The Cohanim Modal Haplotype
The CMH tool in action:
The Ingathering of the Exiles:
Identification is the First Step!

[Note to the reader: This page is part of a framed Website with a Left Navigation Bar. If you reached this page from a Search engine: Welcome! You may click here to add the Left Navigation Bar (and to view the full Web site). To reach this page afterwards, click on "The CMH Tool in action"/"The Ingathering of the Exiles".]

This section is the continuation of the section about the famous Hebrew Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel (which should be read first, if you have not already done so). You may click here to get there directly.

[Note: the previous section dealt only with the ancient Hebrews that are still residing in ancient Media (now known as Kurdistan). Ancient Hebrews have also been positively found in Hungary, in Italy, in Armenia, in Turkey, in America, and in yet others present nations as well. This section deals with the positive identification of these other Hebrews.]

In this section, we continue the accounting of the evidence uncovered by Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin, Ph.D. in his failed attempt to "disprove" the CMH tool. Recall that his article is the fifth one (of the five original scientific papers) listed in section III. c. "References". There is a good report about it at (since it is not yet freely available online).

Here, once again, is the relevant quote for us (from the report):

"* The Cohen modal haplotype is the most common haplotype among Southern and Central Italians*1, Hungarians*2, and Iraqi Kurds*3, and is also found among many Armenians*4, and South African Lembas*5. This calls into question the notion that the haplotype was a marker for the ancient Hebrew population."

Does this "disprove" the CMH tool? The only way that he could actually do so would be by providing a counterexample. Thus, in order to actually prove his case, he would have to show that it is impossible for an example population to have within it Exiles (of the ancient Hebrew population) when that population contains CMH positive individuals.

This appears to be a very difficult task! How could it ever be accomplished? All that he actually has done is to say that the CMH has been found among the listed population groups.

Our task is much easier. All we have to do is show that Exiles are probably there within a given population (that is: not impossible that they are there) and that the CMH confirms what we find from parallel sources.

Here is what the scientists (who discovered the CMH tool) said about our task:

"For highly polymorphic, single-locus systems, the identification of haplotypes with restricted distributions may provide 'signatures' of ancient connections that have been partially obscured by subsequent mixing with other populations. Gene flow from the Cohanim could account for the presence of the Cohen modal haplotype in both Ashkenazic and Sephardic Israelites, or it could be a signature of the ancient Hebrew population. The Cohen modal haplotype may therefore be useful for testing hypotheses regarding the relationship between specific contemporary communities and the ancient Hebrew population."

(from the second scientific paper listed in section III.c. "References")

The key phrase here for us (and for our task) is:

"useful for testing hypotheses regarding relationships between specific contemporary populations and the ancient Hebrew population."

Thus, we can see that Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin, Ph.D. has said to us (in effect): "Look at these five listed populations; they have the testing already done, but where are the hypotheses (that the populations contain Exiles of the ancient Hebrew population among them)?" Our task, then, is to supply these hypotheses (from parallel sources).

You already have one notable example of this (since you should have already read the section on this Website about the famous Hebrew Ten Lost Tribes). Recall that our hypothesis (from parallel sources) was that the current inhabitants of the territory (that used to be called: Media) - the Kurds - contain members of the Ten Lost Tribes.

In this notable example, Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin helpfully supplied the testing (in advance) that confirms our hypothesis (once we arrive at it from research into parallel sources).

Now that we have seen the pattern, the remaining four populations (listed by Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin, Ph.D.) can be handled more directly. All that we have to do is to show that they could be (and probably are) populations that contain Exiles of the ancient Hebrews. That is our hypothesis (from parallel sources) that the CMH tool confirms.

The CMH tool in action:
The Southern and Central Italians

The interesting story of the Southern and Central Italians is very strait forward. The majority are ancient Hebrews, captured and brought to Italy during Roman times. They are actually the ancient Hebrew tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and part of Levi.

The interesting part of the story is how the became the majority, and how they are literally "welcomed to go home" (by Northern Italians) even to this day!

What actually happened in Italy (as the Roman Empire declined and fell) is hinted at by the famous English author, Thomas Robert Malthus. His book: "An Essay on the Principle of Population, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness" contains the following chapter about the Romans.

In summary: The land of Italy fell into the hands of the Roman upper class, whose wealth consisted of their large estates (and their imported captured servants). The burden of the defence of the Roman Empire, however, fell upon the plebian classes (poor free farmers and small landowners).

Thus, by the time of the fall of the Roman Empire - that is: when the Roman armies were killed off and crushed - all that remained in Italy, essentially, were the Roman upper class, their immense numbers of servants [note: like the "sand of the seashore" - an immense multitude!], and the victorious, invading armies!

The complex history of the land of Italy, is well recorded. (Here is a place to start for interested readers.) The interesting part is that the old "jealous tensions" (resulting from the Hebrew Tribes' success as the Roman Empire fell around them) continue to this day! This is reflected, for example, in the history of the separatist Lego Nord (the Northern League) and its founder, Umberto Bossi.

