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|The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region|
|The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region.*
By: Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-von Jaffa.
Note: This article was published in "Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin". Number 58, October 2006, pp. 1-13.
The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of lion (Panthera leo).
The last remnant of the Asiatic Lion, which in historical times ranged from Caucasus to Yemen and from Macedonia to India through Arabia and Iran (Persia), lives in the Gir Forest National Park of western India. About 350 lions (August 2005) live in a 1,412 km² (558 square miles) sanctuary in the state of Gujarat. In 1907 there were only 13 lions left in the Gir, when the Nawab of Junagadh gave complete protection to them.
Persian Lion, is similar to a tiger in the length of body and tail, but differs in skin colour which is tawny overall without the appearance of dark vertical stripes. Coat is thicker than African lions, with a longer black tail tassel and a more prominent tuft of hair on the elbows. Black patches are visible at the back of the ears. However, there is little variation in colour between the sides of its body and its abdomen, and between the inner surface of the limbs and the outer surface.
There is even one example of a melanistic Persian lion. The archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard reports that he saw a very big Persian lion, which was described as being "very dark brown in colour, in parts almost black."
Males are larger in size than females. The size of the mane varies from race to race with the Persian race having a smaller mane than the African one. The colouration of the manes varies from lion to lion. The only rare ones are the very dark manes, which according to a research done in Africa are the ones preferred by lionesses. The young are sometimes born with an even colour overall, but often a row of patches is visible on the upper surface of the body; seeming like a horizontal stripe. Patches usually disappear after 6 months but may still be visible up two or more years.
Lions mostly live in large prides. These prides can sometimes have up to 3 adult males but it is always one that is the dominant leader. The males are known for their laziness and lordship like behaviour. The females do all the hunting, with the males only rarely joining in when the prey is a very large animal like an aggressive buffalo. However, once the kill is made, the males always get the first go at the meal.
The bonding among a family of lions is extremely strong with aunts and sisters helping in the bringing up of all young. Females stay with the pride all through life, whereas the males tend to set out on their own around the age of three. They mostly lead solitary lives then onwards but have been known to also roam territories in pairs and trios. These bachelors are known to be the main threats to the dominant males leading their prides. They are also known to kill cubs to try and get the females into estrus once again. These bachelors are mostly brothers that left a pride together, but individual bachelors have been known to team up with other individuals.
Lions, unlike the tiger, hunt in groups. They collectively stalk their prey and have been commonly seen applying strategies that would do any army commander proud. Very often some of the females pinpoint a particular individual prey and chase it in the direction of other lionesses waiting in ambush. The prey is mostly killed by a quick, powerful bite to the spine or with the help of a classic choke grip, with the strong jaws of the lion cutting off air supply to the lungs.
Although history shows the coexistence of lions and tigers, there is no prevalent example of this anywhere in the world at present. Lions do coexist even in the current era with leopards and cheetahs. However, they are extremely territorial and attempt to kill these leopards and cheetahs whenever their paths happen to cross. If the attempt at relocating lions to other parts of India is finally undertaken, it will also answer the question of whether it is possible for two such ferociously territorial and powerful large cats to inhabit the same jungle. Unlike the tiger, which prefers dense forests with adequate cover, the lion inhabits the scrub-type deciduous forests. Asiatic lions seldom come into contact with Indian tigers, which don’t live in the Gir region as this forest is hotter and more arid than the habitat preferred by the tiger.
The Asiatic Lion has been declared the most endangered large cat species in the world. Their numbers ranging between 250-350, all concentrated in the same area, they are under the constant threat of being wiped out by some deadly epidemic. It is hoped by all conservationists that the governing authorities settle their differences of opinion on the best possible plan and take some action before it's too late to save one of the most magnificent beasts to roam the planet.
Weight: Male 150-250 Kg; Female 120-180 Kg.
Length (head and body): Male 170-250 cm; Female 140-175 cm.
Length (tail): 70-105 cm.
Shoulder height: Male 100-123 cm; Female 80-107 cm.
Sexual Maturity: Male 5 years; Female 4 years.
Mating season: All year round.
Gestation period: 100-119 days.
Number of young: 1 to 6.
Birth interval: 18-26 months.
Typical diet: Deer, antelope, wild boar, buffalo.
