Below is a genealogical table of the reigning emperors (and six reigning empresses) of Japan and members of the Imperial Family. The Imperial Household recognizes one hundred twenty five legitimate monarchs since the ascension of Jimmu Tennō. Most historians regard the first fourteen emperors (Jimmu to Chuaji) as legendary figures. Many reference works and official Japanese government publications state that Jimmu ascended the throne in 660 BC. Archeological evidence suggests that this date is several centuries too early, even if Jimmu had been an actual person. The next thirteen emperors (Ojin to Senka) believed to have reigned between the early fifth and the early sixth centuries, are likely actual persons. Bidatsu Tennō (r. 539-572) is the first "historical" Japanese emperor.
The Japanese monarchs appear by their posthumous reign names (nengo), followed by their personal names (if known) in parentheses. The imperial court standardized the nengo in the late nineteenth century. The English transliterations vary in their spelling. When possible, I have tried to list all known English spellings of a particular monarch's personal name and posthumous name.
The reigning emperor, Heisei (Akihito), is the one hundred twenty-fifth monarch in the official chronology. The Japanese imperial dynasty owes its longevity to polygamy, endogamy, and intra-lineage adoption --- three practices that only ended in the Taishō period (1912-1926). The 1889 and 1947 Imperial Household Laws fix the succession on male descendants of the imperial line. In the event of a complete failure of the main line, the throne then passes to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. In light of this, descendants of female members of the Imperial Family beyond the first generation are not included, except when relevant to the history of the imperial institution. Thus, the descendants of Emperor Meiji and Emperor Showa's daughters are included. Although Japan has had six female Tennō, none of them passed the throne to their offspring.
The table does trace all male lines of descent from the reigning emperors. As explained elsewhere, from the eighth century to the Edo period, successive emperors practiced "dynastic shedding" as a means to control the size of the Imperial Family. The genealogies of the various Minamoto and Taira families are not included. During the Edo period, non-heir sons of an emperor generally entered the Buddhist priesthood. A 1907 amendment to the 1887 Imperial Household Law reintroduced a form of dynastic shedding by permitting non-heir ō to renounce their imperial status and become kazuko. The descendants of the "royal" kazuko do not appear.
Since the sixth century, the Japanese monarch has been styled Tenno, which means the "heavenly sovereign." Another term for the monarch is tenshi or "the son of heaven." Both terms are gender neutral in Japanese. For the sake of convenience, I list the six female Tennō as empresses (regnant). The title kōgō, generally translated as empress, and the former ranks of nyogo and chugu, generally translated as "court lady" or "imperial consort of the second rank," refer exclusively to the consorts of Japanese emperors. The 1889 Imperial Household Law abolished the ranks of nyogo and chugu, and reserved the title and rank of kōgō for the emperor's lawful wife. The use of the English term "emperor" in reference to the Japanese monarch began in the mid-nineteenth century. The glossary discusses the distinction between shinnō (and naishinnō) and ō (nyoō). For the sake of simplicity, I refer to all members of the imperial blood as princes and princesses. When word [peer] follows the name of a prince it means that person held the rank of koshaku in the kazuko.
1. JIMMU (Sanohiko), legendary descendent of Amaterasu Ōkami, the Shinto sun goddess, by her grandson Mikoto no Ninigi
2. SUIZEI (Kamisama Gawa Mimino no Mikoto), son of Jimmu
3. ANNEI (Sikitsuhiko Tama Demino no Mikoto), son of Suizei
4. ITOKU (Oho Yamatohiko Suki Tomonau no Mikoto), son of Annei
5. KŌSHŌ (Mina Tsuhiko Kaesineno no Mikoto), son of Itoku
6. KŌAN (Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kuniosi Hito no Mikoto), son of Kōshō
7. KŌREI (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto) son of Kōan
8. KŌGEN (Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kurono no Mikoto), son of Kōrei
9. KAIKA (Oho Wakai Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto), son of Kōgen
10. SUJIN (Mimaki Irihiko Isatsi no Mikoto), son of Kaiki.
11. SUININ (Ikume Irihiko Isatsi no Mikoto) son of Sujin.
12. KEIKŌ (Oho Tarasihiko Osiwake no Mikoto), son of Suinin.
13. SEIMU (Wakai Tarsihiko), son of Keikō.
14. CHUAI (Tarasi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto), nephew of Seimu.
15. ŌJIN (Fondano Miko no Mikoto or Otomowake no Mikoto or Humudawake no Mikoto), son of Chuai.
