heat value at B100 was 11.55% less than B00. The amount of water was 715 ppm; the amount of carbon was 0.019% and acid index 0.03 mg KOH /gr.
Due to importance & economic value of biodiesel cost/benefit comparison was made for camelina sativa & rapeseed. This analysis shows that the costs of biodiesel produced from camelina sativa is less than that from rapeseed in three different production levels.
Supervisor: Morteza Almassi, Ph.D.
Advisors: Saeed Minaee, Ph.D. and Hamid Mashadi Meighani, Ph.D.