Lifespan: 16-18 years.
a. Aristotle and Herodotus wrote that lions were found in the Balkans in the middle of the first millennium B.C. When Xerxes advanced through Macedonia in 480 B.C., several of his baggage camels were killed by lions. Lions are believed to have died out within the borders of present-day Greece in A.D. 80-100 (Guggisberg, 1961).
b. Lions were probably found in the Azerbaijan area up to the 10th century A.D. Their disappearance from the reed thickets and pistachio and juniper forests is primarily associated with an increase in human population and a change in environmental conditions, which in turn led to the decline of ungulates in the region (Heptner and Sludskii, 1972).
c. The thickets of the Jordan River in Palestine were a preferred habitat. Lions could still be found in the vicinity of Samaria, Lejun (near Megiddo), Ramla, the area of Nahr (River) Al-Auja and the coastal forests in the early 14th century (Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2001, 2006).
d. Lions disappeared from the Moroccan coast by the mid-1800s. They may have survived in the High Atlas Mountains up to the 1940s.
e. Last known lion in Algeria killed in 1893 near Batna, 97 km south of Constantine.
f. Last known lion killed in Tunisia in 1891 near Babouch, between Tabarka and Ain-Draham.
g. Lions were extirpated from Tripolitania, western Libya as early as 1700.
h. Last known lion in Turkey killed in 1870 near Birecik on the Eurphrates (Üstay, 1990).
i. Sir Alfred Pease reported that lions still existed west of Aleppo, Syria, in 1891 (Kinnear, 1920).
j. Lions occurred in the vicinity of Mosul, Iraq in the 1850s. The Turkish governor's bag of two in 1914 is the last report of them from the area (Kinnear, 1920).
k. Lions were reported to be numerous in the reedy swamps bordering the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers in the early 1870s. The last known lion in Iraq was killed in 1918 on the lower Tigris (Hatt, 1959).
l. The valley of Dashtiarjan, 57 km west of Shiraz in Iran, was famous for its lions in the late 1800s.
m. The last known report of lion presence in Iran was a 1942 observation of a pair near Dizful, by American engineers building a railway (Heaney, 1943).
n. There are no confirmed records of lion presence in central or eastern Iran, nor Afghanistan or Baluchistan.
o. The last known lion in Pakistan killed near Kot Deji in Sind province in 1810.
p. However, a British admiral travelling by train reported seeing a maneless lion near Quetta, north-western Pakistan in 1935, eating a goat: "It was a large lion, very stocky, light tawny in colour, and I may say that no one of us three had the slightest doubt of what we had seen until, on our arrival at Quetta. Many officers expressed doubts as to its identity, or the possibility of there being a lion in the district" (Guggisberg, 1961).
q. The lion's range may have extended as far east as Bihar and Orissa states in India: a lion was reportedly killed in the district of Palamau (Bihar) in 1814.
r. Last lion recorded from the southern end of its Indian range killed at Rhyl in Damoh district, near the Narmada River, in the cold season of 1847-1848 (Kinnear, 1920).
s. Fifty lions were killed in the district of Delhi, India between 1856-1858. Twenty-five years later Blanford (1891) wrote that "in India the lion is verging on extinction."
Note: Historical Range source is Guggisberg (1961) unless otherwise stated. (Reference: www.asiatic-lion.org/distrib.html).
Asiatic Lions in Europe:
The Asiatic lion used to live also in Europe. Aristotle and Herodotus wrote that lions were found in the Balkans in the middle of the first millennium B.C. When Xerxes advanced through Macedon in 480 B.C., several of his baggage camels were killed by lions. Lions are believed to have died out within the borders of present-day Greece in A.D. 80-100. And also there was a population in the Caucasus that became extinct in the 10th century. It remained widespread elsewhere until the mid 1800s when the advent of firearms led to its extinction over large areas (Guggisberg, 1961). By the late 1800s the lion had disappeared from Turkey (Üstay, 1990).
North African relative (The Barbary or Atlas Lion):
The Barbary Lion, Atlas lion or Nubian lion Panthera leo leo is a subspecies of lion that has become extinct at least in the wild. It was believed to be extinct in captivity. However, stray possible Barbary lion individuals or descendents were located in zoos and circus populations within the last three decades. It is often considered to be the largest of the lion subspecies with males weighing between 400-650 lb (181 to 295 kg) and females 270-400 lb (120 to 181 kg), approximately the size of Bengal tigers. However, more recent research suggests that they were only slightly larger than today's African lion, which weighs approximately 420 lbs on average. The Barbary Lion also called the Atlas or Nubian lion, formerly ranged in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa and in territory from Morocco to Egypt. The last known Barbary Lion in the wild was shot in the Atlas Mountains in 1922.