16. NINTOKU (Oho Sazaki no Mikoto), son of Ōjin
17. RICHU (Isavo Wake no Mikoto), son of Nintoku
18. HANZEI (Misu wa Wake no Mikoto), brother of Richu
19. INGYŌ (Wo Atsumano Wakako no Sukune), brother of Richu
20. ANKŌ (Anahono no Mikoto), son of Ingyō
21. YURYAKU (Oho Hatsuneno no Mikoto), brother of Ankō.
22. SEINEI (Siraga Takehiro Kuni Osi Wakai Yamato Neko no Mikoto), son of Yuryaku
23. KENZŌ (Ohoke no Mikoto), grandson of the 14th Emperor Richu.
24. NINKEN (Oho Ai Azana Simano Irakko), brother of Kenzō.
25. BURETSU (Wo Fatsuse Wakai Sazaki), son of Ninken, r. 504-510.
26. KEITI (Wo Ofu Atonohiko Fudo no Mikoto), great nephew of Richu,
27. ANKAN (Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto), son of Keiti
28. SENKA (Takehi Hirokuni Oshitake no Mikoto), brother of Ankan
29. KINMEI (Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Mikoto), brother of Senka
30. BIDATSU (Numakura Futotamshiki no Mikoto), b. 509 d. 571, r. 539-572; son of Kinmei; Bidatsu Tennō m. his half-sister Toroyora Miya (later Suiko Tennō)
31. YŌMEI (Tachibana no Toyohi no Mikoto), b.? d. 587; r. 585-587; brother of Bidatsu, father of Prince Umayado, also known as Shōtuku-taishi, regent (sesshō).
32. SUSHUN (Hatsusebe no Mikoto), b.? d. 592; r. 587-592; brother of Yōmei.
33. SUIKA or Toyora miya (Toyomike Kashikiya Hime), b. 554 d. 628; r. 593-628; daughter of the 39th Tennō, Kinmei; half-sister and wife of Emperor Bidatsu; r. as Tennō (in her own right)
34. JOMEI (Tamura or Okinagagatari Hironuka no Mikoto), b. 593 d. 641; r. 629-641; grandson of Bidatsu, son of Oshizakahikobitonōe.
35. KŌGYOKU (Ame Tokyo Takara Mige Fi Tarsi Hime), b. 594 d. 661; r. 642-645; abdicated, and later r. a second time under the title Saimei, 655-661; daughter of Prince Chinu, a son of Oshizakahikobitonōe; m. her uncle, Emperor Jomei.
36. KŌTUKU (Ame Yorodsu Toyohi no Mikoto), b. 597 d. 654, r. 645-654, brother of Prince Chinu and uncle of Empress Kōgyoku/Saimei.
37. SAIMEI, see number 35 above
38. TENCHI (Ame Hiraki Wake no Mikato), b. 626 d. 672; r. 661-672; originally named Prince Nakanōe; son of the 34th Emperor Jomei by Kōyoku.
39. KŌBUN (Otomo), b. 648 d. 652, r. 672, son of Emperor Tenchi.
40. TENMU (Ame nu Nake Vara Okino Mahito), b. ca. 631 d. 686, r. 672-686, son of the 34th Emperor Jomei.
41. JITŌ (Take Ama Vara Hiro no Hime), b. 643 d. 703, r. 686-697, daughter of the 38th Emperor Tenchi.
42. MONMU (Amanomo Mune Toyo), b. 683 d. 707, r. 697-707; son of Prince Kusakabe, and thus a grandson of the 40th Emperor Tenmu; m. Miyako, daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito, udaijin (minister of the right).
