The Red Kaganate

Last Page Update:
September 12, 2003

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Main Page
Structure of the Red Kaganate
Gatherings, Events, . . .
Historic Steppes Tribes
Legends of the Nomads
Flags and other Identifiers
Clothing and Apearance
Food and related Matters
Games and Military Arts
Public Forum
Resource Links


Norman J. Finkelshteyn

Resource Links
The following Websites offer, or claim to offer information and merchandise which is in furtherance to the stated purposes of "The Red Kaganate".
The links are provided free of charge. There is no advertising except the "Geocities" banner. The linked sites are not affiliated with The Red Kaganate and this site takes no responsibility for their claims or actions.
As the region and national groups discussed are currently in a state of strong socio-political flux, a degree of nationalism on some of the sites is to be expected.
Commercial sites may be Reviewed - with a full-page review article including photos of merchandise.
If you wish to be reviewed, send an E-mail to the Editor for details.
If you would like to add a link to this list, send E-mail to the editor with address, contact, and the nature of the site.
If you have linked to The Red Kaganate and would like to use an image - some images are available at The Public Forum.
Index of links by subheading:
[General Interest Sites]
[Ancient peoples - Scythians, Sarmatians, etc.]
[Bulgars and Volga Bulgars]
[Khazars] [Magyars] [Kipchak-Kuman-Polovtzy]
[Mongols] [Rus and Russia] [Crimea]
[Siberia] [Eurasian Jews] [Western Slavic Groups]
[Martial Arts Organizations] [Various Reenactment Efforts]



[Dwellings] [Music] [Clothing and Accessories]

Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads -
By J. Davis-Kimball. A fairly extensive site on Eurasian Archaeology including articles, books for sale, and most interestingly -- research and fieldwork opportunities.

The Hermitage Museum -
I hope that no introduction is necessary.
Following are two of their online exhibits of special interest to The Red Kaganate:
pre Mongol Steppes exhibit -
Golden Horde exhibit -

Olga's Vasnetsov gallery -
Victor Vasnetsov was probably the major Russian artist of the later 19th century. Alot of the paintings are images from Medieval and Epic Russian history (remember, he is a 19th century artist!).

The Red Book of the peoples of the Russian Empire -
At one point or another, most of the areas and peoples relevant to the Red Kaganate were part of the "Russian Empire". This Website has an article on many of them. (Nothing on the Komi, but you can't have it all - Ed.)

Tozhe Gorod (Also City) -
A compendium of efforts by the Reenactor community in Russia (and related areas). Most of the stuff in Russian, but some great articles in English.

Egfroth's Home Page -
A collection of articles on various groups including - Magyars, Balkan Slavs, Bulgars, Vikings in Russia, Seljuq Turks, Armenians ...and promise of more to come.

Recreational Medievalism -
David D. Friedman's (better known to reenactors as Duke Cariadoc) collection of articles on medievalism, reenactment, medieval Islamic culture, medieval cooking, armour, reenactment club politics ...etc.
His earlier, and better known Website:
Cariadoc's Miscellany -

Ancient groups like the Scythians, Saka...

The Amazons -
A brief summary.

Amazonia -
An extensive site on the Amazons in myth and history.
Look past the Emma Peel and Urtha Kitt portraits.

Thrace and the Thracians -
Looks like a fairly thorough site. ...But all I know about Thrace is that one Scythian king, who became too Hellenised for his own good, tried to hide there from the righteous anger of his Scythian brethren.
(Well, and there's that immortal line from "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum" -- "He raped Thrace thrice!")
Turns out the above website has a page on the Scythians and Sarmatians as well:

Bulgars and Volga Bulgars

Vassil Karloukovski's Page -
A very thorough site including quite detailed articles on Bulgarian Archaeology.

Oguz Kutriguri -
A reenactment group focused on the 9th century Bulgars.
They have a very nice historical timeline of the Bulgars.

Khazar Kaganate

Caveats in Researching Jewish History
By Norman Finkelshteyn. Discussion of the modern political pitfalls encountered when trying to research subjects having to do with the Jews. The main example here is the Khazars.
This following article elaborates on the Khazar example:
Criticism of Khazar Studies -
Brief discussion of the dangers involved in researching the Khazars - using Kevin Brook's site (listed below) as an example.

Overview of the Khazar Kaganate
By Norman Finkelshteyn. Brief overview with focus on the Jewish conversion.

The Khazaria Research Center -
By Edgar Davidoff. A brief, yet thorough, overview of Khazar history beginning to end. Some controversial statements but that can't be avoided when talking Khazars (just keep "Criticism of Khazar Studies" in mind -Ed.).