Unlike most African lions, the Barbary Lion was a mountain predator, preferring woodlands. The two other primary Atlas Mountain predators, the Barbary leopard and Atlas bear, are also now extinct, with no known individuals in the wild.
There are several dozen individuals in captivity believed to be Barbary Lions; Port Lympne Wild Animal Park in Kent (England) has twelve specimens descended from animals owned by the King of Morocco; one of the lions is named Suliman. In addition, 11 animals believed to be Barbary Lions were found in Addis Ababa zoo, descendants of animals owned by the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.
In the past, scientists believed that the "distinct" subspecific status of the Barbary lion could be justified by their seemingly fixed external morphology. This morphology was used to identify them. However, now it is known that various extrinsic factors influence the colour and size of a lion’s mane, like the ambient temperature. The cooler ambient temperature in e.g. European and North American zoos can result in heavy mane. Therefore, the heavy mane is an inappropriate marker for identifying Barbary lines.
Mitochondrial DNA research published in 2006 did support the "distinctness" of the Barbary lion. The results showed an mtDNA haplotype that is unique to the Barbary lion. This could be a good molecular marker for identifying Barbary lions. They revealed that five tested samples of lions from the famous collection of the King of Morocco are not maternally Barbary.
In 1968, a study on the skulls of the extinct Barbary (North African), extinct Cape, Asiatic, and African lions showed that the same skull characteristics - the very narrow postorbital bar - existed in only the Barbary and the Asiatic lion skulls. This shows that there may have been a close relationship between the lions from Northernmost Africa and Asia. It is also believed that the South European lion that became extinct at the beginning in A.D. 80-100 could have represented the connecting link between the North African and Asiatic lions. It is believed that Barbary lions possess the same belly fold (hidden under that entire mane) that appears in the Asian lions today.
The mane of "Scar," the villain of Disney's “The Lion King”, was based on a Barbary Lion.
The former popularity of the Barbary Lion as a zoo animal provides the only hope to ever see it again in the wild in North Africa. After years of research into the science of the Barbary Lion and stories of surviving examples, WildLink International, in collaboration with Oxford University, launched their ambitious International Barbary Lion Project. They are using the very latest DNA techniques to identify the DNA 'fingerprint' of the Barbary Lion subspecies. WildLink International has taken bone samples from remains of Barbary Lions in Museums across Europe, like those in Brussels, Paris, Turin and others. These samples are returned to Oxford University where the science team is extracting the DNA sequence that identifies the Barbary as a separate subspecies. Although the Barbary is officially extinct, WildLink International had identified a handful of lions in captivity around the world that is descended from the original Barbary Lion, like the royal lions in Temara Zoo in Rabat, Morocco. These descendants will be tested against the DNA fingerprint and the degree of any hybridization (from crossbreeding) can then be determined. The best candidates will then enter a selective breeding Programme that will 'breed back' the Barbary Lion. The final phase of the project will see the lions released into a National Park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.
The Arabian Lion by the early Arabic and Islamic Zoologists:
Abi ‘Othman Amr bin Bahar Al-Basri Al-Jahez (776-869), one of the Greatest Arabic and Islamic Zoologists, described in his Reference Book “Kitab Al-Haywan” (The Animal Book), the lions’ General appearance and uniform colour and the different body parts; and he wrote about the lions’ behaviour. Al-Jahez wrote about “Sayed Alsiba’” (Master of the Predators) and how they came around the villages in Iraq to attack and devour the wild boars, and the domesticated sheep, donkeys, cows and dogs. The lions came also to the water ponds and river banks to feed on crabs, toads, terrapins and turtles. The lion also attacks and feeds on cheetahs; and they feed on carrions too. The Iraqi lion can also attack and feed on domesticated Indian elephants, but wild elephants are strong and can defend themselves. Lions also attacks and feed on camels. Al-Jahez writes that old lions attacks and devour humans, because the old ones are weak and cannot hunt animals. He wrote also that the lion eats salt, because their body needs it; and they can bear hunger and thirst for a long time. Al-Jahez writes that the Indian Lions are weaker than Iraqi Lions; and he adds that the lion is weak inside the deep water; even a boy can ride on his back and grasp his ears, pushing him under the water. Lions fear fire, and loud noises; and they can live peacefully (coexistence) with tigers, but their enemies are the leopards. Lions and Leopards can fight each other for a long period of time during the day, without killing each other. Lions and Tigers can even help each other, fighting the Leopard. Al-Jahez adds that wild boar may kill a lion with its tusks, and the buffalo can kill a lion with its horns.