43. GENMEI (Yamato Neko Amatsu Mi Siro Toyo Kuni Nari Hime), b. 661 d. 722; r. 707-715; daughter of the 38th Emperor Tenchi.
44. GENSHŌ (Yamato Neko Taka Mitsu Kio Tarasi Hime), b. 680 d. 748, r. 715-724; sister of the 42nd Emperor Monmu.
45. SHŌMU (Ame Sirusi Kuni Osi Hiraki Toyo Sakura Hiko), b. 701 d. 756; r. 724-749; son of the 42nd Emperor Monmu; Shōmu m. Kōmyō, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito, and had issue:
46. KŌKEN (Takano Hime Abenno Nai Sin Wo), b. 718 d. 770, the daughter of Shōmu by Fujiwara no Kōmyō; r. 748-758, abdicated; r. a second time under the name Shotoku, 764-770.
47. JUNNIN (Oho Ino Ohokimi), b. 733 d. 765; r. 758-764, abdicated; son of Toneri-ō, a son of the 40th Emperor Temnu.
48. SHOTOKU, r. 764-770 (see number 46 above)
49. KŌNIN (Sira Kabena Ohokimi), b. 709 d. 782, r. 770-781, son of Shiki-ō, a son of the 38th Emperor Tenchi. In 787 Emperor Kōnin instituted the practice of giving a surname, kabane, to non-heir imperial children, thereby demoting them to the non-royal aristocracy. His fifth son received the name of Hirone no Ason.
50. KANMU or KWAMMU (Yamato Neko Suberagi Takarateru no Mikoto), b. 737 d. 806; r. 781-806; m. a daughter of Fujiwara no Momokawa, sangi (auditor), and had issue:
51. HEIZI or HEIJŌ (Yamato Neko Amahiraki Kuni Takahiko), b. 774 d. 824, r. 806-809, son of Kanmu, abdicated and held the title dajo Tennō (retired emperor) from 809 until his death in 824.
52. SAGA (Kami no Sinwo), b. 786 d. 842; r. 809-824; a brother of Heizi; abdicated and held the title dajo Tennō (retired emperor) from 809 until his death in 842. Emperor Saga had at least twenty-three sons and twenty-seven daughters, by twenty-nine known consorts. By 814 he created five of his sons shinnō (imperial princes)and twelve of his daughters naishinnō (imperial princesses). His son Atsushi remained ō (prince of the blood) Saga's remaining offspring received the name Minamoto no Ason and descended to subject status.
53. JUNNA (Ohodomo no Sinwo), b. 786 d. 840; r. 824-834; half-brother of the 51st Emperor Heizi and of the 52nd Emperor Saga.
54. NINMYŌ (Masa Yosi), b. 810, d. 850; r. 833-850, son of the 52nd Emperor Saga,
55. MONTOKU (Mitsi Yasu Sin wo), b. 827, d. 859, r. 850-859, son of Emperor Nimyō.
56. SEIWA (Korehito), b. 850, d. 880, r. 859-876, abdicated, dajo Tennō from 876 until his death in 880, son of Emperor Montoku. Emperor Seiwa's grandson, Tusenemoto-ō (a son of Sadazumi-o), was the progenitor of the Seiwa-Genji clan.
57. YŌZEI (Sadaaki), b. 868, d. 949, r. 876-885, abdicated, dajo Tennō from 885 until his death in 949, son of Emperor Seiwa.
58. KŌKŌ (Tokiyasu), b. 830, d. 887, r. 884-887, son of the 54th Emperor Nimyo.
59. UDA (Sadayoshi), b. 867, d. 931; r. 887-897, abdicated; dajo Tennō from 897 until his death in 931; son of the 58th Emperor Kōkō.