The Khazaria Info Center -
By Kevin Alan Brook. A very extensive site most important for the myriad links and references.
(In my opinion, Mr. Brook has a bit of a "Rosey color glasses" view on Khazar research - as I discuss in the "Criticism of Khazar Studies" article, listed above. -Ed)

Hairstyle of the Jewish Khazar -
Letter from Norman Finkelshteyn to Kevin Brook. Not very systematic but the reader may find it of interest.

The Magyars

The Magyars of Conquest-Period Hungary -
An excerpt from the translation of the famed archeolgist, Gyula Laszlo's book on the everyday life of the conquest-era Hungarians, which is yet the most definitive book written on this subject.
--Anna Kovacs

A Thousand Years of Hungarian Art of War -
The first chapter contains a survey of the early warfare. One of the better chapters of the book. Later it becomes rather rambling and slightly too nationalist for my taste...
Anna Kovacs

Hungarian History -
Quick overview from the begining to the present.

The Founding of Hungary -
Ferenc Pinter based on Anthony Endrey's "Hungarian History". A substantial, one page essay covering the period 895 to 947 CE.


Britannica on the Kipchaks -,5716,46654+1+45588,00.html
An essay on the Codex Cumanicus -
An SCA member's website with historical Materials on the Kipchaks, modern materials on the Kazakh, and materials on the author's reenactment hobby.


Oyunbilig's Great Mongol Home Page -
Articles on various topics of Mongolian interest -- History, Culture, Art (a small gallery of modern pieces), modern Politics...

Kerij-e's Ger -
Names, Medieval Mongol cooking, making and wearing medieval Mongol clothing... substantial information on Mongol reenactment. SCA member's site.

Mongolian Resource Page -
Culture, religion, history, some of the military history ...names again ...some period and modern pictures ... Again a reenactor's site.

The Dark Horde -
This is the Web Site of a Mongol "Household" (sub group) in the SCA reenactment club (see link below). It is quite a large site with historical information heavily interspersed with club insider jokes, club politics, and what look to me to be random items of interst to the creator of the site. The historical information can be of great value.

The Silver Horde -
New York area SCA Mongol Household. The page is new but is already showing promise.

Also see the entries under Siberia for materials of Mongol interest.

The Rus and Russia

Lisa's Russian Materials -
A font of information for the reenactor doing a Russian personna.

Gallery of Russian Soldiers (from 980 - 1995) -
Modern, reenactor focused, illustrations with a paragraph (in Russian) of explanation about each one.

Novgorod Archeology -
Articles on the archeological investigations in and around the city of Novgorod, as well as some related general articles. Mirror sites in Russian and English (at a guess, the Russian version is more complete).


Crimea City -
Russian Language Reenactor and RPG site.
Following subpage is the Warsaw Museum Catalogue for "Tatar" armour and equipment (lots of photographs):


Siberian Notes -
Articles in Russian. For non-Russian speakers, two of the articles have a number of excelent illustrations (a third has been added):
Late Medieval Armour - the six hyperlinked headers at the top of the main article each lead to an illustration with comments.
Kirgiz Armour VI - XII cent. - the hyperlinked headers at the bottom of the article are to the set of illustrations.
Mongol Armament and Tactics of the 17/18 century - once again, six hyperlinked headers lead to pages with illustrations.

The Buryat Homepage -
Buryat culture -- history, religion, folklore, legends...

Eurasian Jews

The Jews of Bukhara -
By Donna L. Carr. A brief outline of the history of the Jewish community of Bukhara, Uzbekistan, from earliest times to the present.

Jewish Warriors -
A historical overview of Jewish Warrior communities (including a page on Central Asian and Persian Jews).

Lectures on the History of Jews in Russa -
In Russian. Fairly extensive articles on Jewish history in "greater" Russia (ie: Russia, Crimea, Caucas).

Mountain Jews -
Materials on "Mountain Jews". Text in Russian but there is also "Mountain Jewish" music and a plethora of links.

Mountain Jews (New York) -
Web Site of the New York City "Mountan Jewish" community. Includes an overview of their history.

Western Slavic Groups

Boleslav Orlicki’s Horse Artillery XVIIth century -
A Virginia/Washington DC group portraying a Polish Horse Artillery unit of the later 17th century. They are looking for recruits -- Poles, Turks, Tatars, all welcome.

The Polish Nobility Commonwealth Guild -
A group portraying "the Might of the great Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, of the 16th, and 17th Century" at southern California Renaissance Faires.

Martial Arts Organizations

Association for Historical Fencing -

Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts -

Historical Armed Combat Association -

Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournaments Resource Library -
Resource on Tournaments and modern "Tournament Companies" (European Combat reenactment clubs).

Various Reenactment Efforts

Ottoman Traders' Guild -
An Ottoman focus "household" (sub group) within the SCA reenactment club.