Abi ‘Othman Al-Jahez wrote about the wide distribution of the lion in Iraq especially in Mosul, Alkufa, Siwad Al-Iraq and the banks of the Euphrates River. He adds that lions can live for many long years.
Abi Abdullah Al-Hussain bin Ahmad bin Khalaweh bin Hamdan (died 980), a famous Arabic Linguist, mentioned in his Reference booklet “Asma’ Al-Asad” (The Names of the Lion), about 500 names and descriptions for the lion, and some names for the lioness, the cubs and lion places. The Arabic Linguist “Ali bin Qassem bin Ja’far Al-Laghawi” added another 130 names and descriptions in his booklet “Fae’t Asma’ Al-Asad” (The missing Names of the Lion). The two booklets were revised by Dr. Mahmoud Jassem Al-Darwish in 1989. Note: The two booklets (in Arabic) are published at the end of this article (pp. 14-16).
Zakariya bin Mohammed bin Mahmoud Al-Qazwini (1203-1283), one of the Greatest Islamic Zoologists, mentioned in his Reference Book “Ajae’b Al-Makhluqat wa Gharae’b Al-Mawjudat” (Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing), the presence of the lion in Qurna, on Naher (River) Ja’far (in Iraq), and described how the lions were attacking the men (cane cutters) who killed a young lion, and how they (the men) defended themselves by cutting the tail of one lion, then this lion attacked the other lions, and then all the lions flew into the desert.
Al-Qazwini in his Reference Book “Ajae’b Al-Makhluqat wa Gharae’b Al-Mawjudat” writes about the lions’ behaviour; and also on the medical benefits when using the different lion body parts in curing different diseases.
Kamal Al-Deen Mohammed bin Mousa bin ‘Issa bin Ali Al-Dumairi (1341-1405), one of the Greatest Arabic and Islamic Zoologists, wrote in his Reference Book “Hayat Al-Haywan Al-Kubra” (The Great Animal Life), that the lion has more than 630 names and descriptions in Arabic, like: Alasad , Usama, Albayhas, Alnaaj, Aljakhdub, Alharth, Haydara, Aldawas, Alri’ebal, Zafar, Alsabe’e, Alsa’eb, Aldurgham, Aldaygham, Altaythar, Ala’nbas, Alghadanfar, Alfarafisa, Qaswara [this name was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an], Kahmas, Allaith, Almutaanes, Almutahayeb, Alhirmas, Alward, Abu Alabtal, Abu Hafs, Abu Alakhyaf, Abu Alza’faran, Abu Shibel, Abu Ala’bas, Abu Alhareth.
Al-Dumairi mentioned also that Hamza bin Abd Almutaleb (Uncle of Prophet Mohammed Peace be upon him) was named “Asadu Allah” (Allah’s Lion) [because he was a brave man and a fierce warrior and lion hunter in Mecca; and he was known wearing his famous lion coat].
According to Al-Dumairi the lion was living around Mecca, Arabia in the time of Hamza and Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon him) in the 7th Century, and he mentions that a man (‘Utba bin Abi Lahab) was devoured by a lion in Al-Zarqa’a, Ard Al-Sham (in Jordan); and tells about a story between safeena (Mawla [servant] of Prophet Mohammed [Pbuh]) and a lion in Ard Al-Roum [Byzantine Empire] (in Turkey); Al-Dumairi also tells the story of Prophet Daniel in the lions’ den in Babel [Babylon] (in Iraq), under the reign of the Persian King Darius.
Al-Dumairi in his Reference Book “Hayat Al-Haywan Al-Kubra” writes also about the lions’ behaviour; and also on the medical benefits when using the different lion body parts in curing different diseases. He goes further and writes about the interpretation of dreams; when somebody dreams about a lion or a young lion in a certain situation.
The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine:
"Then what is wrong with them that they turn away from receiving admonition. As if they were frightened wild donkeys. Fleeing from a lion (Qaswara)." (The Holy Qur’an, Suret Al-Muddather, Aya 49-51).