60. DAIGO (Atsuhito), b. 885, d. 931, r. 887-931; m. a daughter of Fujiwara no Motosune, the dajōdaijin (minister of supreme affairs), and had issue:
61. SUZAKU (Hiroakira), b. 923, d. 952, r. 930-947 (under the regency of Fujiwara no Tadahira), son of the 60th Emperor Daigo.
62. MURAKAMI (Nariakira), b. 926 d. 968; r. 947-968; son of the 60th Emperor Daigo and a half-brother of the 61st Emperor Suzaku.
63. REIZEI (Norihira), b. 950, d. 1011; r. 968-970, abdicated, dajo Tennō from 970 until his death in 1011; m. firstly, a daughter of Fujiwara no Koretada; m. secondly, a daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie.
64. ENYU (Morihira), b. 959, d. 991, r. 970-985, abdicated, dajo Tennō from 985 until his death in 991.
65. KAZAN (Morosada), b. 968, d. 1008, r. 985-987; son of the 63rd Emperor Reizei
66. ICHIJŌ (Kanehito), b. 980, d. 1012, r. 987-1010, son of the 64th Emperor Enyu; m. Akiko, the eldest daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga and Minamoto no Rinshi; Akiko received the title kōgō.
67. SANJŌ (Suesada), b. 976, d. 1017, r. 1012-1017; son of the 63rd Emperor Reizei by an imperial concubine; m. (in 1010) Kenshi, the second daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga and Minamoto no Rinshi. Sanjō, however, denied Kenshi the title of kōgō.
68. GO-ICHIJŌ (Atsunari), b. 1008, d. 1036, r. 1016-1036 under the regency of Fujiwara no Michinaga, the dajōdaijin (minister of supreme affairs) and the father-in-law of the previous two emperors. Son of the 66th Emperor Ichijō by Fujiwara no Shōshi. Go-Ichijō m. Toshiko, the third daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, who was styled chugu and bore him two daughters.
69. GO-SUZAKU (Atsuyoshi), b. 1009, d. 1047, r. 1036-1045, son of the 66th Emperor Ichijō by Fujiwara no Shōshi, and thus a full-brother of the 68th Emperor Go-Ichijō. Emperor Go-Suzako m. Yoshiko, the fourth daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga in 1025.
70. GO-REIZEI (Tsikahito or Chikahito), b. 1025, d. 1068, r. 1045-1068, son of the 69th Emperor Go-Suzaku by Fujiwara no Yoshiko, and thus a grandson of Fujiwara no Michinaga. Emperor Go-Reizei m. Hiroko, a daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimichi, the kampaku and the elder son of Fujiwara no Michinaga. Hiroko, however, did not bear Go-Reizei a son.
71. GO-SANJŌ (Takahito), b. 1034, d. 1073, r. 1068-1073, son of Emperor Go-Reizei by a non-Fujiwara concubine. Go-Sanjō was the first emperor since the 59th Emperor Uda who did not have a Fujiwara mother.
72. SHIRAKAWA (Sadahito), b. 1053, d. 1129, r. 1073-1087, son of the 70th Emperor Go-Reizei and brother of the 71st Emperor Go-Sanjō.
73. HORIKAWA (Yoshihito), b. 1079, d. 1107, r. 1087-1107, son of Emperor Shirakawa. Emperor Horikawa m. a daughter of Fujiwara no Sanesuke, udaijin (minister of the right); Adopted by the daughter of Fujiwara no Morozane, kanpuko (chancellor of the Imperial Court).
74. TOBA (Munehito), b. 1103, d. 1156, r. 1107-1124, abdicated and held the title dajo Tennō until his death in 1156, son of Emperor Horikawa. Emperor Toba m. (1) Tamako (styled, Taikemmonin, b. 1101, d. 1145), a daughter of Fujiwara no Kinzane (Fujiwara no Michinaga's younger son), m. (2) Tokuko (styled Bifuku monin, b. 1117, d. 1160), a daughter of Fujiwara no Nagazine.
