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Immune Reactivity: Types of Antibodies in Graves'

Immune reactivity

Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease have immune reactivity, both antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, directed to the

smdi TSH receptor,
smdi thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and
smdi thyroglobulin (TG).

Other types of antibodies are present.
Antibodies reacting to components of eye muscle and fibroblasts are found in sera of patients with Graves’ eye disease.

People having autoimmune thyroid disease also often develop other “organ specific” antibodies. Fifty percent of Hashimoto’s patients develop antibodies against cells in the stomach wall.


Types of antibodies in Graves' Disease

smdi Elevated levels of TSAb, TBII, and (rarely) TSBAb
smdi Elevated levels of anti-TPOAb ( 90%)
smdi Elevated levels of anti-TGAb ( 50%)

smdi Antibodies recognizing components of eye muscle and/or fibroblasts

smdi Antibodies reacting to the Iodide Symporter
smdi Antibodies to DNA
smdi Antibodies to Parietal Cells (infrequent)
smdi Antibodies binding to platelets

So, up to 90% of Graves' patients have anti-TPOAb (formerly known as antibodies directed to the "microsomal antigen"), although they are not known to play a role in Graves' disease.

Fifty percent have antibodies directed against thyroglobulin. And thyroglobulin antibodies can also react with the brain rather than the thyroid, causing Hashimoto's encephalopaty

These antibodies are very similar to those present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and idiopathic myxedema.

LATS, quoted in the previous page, stands for long-acting-thyroid-stimulator. Before they even knew this substance was an antibody, and they knew that patients with GD had a substance in their blood that caused thyroid cells to release excess thyroid hormone.

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