Al-Mustarib (Orluk Oasis) -
An Arab culture focus "household" within the SCA.

Dar Anahita -
Arab, Berber, Andalusian (Spanish) cooking and clothing.
The Website of an SCA member - aranged somewhat as a virtual Morocan house.

The Varangian Re Enactor Resource Page -
A collection of information on the Varangian mercenaries in Byzantium, as well as more general Scandinavian information and information on other groups in Byzantum. Many of the articles are linked in from numerous other sites.

Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA) -
The giant among reenactment clubs. An international body with loose reenactment rules that fascilitate the emergence of multiple special focus groups under the SCA umbrella.
(Unfortunately no fighting with steel weapons allowed. - Ed.)

Markland Medieval Mercenary Militia -
Somewhat smaller than the SCA, the group is centered in Maryland/Virginia and has chapters in the Mid to North Eastern United States.

HMR/Adria -
Smaller than the SCA. A group with loose reenactment guidelines that focuses on fighting with steel weapons.

Gotlandica Viking Reenactment Society -

Miklagard (New Varangian Guard Inc) -

Legio Secunda Augusta (LEG II AUG) -

Levantia -
From the site - " for Byzantine and medieval Near Eastern social history, especially that explored by means of practical reconstruction and experimentation."

House Caelestis Incendium -
An SCA household in "the Kingdom of An Tir" (as I understand, North Western US and Canada). The latin name notwithstanding, it seems to be Central Asian and Middle Eastern focused.


Armour and Warriors of the Silk Road -
Site written by the armourer of Silk Road Designs Armoury (and your humble Editor). It is a quite extensive, and thoroughly illustrated, site on the history of Central Asian and related Armour.
The armoury itself does everything to order (no stock items at all). Specialising in Central Asian and related armour but quite happy to do anything else (as long as it doesn't involve plastic or aluminum).
If you want to reach the armoury for ordering, after visiting Armour and Warriors of the Silk Road to think about what you want, just E-mail me here at

DeCordene Wire Works -
A Maile armoury providing finished Maile in a variety of metals, as well as rings and tools for making the same.

Mad Matt's Armoury -
Mostly a Maile armoury but also offering 14th century German plate armour.

The Ring Lord -
Supplier for Maile making (rings, wire, tools). Seems to have some finished Maile in stock as well.

See the Weapons section below.


Overview of Archery in Central Asian culture -
An article describing Turkic archery and its role in Turkic society, and contrasting it to European and Middle Eastern models.

Atarn - Traditional Archery Research Network -
A large site with a variety of articles on Eurasian traditional archery.

International Horn Bow Society -

International Horsearchery -

Companies offering Archery equipment of traditional Turco-Mongol design
Saluki Bow Company -
Traditional Archery Scandinavia - -
The Krackow Company -
Horsebows -
Eagle Classic Archery -


Giacomo Di Grasse, His True Art of Defense - A Video-Enhanced Rapier Tutorial -
A translated, coloquialised, explained and diagramed version of a seminal Italian work on swordsmanship from the late 16 century.

Companies offering Weapons for Historical Reenactment
The Power of the Market! - Responding to loud and persistant voices, within the past several months two manufacturers of Fencing weapons have started to make "Schlagger weight" curved Saber blades (see manufacturer details below).
And NOW ! - One of those manufacturers, working with your humble editor and coordinator, has started to offer what may hopefuly be spot on representations (in "Schlagger weight") of the whole weapon including furniture (again - see manufacturer).
To build on that success I urge everyone not to just order quietly what is available, but to inform the manufacturer of your (our) needs as well as your connection to a larger "Turkic reenactor" market entity in this Association.
Some guidelines while shopping -- Generaly remember -- a Sabre and a Scimitar are very similar weapons. Both are long, light, and quick. If you see a heavy Saracen/Sinbad-movie type item -- this is not authentic.
Sabers/Scimitars within the Kaganate scope seem to have only had very basic guards -- with no knuckle guards or thumbrings. These features are characteristic of more "modern" Sabers and are therefore inapropriate.
As far as we can determine, the Shashqua did not come into being until well into the 18th century. However, the Shashquas currently available are for the most part realy Saber blades with Shashqua furniture, so replacement of the handle and guard should suffice.
From what I can tell, the blades of the longer American Sabers seem to be very similar to sabers prior to the 14th century (the main characteristic being the long slender blade, not strongly curved, with a centered point and sharp false edge - the early Sabers however, seem to have often been longer than the American ones). The handle and guard, of course, have to be substantially altered.
Straight swords were used, mostly light, long one-handed ones, and Scandinavian (Viking style) swords, as well as Chinese straight swords (and Chinese sword furniture mounted on Sabre blades) have been found in the relevant period -- so, when in doubt, get a very generic straight one-handed sword, a Viking sword, or a Chinese sword.
If you're planning to use the weapon for reenactment combat, make sure that the item you are buying is appropriate to the activity.
"Schlager" and "Practice Rapier" often refer to the same item, check with the Merchant.