75. SUTOKU (Akihito), b. 1119, d. 1164; r. 1124-1142, son of Emperor Toba by his first consort, Fujiwara no Tamako. Emperor Sutoku was forced to abdicate by his father, the retired Emperor Toba. Toba wished to see Toshito-o (the future Emperor Konoe) as emperor.
76. KONOE (Toshito), b. 1139 d. 1156, r. 1141-1156, son of retired Emperor Toba by Fujiwara no Tokuko.
77. GO-SHIRAKAWA (Masahito), b. 1127, d. 1192, r. 1155-1159, a grandson of the 72nd Emperor Shirakawa. Go-Shirawakawa m. a daughter of Minamoto no Arihito. Later m. Shigeko, a daughter of Taira no Tokinobu and a descendant (nine generations removed) of Tokamune-ō, a younger son of the 50th Emperor Kanmu. He abdicated in favor of his eldest son, Prince Morihito (see Emperor Nijō). Styled dajo Tennō until his death in 1192;
78. NIJŌ (Morihito), b. 1143, d. 1165, r. 1158-1165, a son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa by his Minamoto consort.
79. ROKUJŌ (Toshihito), b. 1164, d. 1176, r. 1166-1169, son of Emperor Nijō.
80. TAKAKURA (Norihito), b. 1161, d. 1181, r. 1168-1181, son of the 77th Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Taira no Shigeko. Emperor Takakura m. (1) 1167, Tokuko (styled Kenrei-monin, b. 1155, d. 1213), a daughter of Taira no Kiyomori, dajō daijin (minister of supreme affairs), the head of the Kanmu Heishi clan and a descendant of the 50th Emperor Kanmu; m. (2) Fujiwara no Masuko (styled Shichijō-in, d. 1228)
81. ANTOKU (Kotohito), b. 1178, d. 1185, r. 1180-1185, son of Emperor Takakura by Taira no Tokuko, and thus a grandson of Taira no Kiyomori.
82. GO-TOBA (Takanari), b. 1180, d. 1239, r. 1183-1199 (at Kyoto), abdicated and styled dajo tennōuntil his death in 1239. Son of Emperor Takakura by Fujiwara no Masuko, and a half-brother of Emperor Antoku. Exiled to Oki in 1221. [Note that the reigns of Go-Toba and Antoku overlap. Antoku fled Kyoto with the Taira, at which time the Minamoto installed Go-Toba as a rival emperor]. m. (1) Minamoto no Ariko (styled Shōmei monin), m. (2) Fujiwara no Shigeko, m. (3) Nishi-no-onkata; had issue:
1. Prince Tamehito (see Emperor Tsuchimikado), 1st son.
2. Prince Yorihito, 4th son, cr. Reizei-no-miya.
3. Prince Morinari (see Emperor Juntoku), 6th son.
83. TSUCHIMIKADO (Tamehito), b. 1195, d. 1231, r. 1199-1211, son of Emperor Go-Toba by Minamoto no Ariko, abdicated, 1211 and was styled dajo tennōuntil his death in 1231. m. Minamoto no Michiko, and had issue:
1. Prince Kunihito, b. 1220, d. 1272 (see Emperor Go-Saga)
84. JUNTOKU (Morinari), b. 1197, d. 1242, r. 1211-1221, exiled to Sado. Son of the 82nd Emperor Go-Toba by Fujiwara no Shigeko; half-brother of the 83rd Emperor Tsuchimikado; m. Fujiwara no Tachiko (styled Higashi-ichijō-in), had issue:
1. Prince Tadanari, b. 1220, d. 1279, 1st son
2. PrinceKanenori(see Emperor Chukyo below)
85. CHUKYO (Kanenari), b. 1218, d. 1234, r. 1221 (for about seventy days), son of Emperor Juntoku by Fujiwara no Tachiko.