Lions are the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (The Bible: Jeremiah 5:6; Jeremiah 12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Song of Solomon 4:8; Nahum 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jeremiah 49:19; Jeremiah 50:44; Zechariah 11:3).
"Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them, and a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their cities: everyone who goes out of them shall be torn in pieces: because their transgressions are many, and their backslidings are increased." (The Bible, Jeremiah, 5:6).
"Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest; she has lifted up her voice against me: therefore have I hated it." (The Bible, Jeremiah, 12:8).
"Will a lion roar in the forest, when he hath no prey? Will a young lion cry out of his den, if he has taken nothing?" (The Bible, Amos, 3:4).
"Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the lions' dens, from the mountains of the leopards." (The Bible, Song of Solomon, 4:8).
"The lion did tear in pieces enough for his whelps, and strangled for his lionesses, and filled his holes with prey, and his dens with ravin." (The Bible, Nahum, 2:12).
"Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan against the habitation of the strong: but I will suddenly make him run away from her: and who is a chosen man that I may appoint over her? For who is like me? And who will appoint me the time? And who is that shepherd that will stand before me?" (The Bible, Jeremiah, 49:19 and 50:44).
"There is a voice of the howling of the shepherds; for their glory is spoiled: a voice of the roaring of young lions; for the pride of Jordan is spoiled." (The Bible, Zechariah, 11:3).
"And the men of the city said unto him on the seventh day before the sun went down, what is sweeter than honey? And what is stronger than a lion? And he said unto them, if ye had not plowed with my heifer, ye had not found out my riddle." (The Bible, Judges, 14:18).
The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Felis leo persica), this proud symbol of strength and courage, must have been abundant in Biblical times. According to the Bible, in which it appears under several different names, the lion must have been quite common at that time. The species appears often on mosaics from the Roman and Byzantine periods. The thickets of the Jordan River were a preferred habitat. It became extinct after the time of the Crusaders. The last mention of them being by Arab writers of the 13th, 14th century, and the 17th century, when lions still existed near Samaria, the Jordan River area, and other areas. One specimen has been hunted at Lejun, near Megiddo, in the thirteenth century. Alfaras Bin Shawer, Wali of Ramla, wrote that he saw eleven dead lions after heavy rain in Ramla and the area of Nahr (River) Al-Auja in 1294. Sanqarshah Almansouri, Naib of Safad (1304-1307), killed in the coastal forests 15 lions; and according to Palestinian sources from Deir Hijlah, they reported the appearance of a lion in 1630 near the Jordan River.
At this time, lions certainly roamed over parts of Syria and Arabia and along the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, where in ancient times lions figured prominently in the great royal hunts in Assyria. It is clear that lions survived in Mesopotamia until the nineteenth century, and there are several references to them by travellers of that period.
In Al-Jaleel (Galilee) there is a hill called Tel el Assad (Lion Hill in Arabic), and there is a village nearby called Deir el Assad (Monastery of the Lion), that may refer to a quite late occurrence of this species. Bie’r Al-Sabe’e (Well of the Lion) is a famous Palestinian city in the Naqab (Negev) desert (Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).
Persian Lions in Persia:
The Persian lion is now extinct in Iran, and there are no confirmed modern records of lion presence in central or eastern Iran, or Baluchistan, but it's believed that lions that still live in India are the same as lions that once were living in Iran.
According to one story, the last Iranian lion was killed by Zelolsoltan, the son of Naseredin Shah (before 1919); but on the other hand, the last reliable report of lion presence in Iran was a 1942 observation of a pair near Dezful, by American engineers building a railway (Heaney 1943, Harrington 1977).
The lion motif dates from ancient times in Iran, and it is found on innumerable objects of daily use such as seals, vessels, horse equipment, weapons, and in the decoration of palaces, tombs, and temples as far back as the 3rd millennium B.C. The lion was well known to the Achaemenians (6th-4th century B.C.) as it is testified by numerous examples at Persepolis, showing bas-reliefs of a lion attacking a bull, and by lion headed stone capitals. The Sassanian kings visualized themselves in rock reliefs as fighting with the lion. The lion motif has been one of the most persistent in Iranian art and religion, albeit with changing connotations (Tanavoli, 1985).
In literature, art, stories, and the social life of the Iranians, lions have always been thought of as a symbol of power, courage and greatness. Kings and noblemen have demonstrated their greatness and glory through illustrations of lions on coins and swords.
