Floriculture is the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection. Through many people are nostalgic about Floriculture, there are others who brush away the idea as a luxury or even a wastage of money, But the significance and the importance of Floriculture cannot be ignored. The cultivation of commercial flowers is a lucrative business. The world trade in cut flowers is worth about 14.1 billion annually and total import of cut flowers into Europe alone is about 1.04 billion. (Kisanwords, Feb. 1991,P No. 33). The exporting countries are Holland, France, Italy, Israel, South Africa, Columbia, Thailand and Kenya. The contributions of India in this field is negligible.
There is no reliable estimate regarding total business in cut flowers in India. According a survey conducted by Sampath (1962) cut flowers weighing 10,500 tons and worth Rs.9.26 crores are sold annually in five metropolitan cities of Calcutta, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai. This survey is backdated and the volume of trade now must have increased manifold, Good quality flowers fetch high prices in cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta depending upon season. A conservative estimate puts the land under Floriculture in India at around 28,809 hectares. Considering the size and the population of our country, this area is not at all impressive (Agril Marketing Statistical Abstract, 1997, (32). In India the Tamil Nadu state has maximum area under Floriculture (8834 ha.) followed by Karnataka (7870 ha). The area under Floriculture in Maharashtra is about 2045 ha. In South, the small flowered chrysanthemum is very popular and turnover is quite large (Randvawa and Mukhopadhyay). The other popular cut flowers such as Tuberose, Jasmine, China, Aster, Mogra, Marigold etc. are also blooming toward this direction to avoid market glut. There is unlimited scope for increasing the sale of nursery stock such as budded roses, indoor plants, bulb and seeds as well as cut flower. The European countries need cut blooms mostly during November to March. In 1972 India exported about 15,000 rose blooms to Enrope, and the quality of our flowers was much appreciated, although we have got favorable and diverse climatic condition for growing varied types of flowers required by westerners, with this background the study on marketing of flowers in Goa state was undertaken.
The sampling method was followed in the selection of retailers. On the basis of marketing two cities namely Mapasa and Panjim were selected purposively. 13 retailers from Mapasa and 12 retailers from Punjim City were selected, randomly. Thus the total sample consisted 25 retailers. The information was collected and analyzed. The data pertain to the year November 1999.
Results and Discussion:
The data collected were analyzed and the results are discussed below. In Goa state the flower like Tuberose, Kagda, Mogara, Marigold, Aster, Chrysanthemum and Roses were marketed.
annual average turn over per retailer is given in the table
1. It is observed from the same table that, the annual turn
over of individual retailer was Rs. 406,026 thousand, out
of which 39.00% turnover was found in the summer season. Which
was followed by winter 33.29% and rainy season 27.80%. From
the table, it is revealed that, the selling of Marigold flower
per retailer was maximum (26.85 quintal annually) as compared
to other flowers. It means there is more demand for Marigold
Source of flower and Transportation:
It is seen from the table 2 that, all the flowers were marketed in the study area received from Hubli and Banglor, which is 200k.m. and 600 k.m. away from the Punjim city respectively. Out of total quantity 88.92 quintal received, 51.66% and 48.34% of flower were received from Hubli and Banglore respectively. It is also observed that, about more than 6% of the flower were damaged during transportation. It was maximum in tuberose (10.84%) when transported from Banglore, and losses valued Rs.19699.35 per retailer.
Market margin and price spread:
spread refers to the difference between the price paid by
the consumer and price received by the producer for an unit
quantity of farm product. This spread consists of marketing
cost and margin of intermediates, which ultimately determine
the overall effectiveness of marketing system. The seasonwise
cost and margin obtain to retailers Rs.11.09 per kg. Of chrysanthemum
flower in winter season followed by Rs. 9.70/kg in Marigold
of summer season, Rs.8.82/kg. In Kagda of summer season.
It is revealed from the table 3 that, the maximum retailer’s share were obtained in summer from Marigold (23.65%), Aster 20.86% and roses (20.00%) where and 20.92% retailer’s share was obtained in winter season from chrysanthemum flowers. It is also observed that, there was not less than 8.21% retailer’s shares in the marketing of flowers.
For packing of their flowers locally available farm material used for cushioning in bamboo, baskets, without grading practices.
There is maximum demand for the marigold flower in the market through out the years.
All the flower for sells in the market were received from Hubli and Bangalore, Which are 200 km.and 600 km away from Panjim respectively.
There is wide scope for cultivation of flowers in south Konkan and area near Goa State.
The producers and market agencies have not adopted the grading and improved packaging practices to minimise the losses during transportation.
In marketing flowers there is more retailers shares in Marigold, Aster roses and chrysanthemum in summer and winter season.