86. GO-HORIKAWA (Toyohito), b. 1212 d. 1234, r. 1222-1234, son of Prince Morisada, a son of the 83rd Emperor Takakura.
87. SHIJŌ (Hidehito), b. 1231 d. 1242, r. 1232-1243, son of Go-Horikawa.
88. GO-SAGA (Kunihito), b. 1220 d. 1272, r. 1243-1247, son of the 83rd Emperor Tsuchimikado by Minamoto no Michiko.
89. GO-FUKAKASA (Hisahito), b. 1243 d. 1304, r. 1247-1260, son of Go-Saga and full-brother of the 90th Emperor Kameyama. Founder of the Jimyōin line of the Imperial House. Abdicated in 1260 and styled dajo Tennō until his death in 1304. Had issue:
1. Prince Hirohito, b. 1265 d. 1317 (see Emperor Fushimi below)
2. Prince Hissakira, b. 1275, d. 1328, r. as shōgun, 1289-1308, abdicated.
1. Prince Morikuni, b. 1301, d. 1333, r. as shōgun, 1289-1308, deposed.
90. KAMEYAMA (Tsunehito), b. 1249, d. 1305, r. 1260-1275, son of Go-Saga and full-brother of Go-Fukakasa. Founder of the Daikakuji line of the Imperial House. Abdicated in 1275 and styled dajo Tennō until his death in 1305.
91. GO-UDA (Yorihito), b. 1267, d. 1324, r. 1275-1288, son of the 90th Emperor Kameyama (Daikakuji). Had issue
1. Prince Kuniharu (see Emperor Go-Nijō below), b. 1285, son of Go-Uda by Fujiwara no Tadako.
2. Prince Takaharu (see Emperor Go-Daigo below), b. 1288,
3. Prince Tsuenakira, b. 1302, d. 1351, son of Go-Uda by Shōkunmon-in (b. 1273, d. 1336), a daughter of Saijonji Sanekane (b. 1249, d. 1322).
92. FUSHIMI (Hirohito), b. 1265 d. 1317, r. 1288-1299, son of the 89th Emperor Go-Fukakasa, head of the Jimyōin line.
93. GO-FUSHIMI (Tanehito), b. 1288 d. 1336, r. 1299-1302, son of the 92nd Emperor Fushimi (Jimyōin); m. 1306, Saijonji Neishi (granted title Kōgimon-in, 1309; b. 1292, d. 1357), daughter of Sainoji Kinhara; Had issue:
1. Prince Kazuhito, b. 1313, d. 1364 (see Northern Emperor Kōgon)
2. Prince Toyohito, b. 1321, d. 1380.
94. GO-NIJŌ (Kuniharu), b. 1285 d. 1308, r. 1301-1308, son of the 91st Emperor Go-Uda (Daikakuji); had issue:
1. Prince Kuninaga (or Kuniyoshi), b. 1300, d. 1326, designated the Daikakuji crown prince to his uncle, Emperor Go-Daigo, 1319.
95. HANAZONŌ (Tomihito), b. 1297 d. 1348, r. 1308-1319, abdicated; son of the 89th Emperor Go-Fukakasa (Jimyōin)
96. GO-DAIGIO (Takeharu), b. 1288 d. 1339, r. 1319-1331, son of the 91st Emperor Go-Uda by Tadako, daughter of Fujiwara no Mototsugo, naidaijiin. Following the abdication of Go-Nijō (1308), the Hōjo designated Prince Takeharu crown prince, and thus heir apparent to his cousin, the new Emperor Hanazonō of the Jimyōin line. Succeeded Hanazono as emperor, 1319; Deposed in favor of Prince Kazuhito(Emperor Kōgen) of the Jimyōin line, 1331 (see northern emperors below); and exiled to Oki until 1333, restored 1333-1336, deposed a second time; exiled to Yoshino in 1336; restored 1336-1339 (south only). Emperor Go-Dagio had issue seventeen sons and fifteen daughters, including:
1. Prince Takayoshi (or Takanaga), b. 1311, d. 1337, eldest son of Go-Daigo by Fujiwara no Tameko.
2. Prince Yoyoshi
3. Prince Muneyoshi (or Morinaga), b. 1311, d. 1382? Son of Go-Daigo by Minamoto no Chikako, daughter of Minamoto no Morochika; became a Buddhist priest under the title Son'un Hoshinnō and appointed a zasu (chief priest) of the Tendai sect; recalled to secular status, 1331; cr. Ōtō-no-miya and appointed shōgun by his father, 1333; deposed 1335.