The symbol of the old flag of Iran (Shahanshah time), is a lion holding a sword in his hand and with a half of the sun behind him.
It is interesting to know that the Iranian series of Chieftain Tanks built by the UK during the 1970s for the Imperial Iranian Army was named: "Shire-Iran" (Iranian lion).
Lion was in the game category for royalty or they were just hunted for pleasure; and that's one of the main extinction reasons of this animal. Many miniatures show Kings going in lion-hunt trips, alone or with troops. As late as the 19th century, lion hunting was one of the favorite pastimes of the Iranian nomad Khans too.
The Persian lion, once lived in the valley of Dasht-e Arzhan (57 km west of Shiraz), as well as the " Kam-Firuze" and "Gourab" hunting ground, south of Hamedan (in the late 1800s). It used to roam the oak forests of the Zagros Mountains and the riverine areas of Khuzistan.
References and Internet Websites:
Al-Dumairi, Al-‘Alama Al-Sheikh Kamal Al-Deen Mohammed bin Mousa bin ‘Issa bin Ali (born in 1341 [742 H.] in Cairo and died in 1405 [808 H.] in Cairo, Egypt). Hayat Al-Haywan Al-Kubra (The Great Animal Life). Two Parts. Muasaset Al-A’lami Lilmatbua’t, Beirut, Lebanon, 2003, 1424 H. Part 1: pp. 464; Part 2: pp. 512. (in Arabic).
Al-Jahez, Abi ‘Othman Amr bin Bahar Al-Basri (born ca. 776 [160 H.] in Basra and died in 869 [255 H.] in Basra, Iraq). Kitab Al-Haywan (The Animal Book). Eight Parts. Explained by Abd Al-Salam Muhammed Haroun. Dar Al-Jeel, Beirut, Lebanon, 1996, 1416 H. Part1: 428; Part2: 383; Part 3: 548; Part 4: 503; Part 5: 611; Part 6: 515; Part 7: 516; Part 8: 331. (in Arabic).
Al-Qazwini, Al-Imam Zakariya bin Mohammed bin Mahmoud (born in 1203 [600 H.] in Qazwin, Persia and died in 1283 [682 H.]). ‘Ajae’b Al-Makhluqat wa Gharae’b Al-Mawjudat (Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing). Introduced by Farouq Saad. Dar Al-Afaq Al-Jadida, Beirut, Lebanon, 1978. pp. 526. (in Arabic).
Aristotle (Aristoteles) (350 B.C.E.). Tiba’o Al-Haywan (The History of Animals). Translated from Greek into Arabic by Yohanna bin Al-Batriq. Explained by Dr. Abd Al-Rahman Badawi. Wakalet Al-Matbua’t, Kuwait, 1977. pp. 563. (in Arabic).
Asiatic Lion. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asiatic_Lion
Asiatic Lion Information Centre. www.asiatic-lion.org/
Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826). References. http://lynx.uio.no/lynx/catsgportal/cat-website/catfolk/asaleorf.htm
Baidaba (Indian Philosopher) (Fourth Century A.D.). Kitab Kalila wa Dimna (Kalila and Dimna). Originally written in Sanskrit. Translated from Pehlavi (Old Persian) into Arabic by Abi Mohammed Abdullah Rawzeh bin Dathweh bin Al-Muqaffa’ (724 [106 H.] – 761 [144 H.]). Revised by Mustafa Lutfi Al-Manfaluti (1876-1924). Dar Al-Kitab Al-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon. 1984, 1404 H. pp. 397. (in Arabic).
Barbary Lion. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_lion
Blanford, W.T. (1891). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma: Mammalia. London.
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Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Publisher: Howard Timmins, Cape Town.
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Heaney, G.F. (1952). The Survey India since the Second World War. Geographical journal. 118:280-296.
Heptner , V.H. and Sludskii, A.A. (1972). [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol III: Carnivores (Felidea).] Vyssha Shkola, Moscow (in Russian). Engl. transl. edited by R.S. Hoffmann, Smithsonian Inst. and the Natl. Science Fndn., Washington DC, 1992.
Ja’far Al-Laghawi, Ali bin Qassem bin (date unknown). Fae’t Asma’ Al-Asad (The missing Names of the Lion). Al-Fustat: The Historical Magazine Website. (in Arabic). www.fustat.com/adab/asad.shtml
Johnsingh, A.J.T. and Ravi Chellam (1991). Asiatic lions. pp. 92-93. in: J. Seidensticker and S. Lumpkin, eds. Great Cats. London, Merehurst.