Alchem Incorporated -
Rapiers/Schlagers, Fencing Daggers, Bucklers.
!! He has just added a separate Medieval Sabers Page !!
He offers curved "Schlager weight" Fencing Sabers.
I have recently provided him a great amount of information regarding Saber guards and other sword furniture in the styles developing from the earliest days of the Saber onward and he has made the effort to create representations (though I have not seen the weapons in person).
Let's encourage his efforts !!!
Popinjay's -
Swords, Rapiers, Fencing Blades ( well as abstract modern sculture).
The artisan has advised that he now offers curved Sabers and curved "Schlager weight" Fencing Sabers. He does not seem to be familiar with handles/ guards in the style we require, but seems willing to manufacture them to individual specifications.
Armart -
A Czech company offering steel swords and maile. The catalogue shows four Sabers of which one is apropriate for the end of the Red Kaganate's scope, the rest are all "modern". But the manufacturer is willing to do custom orders.
Sword Forum Museum Store -
American distributor for Armart's weapons.
Hollow Earth Swordworks -
Wooden Swords -- "Wasters".
Purpleheart Armoury -
Wooden Swords -- "Wasters".
Del Tin Armi Antiche -
Steel Swords, Rapiers, Practice Rapiers.
Salamander Armoury -
Steel Swords.
Starfire Swords Limited -
Steel Swords.
Heimrick Armeor -
Steel Swords. -
Swords and a whole batch of "other stuff". This is a reseller for several companies. There seem to be work quality items as well as decorative souvenirs, but I am unable to determine which is which from the information provided.
American Fencers Supply Co.-
"Modern" fencing equipment company with a separate devision of "historical", "combat worthy" weapons including rapiers, schlagers... and most interestingly - curved sabre blades (unfortunately, they have informed me in phone conversation that these are stiffer, weightier, clip pointed blades realy meant for Japanese swords).
Scottie Armoury -
Rapiers and Schlagers.
Triplette Competition Arms -
Schlagers, Fencing Blades, and Fencing Equipment.
Darkwood Armoury -
Rapiers and related equipment.


Medieval Pavilion Resources -
The site's own self description: "includes plans, links and articles on tents, furniture, food, costuming, The Society for Creative Anachronism, and other period interests."

Companies offering portable dwellings of traditional Turco-Mongol design
Singing Horse Designs -
Nesting Bird Yurt Company -
Pacific Yurts Inc. -
Vermont Yurt Works -
Exotic Shelters by Barak -
Nomad Shelter Yurts of Homer, Alaska -

Clothing and Accessories

Elizabeth Young's SCA pages -
Some wonderful information on Persian clothing and apearance. Most importantly, an extensive article on creating a 16th century Persian woman's garment from the underwear out.

Steven Baker's Steppes Nomad Resource Site -
An extensive source site on the clothing and accessories of a Steppes Nomad male. It includes patterns and photos and addresses clothing, hats, belts, pouches, archer's rings...

Oriental Costumes Their Designs and Colors by Max Tilke, Translated by L. Hamilton -
An electronic reprint of a 1922 book collecting traditional clothing from outside Europe. Dates are not generally provided for the costumes and it looks like the majority are contemporary to the book (19th and early 20th century) though there is at least one piece dated to the 6th century. Please remember "Folk Traditional does NOT necessarily mean Medieval".
"I want to point out that for Persian costume, what is shown in in Tilke is late 19th century and bears very little resemblance to Persian costume prior to 1600. If I recall correctly, some of the Uzbek costume shown in Tilke is similar to Persian costume circa 1300-1600." --Charles Mellor

Also see Kerij-e's Ger under Links of Mongol interest for Mongol clothing materials.

The Historical Forgerie -
Metal castings (ie: belt fittings, buttons and such). Stock items are planned, but for now, custom orders seem to be the thing.

Birka Traders -
Clothing and accessories including buttons, jewelry, etc.


Lark in the Morning -
Musical Instrument company - the online catalogue offers folk and traditional instruments from a variety of cultures.

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Copyright 2000 -- All articles and illustrations at this web site are Copyright protected material. Use of these articles and illustrations is subject to appropriate restrictions under United States, International, and local Law.
Where Author is specified, Copyright is retained by Author with express permission for use by "The Red Kaganate" organisation. Where Author is unspecified, Copyright is retained by Norman J. Finkelshteyn.