4. Princess Kwanshi, eldest daughter of Go-Daigo, married Prince Kazuhito (the northern Emperor Kōgon)
5. Prince Moriyoshi (or Munenaga) b. 1308, d. 1335, son of Go-Daigo by Minamoto no Chikako; became a priest under the title Sochō Hoshinnō and appointed a zasu (chief priest) of the Tendai sect.
6. Prince Tsuneyoshi, b. 1325, d. 1338, son of Go-Daigo by Fujiwara no Kadako (b. 1311, d. 1359)
7. Prince Nariyoshi, b. 1326, d. 1344, son of Go-Daigo by Anno Rencshi
8. Prince Noriyoshi (or Norinaga), b. 1328, d. 1368, son of Go-Daigo by Fujiwara no Kadako (see Emperor Go-Murakami below)
9. Prince Kaneyoshi, b. 1329, d. 1383
97. GO-MURAKAMI (Noriyoshi), b. 1328, d. 1368, r. 1339-1369 (south only), a son of the 96th emperor Go-Daigo (Daikakuji) by Fujiwara no Kadako (later styled Ano Benshi, b. 1311, d. 1359).
98. CHŌKEI (Hironari), b. 1343, d. 1394, r. 1368-1383 (south only), son of the 97th Emperor Go-Murakami and a grandson of Go-Daigo.
99. GO-KAMEYAMA (Hironari) b. 1347, d. 1414, r. 1371-1384 (south only), son of the 97th Emperor Go-Murakami and the younger brother of the 98th Emperor Chōkei. Abdicated and surrendered the shinki to the southern emperor Go-Komastu, 1883, granted title dajo Tennō.
100. GO-KOMATSU (Motohito), b. 1377, d. 1433; r. 1384-1413 (as northern emperor) and r. 1392-1413 (as sole emperor of Japan); son of the northern emperor Go-Enyu (see northern court below).
101. SHŌKŌ (Mihito), b. 1401, d. 1429, r. 1413-1429, son of the 100th Emperor Go-Komatsu. Shoko succeed his father at the age of 12 and d. at age 27, without issue. The throne passed to his third cousin, Prince Hikohiko, a great grandson of the northern emperor Sukō.
102. GO-HANAZONO (Hikohito), b. 1419, d. 1470, r. 1429-1465, elder son of Prince Sadafusa (b. 1372, d. 1457) and a great grandson of the northern emperor Sukō (Daikakuji). Go-Hanazono created his younger brother, Prince Satasune, 1st Fushimi-no-miya.
103. GO-TSUCHIMIKADO (Narihito), b. 1442, d. 1501, r. 1464-1501, son of Emperor Go-Hanazono.
104. GO-SHIWABARA (Katsuhito), b. 1464, d. 1527, r. 1501-1527, son of the 103rd Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado.