Joslin, P. (1973). The Asiatic lion: a study of ecology and behaviour. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
Joslin, P. (1984). The evironmental limitations and future of the Asiatic lion. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81:648-664.
Kappeler, Markus (1998). Asiatischer Löwe, Panthera leo persica. Groth AG (erschienen in der WWF Conservation Stamp Collection, Groth AG, Unteraegeri). www.markuskappeler.ch/tex/texs/asiatischerloewe.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemon corinaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).
Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemon corinaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2001). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983-2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983-2004. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gazelle_Bulletin.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Persische Löwe (Panthera leo persica). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 49. January 2006. pp. 1-5. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Loewe.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Felidae Palaestina: The Wild Cats of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 52, April 2006. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Palaestina.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) & www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2) &
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006 : 484 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Arabica.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) in Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany / Der Chinesische Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, Gray 1862) im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 60, December 2006. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Chinese_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the Arabia’s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Recent Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Kuwaiti Desert, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi’e Al-Awal 1428 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; Abstract in English, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_13318445_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Sahrawi (Desert Cat or Sand Cat). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi'e Al-Awal 1428 AH. p. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Presence of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni) in the State of Qatar. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi’e Al-Akher 1428 AH. p. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Qatar_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische
Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic).
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Arabica.html
Khalaweh bin Hamdan, Abi Abdullah Al-Hussain bin Ahmad bin (born in Hamazan, Persia [date unknown] and died in Halab [Aleppo], Syria in 980 [370 H.]). Asma’ Al-Asad (The Names of the Lion). Revised by Dr. Mahmoud Jassem Al-Darwish. Muasaset Al-Risala, Beirut, Lebanon. 1989, 1409 H. (in Arabic).
Khalaweh bin Hamdan, Abi Abdullah Al-Hussain bin Ahmad bin (born in Hamazan, Persia [date unknown] and died in Halab [Aleppo], Syria in 980 [370 H.]). Asma’ Al-Asad (The Names of the Lion). [& Fae’t Asma’ Al-Asad (The missing Names of the Lion) by Ali bin Qassem bin Ja’far Al-Laghawi]. Al-Fustat: The Historical Magazine Website. (in Arabic). www.fustat.com/adab/asad.shtml
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O’Brien, S.J., Joslin, P., Smith, G.L. III, Wolfe, R., Schaffer, N., Heath, E., Ott-Joslin, J., Rawal, P.P., Bhattacharjee, K.K., and Martenson, J.S. (1987). Evidence for African origins of founders of the Asiatic lion Species Survival Plan. Zoo Biology 6:99-116.
Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica): Shir (in Persian). http://iranzoo.tripod.com/lion/lion.html
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Rashid, M.A. (1984). Notes on conservation of the Asiatic lion. Pp 111-114 in: The plight of the cats: proceedings of the meeting and workshop of the IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group at Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India, 9-12 April 1984. Unpubl. report, IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Bougy-Villars, Switzerland.
Rashid, M.A. (1991). Asiatic lion population up. Cat News 13:12, Bougy-Villars, Switzerland.
Ravi Chellam (1987). Asiatic lion study. Cat News 6:31. Bougy-Villars, Switzerland.
Ravi Chellam (1993). Ecology of the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). Ph.D.thesis, Saurashtra Univ., Rajkot.
Ravi Chellam and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1993). Management of Asiatic lions in the Gir Forest, India. In: N. Dunstone and M.L. Gorman, eds. Mammals as predators. Proc. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 65. Clarendon, Oxford.
Sinha, S.P. (1987). Ecology of wildlife with special reference to the lion (Panthera leo persica) in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, Saurashtra, Gujurat. Ph.D. thesis, Saurashtra Univ., Rajkot.
Tanavoli, Parviz (1985). Lion Rugs: The Lion in the Art and Culture of Iran. Wepf & Co, Basel.
The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica). http://wildlywise.com/asiatic_lions.htm
Üstay, A.H. (1990). Hunting in Turkey. BBA, Istanbul.
Walker, S. (1990). The king retreats: from his sub-continental hunting grounds the Asiatic lion has been pushed into the restricted environs of the Gir. Illustrated Weekly of India, 2 September 1990.
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