Should the ancient Hebrews in Italy "crawl away" at the voicing of such words (when they constitute the largest single voting block in Italy)? I say:
The Italian Hebrews in political power in Italy!

The CMH tool in action:
The Hungarians

The Hungarians are a mysterious people; nobody knows where they came from!

Here is a famous quote (famous among Hungarians, at least) about this:

When Nobel Laureate Enrico Fermi was asked if he believed in extraterrestrials, he replied - "They are already here... they are called Hungarians!" (source of this quote here)

Here is one Hungarian's account of Hungarian history. Overview and Their entry into Hungary

What facts can we glean from this account?

First, we can agree with his fanatical insistence that no genetically determined racial purity exists among the Hungarians. Our only concern is that the most common haplotype found by the scientists (among the racial mixture of the Hungarians) is that of the CMH.

We can glean the following story: The Hungarians were a large tribal group that entered Hungary ( about 900 A.C.E. in a mass migration) from the wide open grasslands north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea - the area due north from "Media" (the country of the Ten Lost Tribes).

This group of tribes were remarkable warrior/raiders (who "serviced" a raiding area that was remarkably large)! We know that they had (and have) a language that is different from that of the Ten Lost Tribes, but with a few words in common. That is: their Finno-Ugaric language had traces of Persian in it (while the Kurdish language is a distant dialect of Persian). This typically happens, by the way, when there is a mixture of two peoples. The traces constitute the influence of a subject people upon the language of the dominant people.

[Thus, the fanatical insistence of our Hungarian historian about the lack of Hungarian racial purity is vindicated. We will see later what his CMH test would probably show.]

We also can glean that this large tribal group made their mass migration away from the area north of the Caspian Sea - where a larger group of tribes resided that also spoke Finno-Ugaric. Their mass migration saved their lives, by the way, because the others (that they migrated away from) were later overrun and wiped out by the Mongols (in the 1200's A.C.E.).

Lastly, Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin, Ph.D. has informed us that the majority of the males among them were CMH positive (assuming that the haplotype percentages among them remained roughly the same up to the present time).


This means that there was a language change among those CMH positive males (to Finno-Ugaric from something else - and with a Persian influence upon the language as a result). Now, a language change among tribal males is a serious matter. It typically means being "acquired" individually as boys for servants/warriors. The question is: why would so many be "acquired"?

Thus, we have a picture that is becoming clearer: A tribe of Finno-Ugaric speakers broke away from the main group, came down to the borderland of ancient Media (of the Hebrew Ten Lost Tribes), and settled down near them for a while.

Either they had already heard of the fame of these CMH positive boys for military prowess or they soon discovered it. Their leaders must have come up with a great idea. They must have seen a marvelous opportunity "back home": "These men of renown (the sons of Joseph) under our leadership can make us rich (from raiding/plundering)!"

Thus it seems that they dwelt in peace near the Ten Lost Tribes, while gathering their private army of raider/warriors; teaching them their language and training them for their "mission".

Once "back home," they seem to have been too remarkably successful for their own good. Who would volunteer to live near a disciplined army of "thieves"? It appears that they were persuaded, somehow, to "volunteer" to make a mass migration (in order to find a new "base of operations").

They made their way westward through the territory of the present Ukraine and into Hungary. And the rest is recorded history (though as the Hungarians).

This recorded history, by the way, shows that they continued their remarkable raiding activity from Hungary; even reaching the Atlantic Ocean in the area of France on occasion. They were seemingly invincible! Until Otto, that is, who "persuaded" their leaders to settle down in Hungary.

Their history (militarily) appears to have been "downhill" ever since.

Thus, those men of renown, the Sons of Joseph, find themselves "trapped" in Hungary (in the language and culture of their former military "masters"). And this while they constitute the largest single voting block in Hungary! I say:
The hungarian Hebrews in political power in Hungary!

The CMH Tool in action:
The Armenians

We can see at once that the Armenians were reasonably doing the same thing as the Hungarian tribe was doing." What we do know is that the next "people area" north of Media was the land of the Armenians; and that there was a common, shared area in the border area - called the Anatolia Plateau.
Those sons of Joseph, again: men of renown, famous for military prowess. They must have been the ancient Armenian "security/defense forces" (under their leadership).
They must have been "acquired" as boys, and have been taught the Armenian language and their "mission."
How many? CMH testing shows that they are now a large minority of the present Armenian population - about the size of a large "security/defense force."

The CMH tool in action:
the Lemba

The Lemba are the easiest of all. They are completely dealt with in the third scientific paper in Section III.c. "References."

However, there is more to this story. See the following parallel situation. Thus, though the "Black Jews of South Africa" may be acceptable to the Jews (by means of conversion); the CMH positive ones among them are still "children of 'foreign' women" (like those who were "put away" in the time of Ezra).

© 2002 by David Clark