105. GO-NARA (Tomohito), b. 1496, d. 1558, r. 1527-1558, son of the 104th Emperor Go-Shiwabara.
106. OGIMACHI (Katahito), b. 1517, d. 1593, r. 1558-1587, son of the 105th Emperor Go-Nara.
1. Prince Masahito, cr. 1st Katsura-no-miya, had issue
1. Prince Masahito (see Emperor Go-Yozei below)
2. Prince Tomohito, cr. 1st Hachijo-no-miya
107. GO-YŌZEI (Masahito), b. 1571, d. 1617, r. 1587-1612, grandson of the 106th Emperor Ogimachi. Go-Yozei had issue:
1. Prince Masahito (future Emperor Go-Minoo)
2. Prince Yoshihito, cr. 1st Takamatsu-no-miya, had issue
108. GO-MINOO (Masahito), b. 1596, d. 1680, r. 1612-1630; elder son of the 107th Emperor Go-Yozei and half-brother of Takamatsu-no-miya Yoshihito; Emperor Go-Minoo m. Tokugawa Kazuko, a daughter of Hidetada, the 2nd Tokugawa shōgun, and had issue:
1. Prince Takahito (1621-1628)
2. Princess Okiko (see 109th Empress Myōsu below)
3. Prince Tsuguhito(see 110th Emperor Go-Kōmyō below)
4. Prince Worihito (see 112th Emperor Reigen below)
5. Serveral other children by various court ladies.
109. MYŌSHU (Okiko), b. 1623, d. 1696, r. 1630-1644, first empress regnant (or female Tennō) since Shōtuko (764-770).
110. GO-KŌMYŌ (Tsuguhito), b. 1633, d. 1655, r. 1644-1655, son of the 108th Emperor Go-Minoo, half-brother of the ex-Empress Myōshō.
111. GO-SAI (Yoshihito), b. 1637, d. 1685, r. 1655-1663, son of the 108th Emperor Go-Minoo, half-brother of the Empress regnant Myōshō and the 110th Emperor Go-Kōmyō. Had issue:
1. Prince Arisugwara (Yukihito), succeeded as 2nd Arisugawa-no-miya, and had issue:
1. Prince Arisugawa (Masahito)
2. six generations of descendants to Prince Arisugawa (Takahito), b. 1812, d. 1886, m. Sakeki Yuko, and had issue (see EMPEROR KOMEI)
112. REIGEN (Worihito), b. 1654, d. 1732, r. 1663-1687, son of the 108th Emperor Go-Minoo, half-brother of the Empress Myōshō, the 110th Emperor Go-Kōmyo, and the 111th Emperor Go-Sai.
113. HIGASHIYAMA (Asahito), b. 1675, d. 1710, r. 1687-1710, son of the 112th Emperor Reigen. Higashiyama had issue:
1. PrinceYoshihito (see 114th Emperor Nakimikado below)
2. Prince Naohito, cr. 1st Kan'in-no-miya, had issue
1. Prince Kan'in (Sukehito)
1. Prince Tomohito (see the 119th Emperor Kōkaku below)
2. Prince Kan'in (Haruhito), succeeded his father Prince Sukehito as 3rd Kan'in-no-miya; had issue
114. NAKAMIKADO (Yoshihito), b. 1701, d. 1737, r. 1709-1737, elder son of the 113th Emperor Higashiyama.
115. SAKURAMACHI (Akihito), b. 1720, d. 1750, r. 1737-1748.
1. Prince Tōhito(see the 116th Emperor Monozono below)
2. Prince Hidehito (see the 118th Emperor Go-Monozono below)
3. Princess Toshiko(see the 117th Empress Go-Sakumachi below)
116. MONOZONO (Tōhito), b. 1741, d. 1763, r. 1748-1763, son of the 115th Emperor Sakuramachi. Monozono was the first emperor to die on the throne since Go-Komio, one hundred six years earlier. Had issue
1. Prince Hidehito (see the 118th Emperor Go-Monozono below); At the time of Monozono's death, Hidehito was only five years old and there were no living ex-emperors.
117. GO-SAKURAMACHI (Toshiko), b. 1740, d. 1813, r. 1763-1771, daughter of the 115 Emperor Sakuramachi and sister of the 116th Emperor Monozono. Go-Sakuramachi was Japan's last female Tennō, to date. She abdicated in favor of her nephew, Hidehito.
118. GO-MONOZONO (Hidehito), b. 1758, d. 1780, r. 1771-1780, only son of the 116th Emperor Monozono. At the time of his death Go-Monozono had only one child, a ten-month-old daughter.